Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: David Thomas, Alex Mallett
Associate Editors: Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala, Johannes Pahlitzsch, Barbara Roggema, Mark Swanson, Herman Teule and John Tolan
Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general online history of relations between the faiths. It covers the period from 600 to 1500, when encounters took place through the extended Mediterranean basin and are recorded in Syriac, Arabic, Greek, Latin and other languages. Christian Muslim Relations Online comprises introductory essays on the treatment of Christians in the Qur’an, Qur’an commentaries, biographies of the Prophet, Hadith and Sunni law, and of Muslims in canon law, and the main body of more than two hundred detailed entries on all the works recorded, whether surviving or lost.

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 Aḥkām ahl al-dhimma

(1,878 words)

Author(s): Hoover, Jon
Aḥkām ahl al-milal‘Laws regarding the dhimmīs’; ‘Regulations for the People of the religions’ Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya Date: Unknown Original Language: Arabic Description This large work, which runs to 873 pages in the 1961 edition of Subḥī l-Ṣāliḥ, provides a comprehensive account of Islamic regulations pertaining to non-Muslims. The book begins by responding to an inquiry about the jizya, or poll tax, collected from non-Muslims ( ahl al-dhimma) living within Islamic territories. Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya’s response, which takes up 140 pages in al-Ṣāliḥ’s edition,…

 Al-aḥkām al-kubrā

(731 words)

Author(s): Serrano Ruano, Delfina
Kitāb al-iʿlām bi-nawāzil al-aḥkāmMajor legal judgements Abū l-Aṣbagh ʿIsā ibn Sahl ibn ʿAbdallāh al-Asadī al-Jayyānī Date: Between 1079 and 1090 Original Language: Arabic Description Al-aḥkām al-kubrā is a collection of legal cases presented before various judicial authorities of al-Andalus. It preserves not only fatwās issued in connection with actual legal cases, but also accounts of the whole legal process followed in their adjudication. In this respect, the collection is a direct witness to what Andalusī judicial records may have lo…

Aḥmad ibn Abī Bakr

(154 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Aḥmad ibn Abī Bakr ibn Aḥmad ibn ʿAbdallāh al-Qādirī l-Ḥanbalī l-Ḥamawī Date of Birth: Unknown; presumably late 14th century Place of Birth: Ḥamāh, Syria Date of Death: Uncertain; after 1428 Place of Death: Unknown Biography Little is known about this Syrian Ḥanbalī, and even his name is not entirely certain. Steinschneider is unable to read some elements in the unclear manuscript, and it is Brockelmann who provides the full form given here. The contents of this work suggest that this Aḥmad ibn Abī Bakr was thoroughly versed in the traditional Islamic sciences, and …

Aḥmad al-Rāzī

(441 words)

Author(s): Penelas, Mayte
Abū Bakr Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Rāzī al-Kinānī Date of Birth: April 888 Place of Birth: Cordova Date of Death: 1 November 955 Place of Death: Cordova Biography Aḥmad al-Rāzī was the son of a merchant from al-Rayy (hence his patronymic al-Rāzī), whose professional dealings led him to North Africa and al-Andalus. His family were in Cordova when Aḥmad was born, in April 888. When Aḥmad's father died, the family remained in al-Andalus, and Aḥmad continued to live in Cordova throughout his life. Aḥmad al-Rāzī was known as a great memorizer and transmitter of historical repor…

Aimericus of Angoulême

(120 words)

Author(s): González Muñoz, Fernando
Biography Almost nothing in known about Aimericus’ life. He claims to have been born in ‘Gastinia’ (?), and he dedicated his only known work, the grammatical treatise Ars Lectoria, to a bishop called Ademarus, who could be Adémar, bishop of Angoulême between the years 1076 and 1101. Primary Sources of Information H.F. Reijnders, ‘Aimericus, Ars lectoria (1)’, Vivarium 9 (1971) 119-37 H.F. Reijnders, ‘Aimericus, Ars lectoria (2)’, Vivarium 10 (1972) 41-101 H.F. Reijnders, ‘Aimericus, Ars lectoria (3)’, Vivarium 10 (1972) 124-76 Secondary Sources of Information C.H. Kneepkens and …

 Ajwiba ʿan thalāth masāʾil saʾalahu ʿanhā ṣadīquhu Abū ʿAlī Saʿīd ibn Dādīshuʿ fī dhī l-Qaʿda sanat thamānī wa-khamsīn wa-thalāthimiʾa

(510 words)

