Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: David Thomas, Alex Mallett
Associate Editors: Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala, Johannes Pahlitzsch, Barbara Roggema, Mark Swanson, Herman Teule and John Tolan
Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general online history of relations between the faiths. It covers the period from 600 to 1500, when encounters took place through the extended Mediterranean basin and are recorded in Syriac, Arabic, Greek, Latin and other languages. Christian Muslim Relations Online comprises introductory essays on the treatment of Christians in the Qur’an, Qur’an commentaries, biographies of the Prophet, Hadith and Sunni law, and of Muslims in canon law, and the main body of more than two hundred detailed entries on all the works recorded, whether surviving or lost.

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Faḍl Allāh Astarābādī

(526 words)

Author(s): Mir-Kasimov, Orkhan
BiographyFaḍl Allāh Astarābādī was born in Astarābād, an Iranian town on the south-eastern corner of the Caspian Sea, in 1340-1. His father, a local judge, died when Faḍl Allāh was still a child and the boy’s education was supervised by his father’s friends and colleagues. It is likely that Faḍl Allāh studied central Islamic disciplines including the Qur’an and its commentaries, Hadith, theology and jurisprudence, in preparation for following in his father’s footsteps. His works also evidence a …

Al-Faḍl ibn ʿĪsā

(92 words)

Author(s): N. Swanson, Mark
Biography Knowledge of this author is dependent upon an entry in Sbath's Fihris: he was a deacon of Antioch ( al-shammās al-Anṭākī). Sbath asserts that he was a Melkite author of the 13th century. Nasrallah repeats this information and adds that he probably eventually became a priest. Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Nasrallah, HMLEM iii.1, p. 254 Graf, GCAL ii, p. 79 Sbath, Fihris, Supplément, p. 27 (the source of what is found in Graf and Nasrallah) Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Kitāb al-dustūr Mark N. Swanson

Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī

(1,025 words)

Author(s): Iskenderoglu, Muammer
Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn ʿUmar ibn al-Ḥusayn Date of Birth: 1149 or 50 Place of Birth: Rayy, Iran Date of Death: 1209 Place of Death: Herāt, Afghanistan Biography Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn ʿUmar, known as Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī, was born in 1149 at Rayy in northern Persia. Until he was 16 he studied with his father, a scholar and preacher in Rayy, who educated al-Rāzī in the Ashʿarī school of theology and the Shāfiʿī school of law. After his father’s death, he first studied jurisprudence with Kamāl al-Dīn al-Simnānī (d. …

Faraj ibn Jirjis Afrām

(165 words)

Author(s): G.B. Teule, Herman
Biography Faraj ibn Jirjis was a Syrian Orthodox philosopher, who probably belonged to the circles around Yaḥyā ibn ʿAdī (q.v.). The latter composed his Iḍāḥ fī l-tawḥīd in reply to a question by Faraj about the principles of existent things and the degrees of their potencies ( mabādī’ al-mawjūdāt wa-marātib quwāhā). Primary Sources of Information Al-Mu’taman ibn al-ʿAssāl, Summa dei principi della religione, ed. A. Wadi, trans. B. Pirone, 6 vols, Cairo, 1998-2002 ( Studia Orientalia Christiana Monographiae 6a-6b, 7a-7b, 8a-9), i, ch. 19, no. 48 Secondary Sources of Information S. Kh…

 Fatḥ al-Andalus

(777 words)

Author(s): Penelas, Mayte
The conquest of Iberia The Conquest of Iberia Date: 1102-10 Original Language: Arabic Description Fatḥ al-Andalus is more than a history of the Arab conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, because it extends to the arrival of the Almoravids in the 12th century. However, two quite different parts are to be distinguished: its account of the conquest, the governors of the Umayyads of Damascus, and the coming and rule of the Umayyad emir ʿAbd al-Raḥmān I is very detailed, whereas from the second Umayyad ruler, Hishām I, to the taifa kings it i…


(382 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Legal opinion Al-Ṭabarī Date: Unknown; before 923 Original Language: Arabic Description An opinion given in the name of al-Ṭabarī on the status of non-Muslims in areas under Muslim control is preserved in a treatise written in 1353 by the scholar Taqī l-Dīn al-Subkī. There must be some measure of uncertainty over the authenticity of this opinion, first because al-Subkī declares that he does not know which work it originally came from, and second because its character differs from al-Ṭabarī’s known works, f…


(377 words)

Author(s): Mallett, Alex
Legal opinion Al-Māzarī Date: First half of the 12th century Original Language: Arabic Description This fatwa is contained in al-Wansharīsī’s (q.v.) Asnā l-matājir, the later scholar using it as a foil for his own opposing opinion concerning the permissibility of remaining in territory that has been conquered by non-Muslim forces and is now dār al-ḥarb. The fatwa discusses the two related questions of whether it is permitted to remain in formerly Muslim territory, and whether the opinions of judges who have been appointed by infidel rulers are valid. In answer to the first question…


(486 words)

Author(s): Serrano Ruano, Delfina
Legal opinion Al-Qāḍī ʿIyāḍ Date: Between 1126 and 1149 Original Language: Arabic Description This fatwā is concerned with ‘a church constructed by Christian subjects ( Naṣārā muʿāhidūn) over which a mosque was built: are the endowments ( aḥbās) of the church to be transferred to the mosque or to the public treasury?' The text contains a formal question ( istiftā’) concerning properties endowed for the benefit of an unnamed church, which was presumably in the vicinity of Granada or Seville, together with two answers given by ʿIyāḍ. The church and its en…

 Fatwā fī amr al-kanāʾis

(445 words)

Author(s): Hoover, Jon
‘Fatwa on the issue of churches’ Ibn Taymiyya Date: Unknown Original Language: Arabic Description The only known source for this short fatwa is Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya’s Aḥkām ahl al-dhimma (ii, pp. 677-86 in the 1961 edition of Subḥī al-Ṣāliḥ), and it has now been printed independently in the collection Jāmiʿ al-masāʾil cited below. Fatwā fī amr al-kanāʾis treats the legal status of churches under Muslim rule, and it probably dates to after Masʾalat al-kanāʾis because it takes a less polemical and more juristic approach to the question. In long and involved fashion, the inquiry pr…

Felix of Urgell = Feliu d’Urgell

(160 words)

Author(s): Tolan, John
Felix of Urgell Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Uncertain, probably between 811 and 818 Place of Death: Lyon Biography Bishop of Urgell (Catalonia), Felix was a proponent of Adoptionism, the belief that Jesus was God’s son through adoption not birth. He was made to abjure this ‘heresy’ in 792 before Charlemagne’s court at Ratisbon and then before the pope in Rome. He was again forced to abjure his Adoptionism at the Council of Aix in 800; deposed from his bishopric, he was imprisoned in Lyons, probably until his death. Primary Sources of Information Alcuin, Liber…