Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: David Thomas, Alex Mallett
Associate Editors: Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala, Johannes Pahlitzsch, Barbara Roggema, Mark Swanson, Herman Teule and John Tolan
Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general online history of relations between the faiths. It covers the period from 600 to 1500, when encounters took place through the extended Mediterranean basin and are recorded in Syriac, Arabic, Greek, Latin and other languages. Christian Muslim Relations Online comprises introductory essays on the treatment of Christians in the Qur’an, Qur’an commentaries, biographies of the Prophet, Hadith and Sunni law, and of Muslims in canon law, and the main body of more than two hundred detailed entries on all the works recorded, whether surviving or lost.

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 Al-dhakhīra fī maḥāsin ahl al-Jazīra

(924 words)

Author(s): Meouak, Mohamed
Treasure, on the merits of the people of the Peninsula Ibn Bassām Date: Between 1100 and 1108-9 Original Language: Arabic Description The Dhakhīra is divided into four parts, on litterateurs ( udabā') and poets from Cordova, from western al-Andalus, from eastern al-Andalus, and from abroad. Within each part, Ibn Bassām arranges the contents according to litterateurs, secretaries, viziers and poets. Each chapter opens with a eulogy in which every kind of epistolary device is employed. Ibn Bassām frequently indicates his sources and changes in style and narrative. Despite its import…

Al-dhakhīra l-saniyya fī taʾrīkh al-dawla l-Marīniyya

(341 words)

Author(s): Ramírez del Río, José
Unknown author Date of Birth: Unknown; mid-13th century Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown; mid-14th century Place of Death: Unknown Biography Nothing is known about this author, though his 'History' itself is referred to in a number of medieval works. These, and modern works in which it mentioned, are listed below. Primary Sources of Information Al-Malzūzī, Naẓm al-sulūk fī dhikr al-anbiyāʾ wa-l-khulafāʾ wa-l-mulūk, ed. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb ibn Manṣūr, Rabat, 1963, pp. 98-101 Al-Bunnahī, Kitāb al-marqabat al-ʿ ulya, ed. E. Lévi-Provençal, Cairo, 1948, p. 133 Ibn ʿAbd al-Ma…

 Al-dhakhīra l-saniyya fī taʾrīkh al-dawla l-Marīniyya

(448 words)

Author(s): Ramírez del Río, José
‘The gleaming treasure, on the history of the Marīnid dynasty’ Al-dhakhīra l-saniyya fī taʾrīkh al-dawla l-Marīniyya Date: Early 14th century Original Language: Arabic Description This history was dedicated to the Marīnid Sultan Abū Saʿīd ʿUthmān II (1310-31). It traces Moroccan history from the rise the Banū Marīn to the reign of Abū Yūsuf Yaʿqūb ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq (1259-86), ending just before the year 1280. Its last four chapters, which are lost, presumably focused on the period 1280-1310. The work, which is nearly 240 pages long, offers a detailed account of the events…


(901 words)

Author(s): N. Swanson, Mark
Kitāb al-dhayl The 'History' or 'Chronicle' of Yaḥyā ibn Saʿīd ibn Yaḥyā al-Anṭākī, Sequel, History, Chronicle Yaḥyā ibn Saʿīd al-Anṭākī Date: Approximately 1006-34 Original Language: Arabic Description The Dhayl or ‘Sequel’ of Yaḥyā ibn Saʿīd ibn Yaḥyā al-Anṭākī is a chronology of the years 938-1034 which carefully follows the model of its predecessor, the Annals of Saʿīd ibn Baṭrīq. It is arranged by ruler, specifically, the Abbasid and Fatimid caliphs. It skillfully utilizes a wide range of sources, both Muslim and Byzantine (which have been car…

Dhikr bilād al-Andalus

(22 words)

Author(s): Penelas, Mayte
Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Dhikr bilād al-Andalus Mayte Penelas

 Dhikr bilād al-Andalus

(1,007 words)

Author(s): Penelas, Mayte
Tārīkh al-Andalus‘Description of the country of al-Andalus’‘History of al-Andalus’ Dhikr bilād al-Andalus Date: Mid-14th - late 15th century Original Language: Arabic Description Dhikr bilād al-Andalus is divided into two distinct parts, on the geography of the Iberian Peninsula and on the history of al-Andalus. The historical section, with which this entry deals, occupies 43 folios of the sole complete known manuscript, two other copies being incomplete. The original title of the work is unknown. The name by which it is known was given on account of the begin…


(2,912 words)