Author(s): Platti, Emilio
Replies to three questions submitted by his friend Abū ʿAlī Saʿīd ibn Dādīshuʿ in Dhū l-Qaʿda 358 Yaḥyā ibn ʿAdī Date: 969 (Dhū l-Qaʿda 358 AH) Original Language: Arabic Description This treatise consists of three philosophical-theological questions put forward by a friend of Yaḥyā ibn ʿAdī, and Yaḥyā’s reply. The addressee of this ‘reply’, Abū ʿAlī Saʿīd ibn Dādīshuʿ, was most probably a ‘Nestorian’ Christian (Samir, Science divine). The first question has been edited by Samir: Does the Creator know particulars ( al-juzʾiyyāt)? Yaḥya’s answer is clearly ‘Yes’. His argument i…

 Al-ajwiba l-fākhira ʿan al-as’ila l-fājira fī l-radd ʿalā l-milla l-kāfira

(748 words)

Author(s): El Kaisy-Friemuth, Maha
Al-ajwiba l-fākhira‘Superb answers to shameful questions in refutation of the unbelieving religion’ Al-Qarāfī Date: Unknown; before 1285 Original Language: Arabic Description This substantial polemical work, amounting to over 400 pages in printed editions, is called by Brockelmann ‘the greatest apologetic achievement in Islam’ ( GAL S i, p. 665). It is divided into four parts. In the first, al-Qarāfī presents a refutation of an epistle written by an unnamed Christian to provide qur’anic proofs for the integrity of Christian beliefs. He refutes these proofs one by one, calling them s…

 Akhbār al-fuqahā’ wa-l-muḥaddithīn

(519 words)

Author(s): Serrano Ruano, Delfina
Reports on legal scholars and traditionists Al-Khushanī Date: Before 961 Original Language: Arabic Description This book comprises 527 biographies of Andalusī scholars who lived between the end of the 8th century and 954 and who came mostly from Cordova, Elvira and Toledo. Entries are arranged in alphabetical order and, as well as the expected geographical and intellectual details about each scholar, al-Khushanī’s accounts abound in anecdotes and other details, which bring the individuals to life. According to M.L. Ávila and L. Molina, two versions of the text, one sho…

 Akhbār mulūk al-Andalus

(1,180 words)

Author(s): Penelas, Mayte
Reports on the kings of al-Andalus Aḥmad al-Rāzī Date: First half of the 10th century; before 955 Original Language: Arabic Description This history is not preserved in its original form, its contents being known through quotations in later works and translations into other languages. Devoted exclusively to the Iberian Peninsula, it was divided into three parts: geographical description, pre-Islamic history, and history from the arrival of the Arabs to the author’s own time. It included a detailed account of the Ara…

 Aʿlām al-nubuwwa

(1,690 words)

Author(s): Nomoto and David Thomas, Shin
Signs of prophethood Abū Ḥātim al-Rāzī Date: Unknown; before 934 Original Language: Arabic Description This work is a refutation of the philosopher-physician Abū Bakr al-Rāzī (labelled mulḥid, ‘heretic’, in the text) and his Kitāb makhāriq al-anbiyāʾ (‘The fraudulent tricks of the prophets’), which may well have been an attack on the validity of all the revealed religions, including Islam, as sources of knowledge and of individual and communal well-being (see Stroumsa, Freethinkers, pp. 95-107). For its attempt to prove the necessity of prophethood and the Imamate …

 A‘lām al-nubuwwa

(149 words)

Author(s): Demiri, Lejla
Signs of prophethood Ibn Ẓafar Date: Unknown; probably 1163 (see Ibn Ẓafar, Khayr al-bishar, p. 96) Original Language: Arabic Description As implied by the title, this is most probably identical to Ibn Ẓafar’s Khayr al-bishar and is perhaps an alternative title. The fact that no reference to this work exists in any of the biographical sources supports this possibility. The only references to it are in Kashf al-ẓunūn (i, p. 126) and Hadiyyat al-ʿārifīn (ii, p. 96). Significance If it was a separate work, it would have been another contribution to the same genre as Khayr al-bishar. Manuscript…

Alan of Lille

(370 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Mechthild
Alanus ab Insulis, Alanus de Insulis, Alain de Lille, Alain von Lille Date of Birth: Between 1125 and 1130 Place of Birth: Lille or nearby Date of Death: 1202 or 1203 Place of Death: Monastery of Citeaux Biography Only a few details of Alan’s life are known. As a boy, he presumably studied liberal arts and theology at Chartres. He taught theology in Paris, and he also lived in the south of France (perhaps in the vicinity of Montpellier), where he was engaged in the altercations with the Cathars and the Waldensians. During his stay t…

Alexander III

(216 words)

