Brill’s Digital Library of World War I

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Brill’s Digital Library of World War I is an online resource that contains over 700 encyclopedia entries plus 250 peer-reviewed articles of transnational and global historical perspectives on significant topics of World War I. This collection includes Brill’s Encyclopedia of the First World War, an unrivalled reference work that showcases the knowledge of experts from 15 countries and offers 26 additional essays on the major belligerents, wartime society and culture, diplomatic and military events, and the historiography of the Great War.

The 250 articles address not only the key issues from political, historical and cultural perspectives, but also engages with aspects of the war which have remained underexplored such as the neutrals, the role of women before, during and after the war, and memory. The chapters have been drawn from a select number of Brill publications that have been published in the last 15 years. Brill’s Digital Library of World War I is a unique digital library that will allow researchers to discover new perspectives and connections with the enhanced navigational tools provided.

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Pacelli, Eugenio

(249 words)

Author(s): Becker, Annette
Pacelli, Eugenio (March 2, 1876, Rome – October 9, 1958, Castel Gandolfo), Italian clergyman and papal diplomat, later Pope Pius XII. Pacelli was born into a lower-class, Roman Catholic family that was closely connected to the Vatican. As a priest and jurist, Pacelli rose quickly to the higher offices within the Vatican administration. Ultimately in 1939, he was elected pope. In 1901 Pacelli joined the Papal State Secretariat of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, becoming its secretary in 1912. Pacelli climbed every rung of the career ladder. During the World War, he was the top aide to Pope Benedict XV and his Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri in the area of international relations. It was his personal duty to establish papal relief services for the wounded and prisoners of war. In 1917 in Germany, he began his career as a papal nuncio, the only papal representa…

Paderewski, Ignacy Jan

(258 words)

Author(s): Hecker, Hans
Paderewski, Ignacy Jan (November 18, 1860, Kuryłówka [Podolien, the Ukraine] – June 29, 1941, New York), Polish musician and politician. The pianist, internationally celebrated for his interpretation of Chopin, had been living in the United States since 1913, where he used his artistic fame to promote the restoration of an independent Polish state. Through his friendship with Edward Mandell House and Robert Lansing, Paderewski was able to influence President Wilson’s stance on the Poland question. As a member of the

Painlevé, Paul

(466 words)

Author(s): Krumeich, Gerd
Painlevé, Paul (December 5, 1863, Paris – October 29, 1933, Paris), French politician (minister for war, prime minister). Painlevé was not only a politically prominent personality, twice a prime minister and later the minister for war, but also a renowned mathematician. A professor of mathematics in Lille since 1887, Painlevé first came to the attention of the public when in 1890, he received the Grand Prix des Sciences Mathématiques (‘Grand Prize in Mathematical Sciences’) of the Académie Française. His primary research area was related to friction energy. He w…

Palestine Front

(637 words)

Author(s): Neulen, Hans Werner
Palestine Front After the failure of the two Turkish/German expeditions against the Suez Canal (in January/February 1915 with 18,000 men and 5,000 camels, and in July/August 1916 with 16,000 men, including Austro-Hungarian contingents, and, again, 5,000 camels), by the beginning of 1917 the Ottoman Empire had been forced to evacuate the Sinai Peninsula. The Turks chose the Gaza – Tel el Sheria – Beersheba line, a front of 50 km, for their defense of Palestine. The mixed units on the ground were co…

Pamphlets

(390 words)

Author(s): Bohrmann, Hans
Pamphlets A single sheet of paper which is printed on both sides with a political, social, commercial, or other message and which is distributed free of charge to a wide public. The special newspaper editions containing breaking news that came in after the printing deadline may also be regarded as pamphlets. Such special editions were more frequent during the World War, since the actuality of the newspapers regularly lagged behind the pace of events in spite of multiple issues per day. A …

Pan-German League

(886 words)

Author(s): Hagenlücke, Heinz
Pan-German League Radical nationalist…

Paris, Berlin: War Memory in Two Capital Cities (1914–1933)

(12,440 words)

