The Brill Dictionary of Religion

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Kocku von Stuckrad

The impressively comprehensive Brill Dictionary of Religion (BDR) Online addresses religion as an element of daily life and public discourse, is richly illustrated and with more than 500 entries, the Brill Dictionary of Religion Online is a multi-media reference source on the many and various forms of religious commitment. The Brill Dictionary of Religion Online addresses the different theologies and doctrinal declarations of the official institutionalized religions and gives equal weight and consideration to a multiplicity of other religious phenomena. The Brill Dictionary of Religion Online helps map out and define the networks and connections created by various religions in contemporary societies, and provides models for understanding these complex phenomena.


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Hair

(1,132 words)

Author(s): Naacke, Claudia
1. Regarded physiologically, hair is one of the derivatives of skin. Being without a nerve, it cannot directly communicate sensory impressions. Nevertheless, it is the material basis of the metaphorical description of experiences, in linguistic applications like ‘hairsbreadth,’ or even ‘hairy [situation].’ In its quality of being bound to the body, and yet separable from it, hair is everywhere to be found as a component of the symbolism of the body. Coiffure as Characteristic of a Group 2. The various symbolical meanings communicated by ‘headscarf’ can in general be seen…

Handicapped

(1,157 words)

Author(s): Gerke, Hanno
1. Human life is always accompanied and endangered by the impairment of health. One speaks of a handicap rather than of an illness when the impairment cannot be overcome by therapeutic measures, and a person's life is permanently marked by it. In this sense, handicap is an umbrella concept for physical, mental, and spiritual impairments. The World Health Organization (WHO) distinguishes three levels on which a handicap affects a person's life: first, directly, as an organic damage (impairment), …

Hare Krishna Movement (ISKCON)

(1,153 words)

Author(s): Gietz, Karl-Peter
1. A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda inaugurated the Hare Krishna movement, which calls itself International Society for Krishna Consciousness. It belongs to the Vishnuite group Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava Saṃpradāya (“Bengali Vishnuitic Tradition”) that goes back to the Bengali Bhaktisaint Caitanya. In the sixteenth century the latter founded a Krishnaitic missionary movement whose way of salvation was the recitation (Sanskrit

Hasidism

(1,307 words)

Author(s): Grözinger, Karl E.
Hasidism—a Jewish Awakening Movement 1. Hasidism, a mystical awakening movement in Judaism, arose in Eastern Europe around mid-eighteenth century. Since the → Shoa, it has maintained its centers in New York and Israel. Israel ben Elieser (“ Ba'al Shem [Tov],” c. 1700–1760) is the founder of the movement, which was systematically organized by his successor Dov Ber (d. 1772), the Maggid (“Preacher”) from Mesritsh, and propagated through emissaries. A variety of directions from the very outset, ordinarily named for their European cities of origin (e.g., Lub…

Heathen

(316 words)

Author(s): Mohr, Hubert
Heathen are always the ‘others’: Muslims, freethinkers and atheists, cannibals—even Catholics or Protestants, as you prefer. ‘Heathen’ is a collective, ‘exclusive’ (excluding) concept: in the Hebrew Bible, the ‘others’ are the

Heaven/Sky

(1,966 words)

Author(s): Thomas, Günter
Dimensions of the Concept 1. The conception of heaven, together with its possible antitheses (earth, hell) and overlaps (paradise, the beyond), belongs to the most important group of influential religious symbols in the history of ideas and piety. Adapted in depth by the folk culture, it permeates many religions, and is further developed even outside explicitly religio…

Hell

(1,595 words)

Author(s): Herzog, Markwart
1. The word ‘hell’ (from Old English hel, in turn from helan

Hereafter

(323 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
A hereafter, in the raw sense of ‘the other side,’ necessarily corresponds to the fact that a boundary is traced when a dead person must be withdrawn from the world of the living, to be buried beyond a boundary, a stream, or a cemetery wall, in a special area. Here, in ambivalent reciprocity, are both the ‘disposal of’ the corpse, lest the living suffer the peril of contamination (→ Purification/Hygiene/Bodily Grooming), and the ‘provision for’ the departed in the life after death. But the conceptualization of a life after death als…

Heresy

(795 words)

Author(s): Grübel, Nils
The concept of heresy (Gk., haíresis, ‘choice’) originally denotes the opportunity of a selection to be made among various ancient philosophical schools. With the appearance of the Christian → Church and its orthodoxy, the word receives the polemical meaning of ‘false teaching,’ along with that of ‘particular direction’ or ‘tack.’ The struggle with the heresies (Arianism, Donatism, → Gnosticism) helped a Christianity in the process of formation, itself a particular direction of Judaism, to produce an…

Hermeneutics

(227 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
The expression “hermeneutics” (from Gk., hermeneuein, ‘to translate,’ ‘to interpret’) denotes the methods of interpretation of a text (→ Text/Textual Criticism) when seen as part of its exposition. Hermeneutics is of key importance especially for religion, when the latter is no longer temporally and locally embedded in the context in which a proposition or relation has found its Sitz im Leben. One way of ‘translating’ such a text into the present consists in expounding its ‘deeper’ sense, its meaning for times and places other than those of its original …

Hermetism/Hermeticism

(1,380 words)

Author(s): Burns, Dylan
The Term “Hermetism” “Hermetism” is a term used today to describe the authors of Late Antique instructional texts which feature the personage of Hermes Trismegistus (“thrice-great Hermes”) as instructor or interlocutor. In these texts, Hermes discusses and describes magical, astrological, alchemical, philosophical, and mystical ideas and practices. The variety of Hermetic subjects testifies to the absolute dominion of Hermes over every sort of learning: he was a personification of knowledge itself.…

Hero/Heroism

(1,919 words)

Author(s): Behrenbeck, Sabine
Leading Figure 1. A hero (Gk., heros, ‘hero,’ originally ‘free man’) is an individual who stands out from the crowd of ordinary persons by his corporeal or spiritual assets, and who provides a model for ethical orientation. The heroic charisma rests on extraordinary (or superhuman) traits, and i…