Author(s): Tolan, John
Orlando Bandinelli Date of Birth: Approximately 1100 Place of Birth: Siena Date of Death: 30 August 1181 Place of Death: Cività Castellana Biography Orlando Bandinelli studied law at Bologna, where he then taught canon law (1139-42). He became canon in Pisa, then in 1150 cardinal deacon. He was a close advisor to Pope Hadrian IV (1154-59). At Hadrian’s death, a majority of cardinals elected Orlando as pope and consecrated him as Alexander III; a pro-imperial minority elected Cardinal Ottaviano of Monticelli as Victor …

Alexandre du Pont

(68 words)

Author(s): Tolan, John
Biography Nothing is known about Alexandre du Pont, beyond his name (which he himself gives at line 22 of his work) and the fact that he completed his Roman in the city of Laon in 1258 (as he announces at the end of the work). Primary Sources of Information - Secondary Sources of Information - Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Roman de Mahomet John Tolan

Alfonso Buenhombre

(538 words)

Author(s): Biosca, Antoni
Alfonso de Buenhombre, Alphonsus Bonihominis Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Probably Galicia Date of Death: About 1353 Place of Death: Probably Marrakesh Biography Alfonso Buenhombre was a Dominican monk who, towards the end of his life, was bishop of Marrakesh. He is always referred to as frater Hispanus, so his Spanish origin is clear. He was probably born in Galicia, since in one work he is identified as Gallicus. He is credited with translating five works from Arabic into Latin, though at least two of these are not translations. The details of his life…

Alfonso III (author or patron)

(483 words)

Author(s): Deswarte, Thomas
The Chronicle of Alfonso III Date of Birth: c. 848 Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: 20 December 910 Place of Death: Zamora Biography The two versions of this chronicle (Rotensis and Ovetensis) are the work of either Alfonso III of Oviedo or a member of his entourage. According to Gómez Moreno (‘Las primeras crónicas’) and Sánchez Albornoz (‘La redacción original’), the king himself wrote the Rotensis version. Díaz y Díaz (‘La Historiografía hispana’, p. 228), on the other hand, believes that Alfonso wrote the Ovetensis. It is currently believed that Alfonso was the instigato…

ʿAlī ibn ʿĪsā al-Jarrāḥ

(760 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn ʿĪsā ibn Dāwūd ibn al-Jarrāḥ Date of Birth: 11 August 859 Place of Birth: Unknown, possible Dayr Qunnā, south-east of Baghdad Date of Death: 1 August 946 Place of Death: Dayr Qunnā or Baghdad Biography ʿAbd al-Jabbār ( Tathbīt dalā’il al-nubuwwa, ed. ʿA.-K. ʿUthmān, 2 vols, Beirut, 1966, p. 343) names the author of a reply to a letter from the Byzantine emperor as ʿĪsā ibn Dāwūd ibn al-Jarrāḥ. This would appear to identify him as the father of ʿAlī ibn ʿĪsā, ‘the good vizier’, but the circumstances in which ʿAbd al-Ja…

ʿAlī ibn Riḍwān

(482 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Riḍwān ibn ʿAlī ibn Jaʿfar al-Miṣrī Date of Birth: 998 Place of Birth: Cairo Date of Death: 1061 or later in the 1060s Place of Death: Cairo Biography ʿAlī ibn Riḍwān gave extensive details about his life and character in an autobiography, which was used by Ibn Abī ʿUṣaybiʿa. He was born into a poor family and, because he could not afford teachers, he taught himself about medicine from books. Despite this disadvantageous start, his reputation grew and he attracted a following of students. He was appointed …

ʿAlī ibn Ṭāhir al-Sulamī

(476 words)

Author(s): Christie, Niall
Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Ṭāhir ibn Jaʿfar ibn ʿAbdallāh al-Qaysī al-Sulamī al-Naḥwī Date of Birth: 1039 or 1040 Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: 19 November 1106 Place of Death: Unknown Biography Al-Sulamī is an obscure figure, and what little we know about him comes from only four short entries in biographical dictionaries. He was a teacher of grammar in the Great Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, where he had a ḥalqa (circle of students), upon whom he endowed his collection of books. However, al-Sulamī was not merely a teacher of grammar; he also took an interest in …

Alonso de Espina

(572 words)

Author(s): Echevarria, Ana
Alfonso de la Espina Date of Birth: Around 1412 Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Between 1461 and 1464 Place of Death: Probably Madrid Biography Alonso was a Franciscan friar, and well known as a scholar, master in theology and preacher in the kingdom of Castile under John II and Enrique IV. His public life proper started in Salamanca, where he was regent of studies at the convent of St Francis, acting as the Faculty of Theology for Salamanca University. In 1453, he was in Valladolid and heard the confession of the…
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