Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity Online

Get access Subject: Biblical Studies and Early Christianity
General Editors: David G. HUNTER, University of Kentucky, United States, Paul J.J. van GEEST, Tilburg University, Netherlands, Bert Jan Lietaert Peerbolte, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.

The Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity focuses on the history of early Christian texts, authors, ideas. Its content is intended to bridge the gap between the fields of New Testament studies and patristics, covering the whole period of early Christianity up to 600 CE. The BEEC aims to provide a critical review of the methods used in Early Christian Studies and to update the historiography.

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(6,588 words)

Author(s): Becker, Matthias
Ever since its development in the contexts of both Attic democracy and the sophistic movement in the 5th century BCE, Greek and later Roman rhetoric remained an elitist phenomenon throughout antiquity (Hunger, 1978, 69; Morgan, 2007, 310). Only a tiny minority of literate and socially distinguished citizens could receive rhetorical education, which was regarded as the consummation of the “general education” ( enkyklios paideia) or the “liberal arts” ( artes liberales) and which prepared successful students to become politicians, lawyers, or rhetoricians and sophis…
Date: 2020-12-17


(7,798 words)

Author(s): Starling, David
Early Christian understandings of righteousness, justice, and justification had their genesis in the understandings of the concepts articulated within the Hebrew Scriptures, interpreted within the matrix of Second Temple Judaism and in light of the proclamation, practice, death, and resurrection of Jesus. From the beginning, they were also influenced by the language and thought forms of the Greco-Roman world, and their ongoing development across the first five cent…
Date: 2020-12-17


(1,651 words)

Author(s): Berndt, Guido M.
With the attempt to resolve the “Arian” controversy, which in the 4th century CE had theologically and politically divided the church, Emperor Constantius II (r. 337–361 CE) called for two councils to be held simultaneously in the western and the eastern parts of the Roman Empire in 358 CE. The purpose was to negotiate a theological position between Nicene and Homoian Christians, who disagreed over whether God’s being was in one or three substances ( hypostaseis) of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and to exclude the Anomoean positi…
Date: 2020-12-17