Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: David Thomas, Alex Mallett
Associate Editors: Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala, Johannes Pahlitzsch, Barbara Roggema, Mark Swanson, Herman Teule and John Tolan
Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general online history of relations between the faiths. It covers the period from 600 to 1500, when encounters took place through the extended Mediterranean basin and are recorded in Syriac, Arabic, Greek, Latin and other languages. Christian Muslim Relations Online comprises introductory essays on the treatment of Christians in the Qur’an, Qur’an commentaries, biographies of the Prophet, Hadith and Sunni law, and of Muslims in canon law, and the main body of more than two hundred detailed entries on all the works recorded, whether surviving or lost.

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 Bios kai athlēsis tou hosiou kai neou martyros Bakchou martyrēsantos en tois chronois hēmōn en Palaistinē epi Eirēnēs kai Kōnstantinou tōn philochristōn kai orthodoxōn hēmōn basilēōn

(651 words)

Author(s): Efthymiadis, Stephanos
The Life and martyrdom of the holy neo-martyr Bacchus the Younger who was martyred in our time in Palestine during the reign of Irene and Constantine, our Christ-loving and orthodox emperors, Life of Bacchus the Younger Author unknown (in MS BNF – Gr. 1553, and MS Mount Athos, Monastery of Docheiariou – 74 the name Stephanos appears in the peroration) Date: Early 9th c. Original Language: Greek Description The Life of Bacchus the Younger ( BHG 209) relates the biography and martyrdom of a native of Maiouma in Gaza, Palestine (c. 769-87/88). His father, together with his sons, converted to Islam, but his mother remained a crypto-Christian. When the sons were each successively married to Muslim women, the third, named Daḥḥāk (Greek Gelasios), wished to remain unmarried and to convert to Christianity. When the father died, he went to the Church of the Resurrection in Jerusalem and met a monk from the Lavra of St Saba, who took him to …

 Bios kai politeia kai agōnes tou hosiou patros hēmōn kai homologētou Michaēl presbyterou kai synkellou gegonotos poleōs Hierosolymōn

(1,030 words)

Author(s): Sode, Claudia
The Life, conduct and struggles of our holy father and confessor Michael, priest and synkellos of the city of Jerusalem, The Life of Michael the Synkellos Unknown author Date: 2nd half of the 9th c. Original Language: Greek Description Michael the Synkellos, to whom various works have been attributed, includi…

 Bios kai politeia kai askēsis tou hosiou patros hēmon kai thaumatourgou Lazarou tou en tō Galēsiō

(1,259 words)

Author(s): Schadler, Peter
The life, conduct, and ascetic practice of our blessed father Lazarus the miracle worker of Mt Galesion, Life of Lazarus of Galesion Gregory the Cellarer Date: Between 1058 and about 1075 Original Language: Greek Description The Vita of Lazarus is extant in two manuscripts; Delehaye's edition of the text, based on the earlier of these, is 80 pages long.  Lazarus was a saint of the 11th century who gained fame for his ascetic life as a Stylite, or 'pillar saint', on Mt Galesion near Ephesus in Asia Minor. There is no debate among scholars regarding authenticity, although there remains some question over the date of Lazarus' birth, being put as early as 966/67, and as late as 980/81.  However, Greenfield has argued well that the former is the more likely. No more than three short sections in the lengthy work deal with Christian-Muslim relations, and these are fewer than two pages each.  Persecution of Christians and …

 Bios kai politeia kai merikē diēgēsis thaumatōn tou hosiou patros hēmōn Basileiou tou Neou, syngrapheis para Grēgoriou tou mathētou autou

(505 words)

Author(s): Martin Hoffman, Lars
Life, conduct and detailed record of the miracles of our holy father Basilius the Younger, written by his pupil Gregory, Life of St Basil Life of Basil Date: After 26 March 944, or 952 Original Language: Greek Description Muslims do not play a significant part in this work. We only find a single reference to the parakoimomenos Samon, who is called an ( H)agarēnas (son of Hagar) by birth, but converted to Christianity and in the reign of the Emperor Leo VI eventually attained the high position of a patrikios. It was for this reason that when, in the Vita, Samon interrogates Basil, the ascetic does not deign to answer his questions. Significance Although the text is not of prime importance for Christian-Muslim relations, it shows …

 Bios kai politeia kai merikē thaumatōn diēgēsis tou hagiou kai thaumatourgou Nikōnos myroblytou tou Metanoeite

(460 words)

Author(s): Pratsch, Thomas
Vita NiconisLife, conduct and particular account of the wonders of the wonder-working, myrrh-forthgiving holy Nicon Metanoeite, Life of St Nicon Life of St Nicon Date: Uncertain; probably mid-11th century Original Language: Greek Description The Vita narrates the biography of Nicon from his birth. He was the son of wealthy parents. He ran away from home and ended up at the monastery of Chrysē Petra. There he became a monk, between 945 and 950. Between 962 and 967 he left the monastery and began to travel, first stopping at Crete…

 Bios kai politeia tou en hagiois kai thaumatourgou patros hēmōn Dēmētrianou, episkopou Chytridōn, mias tōn hypo tēn Kypriōn nēson

(715 words)

Author(s): Efthymiadis, Stephanos
Life and conduct of our father among the saints and miracle worker Demetrianus, bishop of Chytroi, one of [the towns of] the island of Cyprus, Life of St Demetrianus Life of St Demetrianus of Kythrea/Chytri Date: Soon after about 911/913 Original Language: Greek Description The Life of St Demetrianus ( BHG 495) relates the biography of a native of Cyprus who was born at the beginning of the reign of the iconoclastic, ‘Christ-hating’ Emperor Theophilus (829-42), in the village of Sykae in the province of Chytroi (Kythrea). His parents (his fathe…