Author(s): Julien, Elise
Julien, Elise - Paris, Berlin: War Memory in Two Capital Cities (1914–1933) Keywords: Home fronts | Society | France | Germany | Legacy | Politics ‛Warfare and Belligerence’ Pierre Purseigle, Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2005 e-ISBN: 9789047407362 DOI: 10.1163/9789047407362.016 © 2005 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Julien, Elise

Paris Peace Conferences

(739 words)

Author(s): Schwabe, Klaus
Paris Peace Conferences In Paris between January 18 and June 28, 1919, peace conferences were held by the victorious powers of the First World War in order to make final decisions on a host of questions, and then to write them as regulations to which …

Parliamentarization

(630 words)

Author(s): Mai, Günther
Parliamentarization From 1871 the German Reich was a constitutional monarchy. The Kaiser appointed and dismissed the chancellor, who was the only member of the imperial government responsible to the Reichstag (the lower house of parliament), and without whose agreement the Kaiser could not take political action. The chancellor could not rule for long against …

Peace Initiatives

(1,049 words)

Author(s): Hoff, Henning
Peace Initiatives In the course of the World War there were repeated attempts to end hostile activities. However, right until the end the war aims of the two sides were irreconcilable so that the chances for the success of peace initiatives remained small. The first serious attempts to bring the European belligerents to the negotiating table were made by American President Woodrow Wilson, who in the spring of 1915 sent his trusted “Co…

Peace Movements

(1,734 words)

Author(s): Holl, Karl
Peace Movements Social and political movements, at first based in the middle class, appearing from the early 19th century. “Pacifism” was organized in the form of peace societies and unions on national and local levels. In Germany the Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft, DFG (German Peace Society), was founded in 1892. Their aim was cooperation with peace organizations in other countries, at first by means of international peace congresses, and from the end of the 19th century through the International Peace Office in Bern. The expectation of so-called organized pacifism, according to which world peace would become ever more secure through already practiced forms of world-wide cooperation (A.H. Fried), the calculation that its economic folly would prevent a great war (Norman Angell), and pacifist hopes in hitherto successful crisis management by governments of the Great Powers was revealed by the First World War as wishful thinking. The prewar international cooperation of the peace societies came to an abrupt end w…

Pershing, John J.

(406 words)

Author(s): Showalter, Dennis E.
Pershing, John J. (September 13, 1860, Laclede [Linn County MO] – July 15, 1948, Washington DC), United States general. As commander in chief of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF), Pershing’s popularity in the United States was surpassed only by President Woodrow Wilson. Pershing graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point. Thereupon he served in an army whose role was essentially limited to poli…

Persons

(7,427 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard | Krumeich, Gerd | Renz, Irina
Persons Aalst, Cornelis J.K. van 774 Abbas II Hilmi Bey 785 Abd el-Malik 786 Abderhalden, Emil 1015 Abdul Hamid II 599, 620, 662 Abdullah I bin al-Hussein, Emir and King of Transjordan 283, 620 Adenauer, Konrad 883 Adler, Friedrich 54, 933 Adler, Viktor 933 Adolfi, John G. 517 Aitken, Arthur Edward 569 Alain-Fournier, Henri 262 Albert I, King of the Belgians 28, 265f., 597, 686, 717 Albertini, Luigi 245 Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg 267, 299, 673, 1045 Alby, Henri Edouard 295 Alderson, Sir Edwin A.H. 290, 400 Aldington, Richard 144 Aleksandar I Karadjordjević, Prince Regent of Serbia…

Pétain, Henri Philippe

(572 words)

Author(s): Becker, Jean-Jacques
Pétain, Henri Philippe (April 24, 1856, Cauchy-à-la-Tour [Département Pas-de-Calais] – July 23, 1951, Port-Joinville [L’Île d’Yeu]), French marshal. Pétain graduated from the École Spéciale Militaire de Saint- Cyr (Specialized Military School of St. Cyr) in 1876. In 1914, he actually was a colonel facing the end of his career as a professional soldier. Moreover, his defensive orientation was not well suited to the then-prevailing offensive doctrine. Nevertheless he was swiftly promoted upon the outbreak of war. By August …