Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: David Thomas, Alex Mallett
Associate Editors: Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala, Johannes Pahlitzsch, Barbara Roggema, Mark Swanson, Herman Teule and John Tolan
Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general online history of relations between the faiths. It covers the period from 600 to 1500, when encounters took place through the extended Mediterranean basin and are recorded in Syriac, Arabic, Greek, Latin and other languages. Christian Muslim Relations Online comprises introductory essays on the treatment of Christians in the Qur’an, Qur’an commentaries, biographies of the Prophet, Hadith and Sunni law, and of Muslims in canon law, and the main body of more than two hundred detailed entries on all the works recorded, whether surviving or lost.

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 Collyrium fidei adversus haeresis

(683 words)

Author(s): Barros, Filomena
‘Eye salve of the faith against heresies’ Álvaro Pais Date: After July 1344 Original Language: Latin Description This work of unknown date, though later than July 1344 (after the Speculum regum), was intended to be an ‘eye salve for all Christians’ by destroying heresies. It is almost entirely based on canon law and has a theoretical quality, refuting some doctrines that had passed into history, though it also mentions Álvaro’s personal experie…

 Commentarii historici de defectu fidei in oriente

(2,013 words)

Author(s): Meserve, Margaret
Commentarii historici de detrimento fidei et orientis, sive de origine Turcharum; , De origine Turcharum'Commentaries on the decline of the faith in the East', 'On the origin of the Turks' Andrea Biglia Date: 1432-35 Original Language: Latin Description Late in 1432 or early in 1433, as the Council of Basel was underway and after the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg had entered Siena, Biglia began…

Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus

(1,549 words)

Author(s): Vaiou, Maria
Kōnstantinos VII Porphyrogennētos Date of Birth: 17 or 18 May 905 Place of Birth: Constantinople Date of Death: 9 November 959 Place of Death: Unknown Biography The only son of the Byzantine Emperor Leo VI by his fourth wife Zoe Carbonopsina, Constantine was made co-emperor as a child, probably on 15 May 908, and finally ruled as emperor from 945 to 959. From the age of 8 to 16 he was under the shadow of his mother, his uncle Alexander, the patriarch Nicolas Mysticus, and Romanus Lecapenus, and from 920 until 944 he was cut off from power, but then in 945 he expelled his co-rulers, Stephen and Constantine Lecapenus, and became emperor for the next 14 years.…


(43 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Foreword Abbreviations John Tolan, Introduction David Thomas, Muslim regard for Christians and Christianity Nicholas Drocourt, Christian–Muslim diplomatic relations. An overview of the main sources and themes of encounter (600–1000) Works on Christian-Muslim relations 900-1050 Index of names Index of works David Thomas


(48 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Foreword Abbreviations John Tolan, Introduction Marcus Bull, The Western narratives of the First Crusade David M. Freidenreich, Christians in early and classical Shīʿī law David M. Freidenreich, Muslims in Western canon law, 1000-1500 Works on Christian-Muslim relations 1050-1200 Index of names Index of works David Thomas

 Contra legem Saracenorum

(1,255 words)

Author(s): Burman, Thomas E.
Improbatio alcorani; Confutatio Alcorani; Confutatio legis late Sarrhacenis a maledicto Mahometo'Against the religion of the Saracens' Riccoldo da Monte di Croce

 Contra perfidiam Mahometi

(338 words)

Author(s): Mallett, Alex
‘Against the perfidy of Muḥammad’ Dionysius the Carthusian Date: Around 1452 Original Language: Latin Description This work was commissioned as part of a preaching tour conducted by Nicholas of Cusa (q.v.) across Germany in the early 1450s in an attempt to raise support for a crusade against the Ottomans. The tract itself contains two main sections; t…

 Contra principales errores perfidi Machometi

(572 words)

Author(s): Echevarria, Ana
Contra errores'Against the principal errors of the perfidious Muḥammad' Juan de Torquemada Date: 1459 Original Language: Latin Description In this work, which Torquemada wrote at the request of the pope as a preliminary report for the Council of Mantua, he follows a traditional scheme. After a few details about Muḥammad’s life, his prophethood and the nature of the Qur’an, the core of the treatise deals with the main arguments to refute Islam. Following this, Torquemada sets out 12 chara…

 Contra sectam Saracenorum

(908 words)

Author(s): Iogna-Prat & John Tolan, Dominque
Contra SaracenosAgainst the s…

 Coptic title: not preserved. Arabic: Sharḥ mujādalat abīnā l-ab al-baṭriyark anbā Yuʾannis baṭriyark Iskandariyya maʿa l-Yahūdī wa-l-Malikī ʿalā ayyām ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-malik bi-Miṣr

(786 words)

Author(s): Suermann, Harald
Explanation of the disputation of our father Patriarch John, patriarch of Alexandria, with the Jew and the Melkite in the days of ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz the king in EgyptThe Disputation of Patriarch John Unknown author Date: Unknown, possibly late 7th or 8th c. Original Language: Coptic Description This text, which survives in a number of fragments in Bohairic (without traces of Sahidic) as well as in Arabic, reports a discussion between the Coptic Patriarch John, a Jew and a Chalcedonian Christian in the presence of ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, the governor of Egypt. Graf identifies the patriarch as John III, who held office between 677 and 686, and ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz as the Umayyad governor of Egypt from 685-705. While an early dating is plausible, Davis, Orfali and Noble, Disputation over a fragment of the cross, argue on the basis of its literary character that the text w…

 Correspondence between ʿUmar II and Leo III

(1,819 words)

Author(s): Greenwood, Tim
- Unknown author Date: Unknown Original Language: Greek Description The authenticity of the exchange of correspondence between the Caliph ʿUmar II and the Byzantine Emperor Leo III preserved in the History of Ghewond (q.v. for biographical details) has long been a matter of contention. It remains unresolved. Some scholars, notably Gerö, maintain that the correspondence was originally composed in Armenian and so canno…

Corte imperial

(22 words)

Author(s): Barros, Filomena
Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Livro da Corte imperial Filomena Barros


(324 words)

Author(s): G.B. Teule, Herman
Creed ʿAbdishoʿ of Nisibis Date: 7 December 1298 Original Language: Arabic …

 Cribratio Alchorani

(738 words)

Author(s): Tolan, John
‘Sifting the Qur’an’ Nicholas of Cusa, Nicholas of Kues, Nicolaus Cusanus Date: 1461 Original Language: Latin Description The Cribratio is the fruit of long and careful studies of Islam: Nicholas had read Robert of Ketton’s translatio…

 Crónica do descobrimento & conquista da Guiné

(759 words)

Author(s): Tolan, John
Crónica do Guiné‘Chronicle of the discovery and conquest of Guinea’ Gomes Eanes de Zurara Date: 1453 Original Language: Portuguese Description Zurara composed his chronicle at the behest of King Afonso V of Portugal, to whom he dedicates the work. He relates the history of the expeditions along the west coast of Africa between 1434 and 1447, emphasizing the role played by the Portuguese kings and in particular by Prince Henry ‘the Navigator’. He describes how Prince Henry was driven by desire for glory, ambition fo…