Brill’s Digital Library of World War I

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Subject: History

Brill’s Digital Library of World War I is an online resource that contains over 700 encyclopedia entries plus 250 peer-reviewed articles of transnational and global historical perspectives on significant topics of World War I. This collection includes Brill’s Encyclopedia of the First World War, an unrivalled reference work that showcases the knowledge of experts from 15 countries and offers 26 additional essays on the major belligerents, wartime society and culture, diplomatic and military events, and the historiography of the Great War.

The 250 articles address not only the key issues from political, historical and cultural perspectives, but also engages with aspects of the war which have remained underexplored such as the neutrals, the role of women before, during and after the war, and memory. The chapters have been drawn from a select number of Brill publications that have been published in the last 15 years. Brill’s Digital Library of World War I is a unique digital library that will allow researchers to discover new perspectives and connections with the enhanced navigational tools provided.

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Going Home

(6,187 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Susanne
Wolf, Susanne - Going Home Keywords: Dutch government | Germany | Netherland Abstract: The British ambassador in The Hague wrote to the Dutch government declaring that, as the war was over, all treaties concerning the POWs interned in the Netherlands and Switzerland were no longer valid. To this end the British proposed to send five ships to collect the approximately 5,000 British and Commonwealth men currently interned in the Netherlands. The need to mobilize the army had meant tha…

Goltz, Baron Colmar von der

(454 words)

Author(s): Pöhlmann, Markus
Goltz, Baron Colmar von der (August 12, 1843, Bielkenfeld near Labiau [modern Polessk in the Kaliningrad Oblast] – April 19, 1916, Baghdad), Prussian and Ottoman field marshal. After graduating from cadet school, Goltz joined the Fifth East Prussian Infantry Regiment as a lieutenant in 1861. Following active service in the wars of 1866 and 1870–1871, his subsequent career was characterized by extended teaching assignments both at the War School in Potsdam and at the Prussian Military Academy in Berli…

Goltz, Rüdiger von der

(386 words)

Author(s): Wegner, Bernd
Goltz, Rüdiger von der (December 8, 1865, Züllichau – November 4, 1946, Kinsegg [today part of Bernbeuren]), German general. The son of a high Prussian official, Goltz joined the army in 1885. At the outbreak of the World War, he had attained the rank of colonel and was commander of the Hamburg Infantry Regiment No. 76. After further appointments as brigade and division commander (37th Infantry Division), he took charge of the 12th Landwehr Division (renamed “Baltic Sea Division” in March 1918) on F…

Goremykin, Ivan Legginovitch

(170 words)

Author(s): Dahlmann, Dittmar
Goremykin, Ivan Legginovitch (August 11, 1839, Novgorod – December 24, 1917, Caucasus [murdered]), Russian politician. Goremykin was descended from a noble family of the Novgorod Gouvernement. A jurist, he was minister of the interior from 1895–1899. After 1899, he was a member of the Imperial Council. From May to July 1906, then again from January 1914 to January 1916, he served as prime minister. He is remembered as a politically weak figure, a typical reactionary, and especially as the marionett…

Göring, Hermann

(227 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard
Göring, Hermann (January 12, 1893, Rosenheim – October 15, 1946, Nürnberg [suicide]), German fighter pilot and politician. Commander in chief of the air force from 1935–1945. Called the “erste Paladin des Führers” (“The Führer’s Champion”) and the “second man in the Reich,” Göring served as a World War I flying ace – as National Socialist propaganda never tired of mentioning. Göring took part in the First Battle of Alsace as a lieutenant of the Fourth Badisches Infantry Regiment No. 112 (“Prince W…

Gorlice-Tarnów, Battle of

(1,005 words)

Author(s): Stone, Norman
Gorlice-Tarnów, Battle of Two towns in Galicia (now situated in modern Poland). Even though the German Supreme Army Command was determined to decide the war in the West, developments in early 1915 brought the focus of attention to the East. The weaker the Austro-Hungarian army became, the more the German allies felt compelled to provide direct support. The situation deteriorated when Italy, hoping for territorial gains, threatened the Dual Monarchy with war. Now the German Eleventh Army (August von…

Graves, Robert (von Ranke)

(414 words)

Author(s): Winter, Jay
Graves, Robert (von Ranke) (July 26, 1895, Wimbledon [now part of London] – December 7, 1985, Deyá [Majorca]), British writer and literary scholar. Graves’ prewar work is customarily assigned to the so-called Georgian school, a group of poets that cultivated a Late Romantic style. Both he and his friend the writer Siegfried Sassoon, who, like him, served as an officer in the Royal Welch Fusiliers, were profoundly influenced by the war. Graves was wounded in 1916 at the Battle of the Somme, his many …

Great Britain

(8,230 words)

