Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity Online

Get access Subject: Biblical Studies and Early Christianity
General Editors: David G. Hunter, Boston College, United States, Paul J.J. van Geest, Tilburg University, Netherlands, Bert Jan Lietaert Peerbolte, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.

The Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity focuses on the history of early Christian texts, authors, ideas. Its content is intended to bridge the gap between the fields of New Testament studies and patristics, covering the whole period of early Christianity up to 600 CE. The BEEC aims to provide a critical review of the methods used in Early Christian Studies and to update the historiography.

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Fortunatianus of Aquileia

(1,711 words)

Author(s): Dorfbauer, Lukas J.
Fortunatianus of Aquileia, a native African according to Jerome’s biographical note (Jer. Vir. ill. 97), most probably was born shortly before 300 CE. At an uncertain date he became bishop of Aquileia; as such he attended the Council of Serdica in 342 or 343 CE (Hil. Poit. CAP B.2.4). Fortunatianus was in contact with some of the most prominent men of his day, especially with Athanasius of Alexandria, whom he accompanied when meeting Emperor Constans (Athan. Apol. Const. 3), and with Pope Liberius, in whose return from exile in 358 CE he played some part (Hil. Poit. CAP B.7.10). Fortunatian…
Date: 2020-12-17

Forty Martyrs of Sebaste

(1,623 words)

Author(s): Mateo Donet, M. Amparo
These martyrs (3rd cent. CE) were Roman soldiers who belonged to the Legio XII Fulminata, which found itself settled in Malatya/Melitene ( Mart. Hier. 9). As the garrison was sent to Sebaste (Lesser Armenia), during the time of the persecutions by Licinius, an imperial edict ordered that the entire army should perform sacrifices to the gods, an action that 40 soldiers from this legion refused to carry out. For this reason they were imprisoned and made subject to various tortures, but even in these circumstances they s…
Date: 2020-12-17


(1,968 words)

Author(s): Dzino, Danijel
The Franks were originally a confederation of pagan German-speaking tribes living across the Rhine valley. In the late 5th century CE, they established a kingdom in former Roman Gaul, under the leadership of the Merovingian clan. The rule of the Merovingians, either united in a single or under multiple kingdoms, lasted until the 8th century CE, when they were replaced by the Carolingian clan. After the baptism of King Clovis I in 508 CE, the beginnings of a more cohesive and widespread conversio…
Date: 2020-12-17


(3,397 words)

Author(s): White, Carolinne
Friendship is a reciprocal loving relationship, usually between two people but also between members of a group who share ideals, beliefs, and interests. In early Christian writings, the concept of friendship occurs in different contexts, influenced by Greek and Roman theories on the subject, by key passages from the Old and New Testaments, and by the writers’ personal experiences. The most common word for friendship in Greek is φιλία (Stählin, 1973, 147–149) and in Latin amicitia: other terms frequently used as synonyms on a spectrum of related concepts are ἀγάπη, κοιν…
Date: 2020-12-17

Fructuosus of Braga

(1,691 words)

Author(s): Ferreiro, Alberto
Even though we possess sources about and from Saint Fructuosus (c. 610/615–c. 665 CE), we have little information about his biography. One of the most interesting works is Vita sancti Fructuosi, an anonymous work, composed close to his time of death. As it is a work of hagiography with the standard embellishments, its focus is primarily on his ascetical qualities showing no interest about other aspects of his life. The date of his birth is placed between 610 and 615 CE, very likely in the Narbonne region, where his family of…
Date: 2020-12-17