Author(s): Ulbricht, Manolis
Dialogue of the monk Euthymius with a Saracen Euthymius the monk Date: Maybe after 1110/13 and before 1129-46, or 1st half of the 13th century Original Language: Greek Description Almost all the six manuscripts give this work different titles. In addition, Papabasileios and Trapp quote the manuscripts in different ways, producing a confusing number of variants. Since Papabasileios apparently did not inspect the manuscripts but quotes some older works on them, Trapp’s information is to be preferred. The variations between the titles are set out below: MS Hieros. Sab. – 697 (A) Dialexis …

 Dialexis Sarakēnou kai Christianou

(1,082 words)

Author(s): Schadler, Peter
The Dialogue between a Saracen and a Christian Uncertain author Date: Unknown, probably second half of the 8th c. Original Language: Greek Description This work, which has long been associated with John of Damascus, is a dialogue between a Christian and a Saracen about the cause of good and evil, and the difference between the uncreated Word of God and the created words of God. It explores the subjects of God's omnipotence and man's free will, the uncreated or created nature of God's word, the death of Mary, and the relation of Jesus to John the Baptist.   The work exists in several variatio…

 Dialogi contra Iudeos

(1,467 words)

Author(s): Tolan, John
Dialogues against the Jews Petrus Alfonsi Date: 1110 Original Language: Latin Description In 1110 Petrus Alfonsi composed his Dialogi contra Iudaeos (‘Dialogues against the Jews’). He wrote the Dialogues, he says, because Jews accused him of having abandoned his former faith out of contempt for God’s law, misunderstanding of the prophets, and lust for worldly gain. The Dialogues are his response to these accusers; he seeks to ‘destroy their objections with reason and authority’. These Dialogues do not pretend to be the record of a real debate; he tells us that he has g…

 Dialogos Theodōrou tou gegonotos episkopou Karōn, to epiklen Aboukara, genomenos pros ton tou dromou Emeses aitesamenon apodexin apodothēnai auto apo logismou hoti esti Theos

(554 words)

Author(s): Lamoreaux, John C.
A Dialogue between Theodore, Bishop of Ḥarrān, called Abū Qurra, and the master of the post of Emesa, who asked him to prove through reason alone that God exists (opusculum 3) Theodore Abū Qurra Date: Late 8th or early 9th c. Original Language: Greek Description A number of topics are treated in this dialogue between Abū Qurra and an unbeliever. It opens with arguments designed to prove that there is a God. These arguments mostly turn on the impossibility of an infinite regress. It next argues that this God must have a co-eternal Son, in t…

 Dialogus disputationis inter Christianum et Sarracenum

(175 words)

Author(s): Mallett, Alex
'Dialogue of a dispute between a Christian and a Muslim' Dionysius the Carthusian Date: Mid-15th century Original Language: Latin Description This tract is an (almost certainly fictitious) account of a dispute between a Christian and a Muslim. In style it follows quite closely earlier Eastern Christian works in the genre of ‘the monk in the emir’s majlis’, although it transposes the debate to Europe. As might be expected, the Muslim eventually acknowledges the correctness of Christianity. Significance The style of this tract shows how Eastern Christian responses to Islam…

 Didaskalia Iakōbou neobaptistou, ‘Doctrina Iacobi nuper baptizati’,  ‘Teachings of Jacob, the newly baptized’

(892 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes
- Unknown author Date: 634 (Hoyland, p. 58) / 640s (Déroche and Dagron, p. 247) / 7th century (Speck, pp. 268-69) Original Language: Greek Description The Doctrina Jacobi is an anti-Jewish treatise purportedly composed in Africa in 634 against the background of Heraclius' order to compel all Jews to convert to Christianity. The text consists of a fictitious dialogue between the Jewish merchant Jacob and his cousin Justus, who was from Palestine. During a business trip to Carthage, Jacob was forcibly baptized, but he was s…

 Diegēmata psychōphelē kai steriktika genomena en diaphorois topois epi tōn hēmeterōn chronōn

(948 words)

Author(s): Binggeli, A.
NarrationesEdifying and supportive tales which occurred in various places in our times Anastasius of Sinai Date: Unknown, c.690 Original Language: Greek Description The first editor of this collection of edifying stories, Nau, used a manuscript containing only nine stories and the general prologue. From what can be reconstituted using other manuscripts and translations into Arabic, the original collection contained at least 28 stories (50 pp.), very much in the spirit of the narratives found in the Pratum Spirituale of John Moschus. Anastasius collected all these stories…

 Diēgēsis martyros en tois hēmeterois martyrēsantos chronois

(1,212 words)