Author(s): Winter, Jay
Great Britain The War For Great Britain, the war first began at sea. The Royal Navy established a blockade of the German North Sea coasts and harbors and thus practically confined the imperial fleet to the Baltic Sea. This measure was of decisive strategic importance due to the fact that it secured the British supply of food and other important goods by sea. Although the German fleet attempted to disrupt the British shipping routes during the further course of the war by launching a large-scale U-bo…

Greece

(1,698 words)

Author(s): Loulos, Konstantin
Greece While the real tragedy of the World War played out on Europe’s theaters of war, Greece remained neutral until 1917. This neutrality was above all benevolent toward the Central Powers – at least, as far as the head of state, King Constantine, was concerned. Since the monarch admired his brother-in-law Kaiser Wilhelm II as the personification of the German martial spirit, he refused to march off to war against the Central Powers. Thereupon, Greek Premier Eleftherios Venizelos advocated stron…

Grey, Sir Edward

(405 words)

Author(s): Winter, Jay
Grey, Sir Edward (April 25, 1862, Fallodon, County of Northumberland – September 7, 1933, Fallodon; from 1916 First Viscount Grey of Fallodon), British politician. Grey was foreign secretary from 1905 to 1916, and chief architect of Britain’s foreign policy before the war. After studying at Balliol College, Oxford, he was elected to the House of Commons in 1885 as Liberal member of parliament for the constituency of Berwick-upon-Tweed. Grey retained this seat for his entire political career. As par…

Grigorovich, Ivan Konstantinovich

(349 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Grigorovich, Ivan Konstantinovich (February 7, 1853, Saint Petersburg – March 3, 1930, Menton, France), Russian admiral and minister of the navy. Grigorovich graduated from the Naval Academy in 1874, served in the war against Turkey 1877–1878, and was posted to London as naval attaché from 1896 to 1898. Having commanded the battleship Zarevich in 1903, he was the officer in charge of the port at Port Arthur during the war with Japan in 1904. Following service as chief of staff for the Black Sea Fleet (1905), he was appointed chief of the Baltic p…

Groener, Wilhelm

(732 words)

Author(s): Kitchen, Martin
Groener, Wilhelm (November 22, 1867, Ludwigsburg – May 3, 1939, Bornstedt [today part of Potsdam]), German general and first quartermaster general in the general staff of the field army. The son of a warrant officer from Württemberg, Groener owed his career in the Prussian-German Army solely to his exceptional skills and was one of the leading “technicians” whose opinions gained increasing weight in the general staff. Groener was a cultivated and liberal man, although he was also receptive to the …

Grosz, George (Georg Ehrenfried Grosz)

(447 words)

Author(s): Jürgens-Kirchhoff, Annegret
Grosz, George (Georg Ehrenfried Grosz) (July 26, 1893, Berlin – July 6, 1959, Berlin [West]), German graphic artist and painter. Like so many others, young Grosz applied in November 1914 for military service as a volunteer. As he later wrote that he was moved not by enthusiasm, but probably by the opportunity of choosing a regiment. As early as May 1915 he was discharged on health grounds as unfit for service. Fear of another call-up, which finally took place in January 1917, crippled Grosz’s artistic work. He remained however productive. In 1917 there appeared the First Georg Grosz Portf…

“GSIII, Guardian of the State”: Spies and Informants in, for and against the Netherlands, 1914–1918

(27,974 words)

Author(s): Klinkert, Wim
Klinkert, Wim - “GSIII, Guardian of the State”: Spies and Informants in, for and against the Netherlands, 1914–1918 Defending Neutrality Wim Klinkert , (2013) Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2013 e-ISBN: 9789004252509 DOI: 10.1163/9789004252509_006 © 2013 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Klinkert, Wim

Guardians of the True Faith

(19,226 words)

Author(s): Bobič, Pavlina
Bobič, Pavlina - Guardians of the True Faith Keywords: churches | Glasbena matica | Ljubljana Abstract: This chapter concentrates on the religious ideas and values that the priests in the rear transmitted to their flocks through sermons and devotions which in turn helped mould the parishioners' attitudes about the war in the period from 1914 to 1916. It presents the evolution of the civilians' perception of war through their participation in religious activities: pilgrimages, common pr…

Guchkov, Alexander Ivanovich

(229 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Gerhard
Guchkov, Alexander Ivanovich (October 13/26, 1862, Moscow – February 14, 1936, Paris), Russian industrialist and politician. Guchkov came from a family of Moscow entrepreneurs. In November 1905, in the course of the first Russian Revolution, he was the founder and leader of the Union of the 17th October. In 1906 he became a member of the Imperial Council, in 1907 a member of the Imperial Duma, and its president in 1910–1911. From the end of 1906 Guchkov was the publisher of the Golos Moskvy ( Voice of Moscow) newspaper and from 1915 he was chairman of the Central War Industry Comm…