 Bios kai politeia tou en hagiois patros hēmōn Theodōrou tu dialampsantos en askēsei kata tēn megistēn lauran tou hagiou Saba, epeita gegonotos archiepiskopou poleōs Edesēs, kai axiomnēmoneuta katorthōkotos erga

(1,517 words)

Author(s): Todt, Klaus-Peter
Life and conduct of our holy father Theodore, who shone in asceticism in the great Laura of the Holy Sabas, and then became archbishop of the city of Edessa and was the author of deeds worthy of remembrance Life of Theodore, bishop of Edessa Date: Before 1023 Original Language: Greek Description According to the Vita, Theodore came from a noble Melkite family in Edessa and was baptized by the bishop of the city when he was two years old. After the death of his par…

 Bios kai politeia tou hosiou Antōniou tou Neou

(582 words)

Author(s): Pratsch, Thomas
Life and conduct of the holy Antony the Younger, Life of Antony the Younger Unknown author Date: Not long after 865 Original Language: Greek Description The Life of St Antony the Younger ( BHG 142) relates the biography of John Echimus (785-865), who was born and brought up in Phossaton in Palestine. After the death of his mother in c. 800, he moved to Attaleia together with his brother and sister, and started a military career in the navy. In 821/22, under Emperor Michael II (820-29) he was made deputy-governor ( ek prosopou) of the maritime theme of Kibyrrhaioton and had his headquarters…

 Bios kai politeia tou hosiou patros hēmōn Andreou tou dia Christon Salou

(799 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Claudia
The life and conduct of our holy father Andrew, the fool for the sake of Christ Nicephorus Date: 10th century Original Language: Greek Description The Life of St Andrew the fool is made up of a considerable number of episodes, more or less interconnected, that differ in re…

 Bios kai politeia tou hosiou patros hemon Eliou tou Neou

(1,143 words)

Author(s): Krönung, Bettina
Vita EliaeLife and particular account of our holy father Elias the Younger, Life of Saint Elias The Life of Elias the Younger Date: Early 10th century; probably 930s or 940s Original Language: Greek Description This Vita is generally dated to the 930s or 940s, soon after Elias’ death (Rossi Taibbi, Vita di Sant’ Elia, p. xviii), though Costa-Louillet ('Saints', p. 96) suggests 905/6. It tells how Elias, who was born in Enna (Sicily) in 823 to a noble Byzantine family, and was baptized John, was captured in his youth in an attack by the Aghlabids and was carried off to North Africa, where he served as a slave in a Christian household (chs 1-14). Released after some decades, he went to Jerusalem, where he was consecrated as a monk by the Patriarch Elias III, who gave him his name Elias (around 878, see Rossi Taibbi, Vita di Sant’ Elia, pp. 139-40) (ch. 18). Further journeys brought him to Sinai (chs 19-20) and Alexandria (ch. 21). After a divine revelation, Elias planned to …

 Bios kai politeia tou hosiou patros hēmōn Neilou tou Neou

(736 words)

Author(s): Martin Hoffman, Lars
Life and conduct of our holy father Nilus the Younger, Life of St Nilus Bartholomew the Younger Date: After 26 September 1004 Original Language: Greek Description According to the Vita, Nilus was born into a wealthy family in Rossano, Calabria, in 910. He received a thorough education and so was familiar with poetry and classical literature. He married and had children but, against both secular and canonical law, in about 940 he fled from Rossano and founded a spiritual congregation in central Calabria. He became a hermit, …


(600 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Burhān al-Dīn Abū l-Ḥasan Ibrāhīm ibn ʿUmar ibn al-Ḥasan al-Rubāṭ al-Biqāʿī Date of Birth: 1406/7 Place of Birth: Khirbit Rūḥa, Lebanon Date of Death: 1480 Place of Death: Damascus Biography Al-Biqāʿī was born in a small village in the Lebanese mountains. Following a feud in 1418, in which some of his closest male relatives, including his father, were killed, his mother fled with him to Damascus. There he started his education, which he continued in Jerusalem, Alexandria and Cairo. In the Mamluk capital, where he arrived in …


(2,778 words)

Author(s): Strohmaier, Gotthard
Abῡ Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al-Bῑrῡnῑ al-Khwārazmī Date of Birth: September 973 Place of Birth: Kāth, Khwārazm Date of Death: 1048 Place of Death: Ghazna Biography In the history of science, al-Bīrūnī is nowadays regarded as the most prolific and original Muslim mind of the Middle Ages. A fervent admirer of the Greeks, whose heritage came down to him via the late Antique Alexandrian school, and of the indefatigable activities of the Christian translators in Baghdad in the 9th century, he nevertheless enriched this heritage by new methods and original ideas in the fields…

 Biyūs wa-tadbīr abūnā l-qiddīs al-ṭāhir al-muhadhdhab Mār(y) Istāfanus al-sayyāḥ al-fāḍil alladhī kāna fī sīq Abūnā Mār(y) Sābā

(1,344 words)

Author(s): Lamoreaux, John C.
The Life and conduct of our holy father, the pure and upright Mār Stephen, the virtuous anchorite who dwelt in the lavra of our father Mār Sabas Leontius of Damascus Date: Between 800 and 807 Original Language: Greek Description The original Greek title of this work has been lost. The title given above is found in the Arabic version. Stephen of Mār Sabas was born in the year 724 and died on 31 March 794. He spent the greater part of his life practising asceticism in and around the monastery of Mār Sabas, to the southeast of Jerusalem. An account of his …