Author(s): Sokolov , Kostadin
'Account of a martyr who witnessed [to Christ] in our days' Life of George the Younger Date: Between 26 March 1437 and June 1439 Original Language: Greek Description The account has been preserved only in codex Marcianus II 50, a Greek manuscript from the 16th century. Although this text was already known to earlier scholars, such as H. Delehaye (‘Catalogus codicum’, pp. 209-10) and F. Halkin ( BHG 3, p. 30, no. 2160), it was only edited for the first time in 1964 by C. Patrinelēs (‘Mia anekdotē’, pp. 67-73). All modern translations and editions of the account are based on this edition. The anony…

 Diēgēsis peri tēs teleutaias halōseōs tēs Thessalonikēs syntetheisa pros tina tōn axiologōn pollakis aitēsanta peri tautēs, en epitomō

(686 words)

Author(s): Mitsiou, Ekaterini
'The account by John Anagnostes of the last capture of Thessalonica, composed for a person of importance who has often asked for it, in an abbreviated form' John Anagnostes Date: Some years after 29 March 1430 Original Language: Greek Description The work, which covers pages 2-68 in Tsaras’ edition, is an eye-witness account of the sack of the city of Thessaloniki. Tsaras ( Hē teleutaia halosē, pp. xiii-xviii) argues that John’s own account stops suddenly with the capture of the city, and that it was later completed by another writer who also composed the Mon…

 Diēgesis peri tōn hēmerōn tou Antichristou to pōs mellei genesthai kai peri tēs synteleias tou aiōnos

(1,221 words)

Author(s): Ubierna, Pablo
Diegesis DanielisTou en hagiois patros hēmon Methodiou episkopou logos peri tōn eschatou hēmerōn kai peri tou AntichristouThe Account of the days of the Antichrist and how it will be and of the completion of time, The Greek Apocalypse of DanielThe Sermon of our father Bishop Methodius who in among the saints, about the last of the days and the Antichrist, The Narration of Daniel about the days of the Antichrist and the end of times Unknown author Date: Early 9th c. Original Language: Greek Description This text is extant in two manuscripts (14th-16th c.), neither of which actually name…

 Diēgēsis peri tou en Kōnstantinoupolei gegonotos polemou

(975 words)

Author(s): Kolditz, Sebastian
'Narration of the fighting that took place in Constantinople' Iōannēs Kananos Date: Soon after 1422 Original Language: Greek Description Cananus’s entire diēgēsis is devoted to Murad II’s siege of Constantinople in 1422. He starts with forays against the city’s surroundings by an Ottoman force of 10,000 and the beginning of the siege on 6 June. Ten days later Sultan Murad arrives with a second force made up of warriors from many Muslim countries who had responded to his appeal. One major participant, called ‘Mērsait…

Digenēs Akritēs

(43 words)

Author(s): Jeffreys, Elizabeth
Unknown author Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown Place of Death: Unknown Biography - Primary Sources of Information - Secondary Sources of Information - Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Digenēs Akritēs (see below) Elizabeth Jeffreys

 Digenēs Akritēs (see below)

(1,805 words)

Author(s): Jeffreys, Elizabeth
DigenēsDigenēs Akrites Digenēs Akritēs Date: Approximately 1135 (see below) Original Language: Greek Description The title in the two primary manuscripts of this anonymous work (Grottaferrata, Escorial) is lost. In later manuscripts it appears as Deka logoi peri tou Digenous Akritou (‘Ten books on Digenes Akrites’; Athens/Andros, and possibly Trebizond and Thessaloniki, both now acephalic), and Diēgēsis horaiotatē tou andreiomenou Digenē (‘Very delightful tale of brave Digenes’; Oxford). Some editions use the invented title Basileios Digenēs Akritēs. The text is genera…


(153 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Sharaf al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Muʾmin ibn Khalaf ibn Abī-l-Hasan al-Dimyāṭī Date of Birth: 1217 Place of Birth: Island of Tūnā near Damietta Date of Death: 1306 Place of Death: Cairo Biography Al-Dimyāṭī was known as a leading traditionist in 13th-century Egypt. As a young man he travelled throughout the Middle East in search of traditions, and later settled in Cairo, where he taught at leading institutions. Primary Sources of Information Al-Subkī, Ṭabaqāt al-Shāfiʿiyya, 6 vols in 3, Cairo, 1906, vi, pp. 132-41 Al-Dhahabī, Tadhkirat al-ḥuffāẓ, 4 vols in 2, Hyderabad, 1897, i…
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