Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: David Thomas, Alex Mallett
Associate Editors: Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala, Johannes Pahlitzsch, Barbara Roggema, Mark Swanson, Herman Teule and John Tolan
Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general online history of relations between the faiths. It covers the period from 600 to 1500, when encounters took place through the extended Mediterranean basin and are recorded in Syriac, Arabic, Greek, Latin and other languages. Christian Muslim Relations Online comprises introductory essays on the treatment of Christians in the Qur’an, Qur’an commentaries, biographies of the Prophet, Hadith and Sunni law, and of Muslims in canon law, and the main body of more than two hundred detailed entries on all the works recorded, whether surviving or lost.

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 Eis tēn halōsin tēs Thessalonikēs syngrapheis para tou Kouboukleisiou Iōannou tou Kaminiatou

(823 words)

Author(s): Martin Hoffman, Lars
The sack of Thessaloniki written by the Kouboukleisios John Caminiates, The sack of Thessaloniki John Caminiates Date: Approximately 905-10 Original Language: Greek Description John Caminiates’ account is the only detailed report in Greek of the sack of Thessaloniki by the Arabs. There are also references in other Greek sources, as well as in Arabic texts, some of them dating the capture of the city to 903. John’s is a typical Byzantine report about a sack of a city, and it only stands out from other accounts like it …

 Eis ton neon martyra Michaēl

(1,745 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes
‘On Michael the new martyr’ Theodore Metochites Date: Between 1305 and 1324 Original Language: Greek Description Metochites’ rhetorical writings were collected during his own lifetime (according to Ševčenko, Etudes, commissioned and redacted by Metochites himself); they are to be found in Codex Philosophicus Graecus 95, in the Vienna State Library. It seems that the works are, at least more or less, in chronological order. The oration on the neomartyr Michael of Alexandria (in the MS margin the explanatory note appears: Eis ton hagion martyra Michaēl ton neon ton kat’ Aigyp…

 Ekthesis kataskeuastikē meta apodeixeōs tou Christianikou dogmatos ek koinōn ennoiōn kai dialektikēs methodou kai physikōn epicheirēmatōn kai syllogistikēs polytechnias proagomenē kai antirrhēsis tēs staleisēs epistolēs ek tōn Agarēnōn pros Michaēl basilea hyion Theophilou epi diabolē tēs tōn Christianōn pisteōs

(410 words)

Author(s): Rigo, Antonio
Positive exposition of Christian doctrine, developed from general concepts by means of dialectical method, rational arguments, and multiple syllogistic proofs, followed by a confutation of the letter sent by the Hagarenes to the Emperor Michael, son of Theophilus, in order to slander the Christian faith Nicetas Byzantios, Nicetas of Byzantium Date: About 860 Original Language: Greek Description In his reply to the letter sent to Constantinople by the ʿAbbasid court, Nicetas particularly refutes the points which deny the divinity of Christ and proclaim…

 Ek tōn pros tous Sarakēnous antirrhēseōn tou episkopou Theodōrou Charran, to epiklen Aboukara, dia phonēs Ioannou Diakonou

(926 words)

Author(s): Lamoreaux, John C.
Refutations of the Saracens by Bishop Theodore of Ḥarrān, called Abū Qurra, as reported by John the Deacon Theodore Abū Qurra Date: 9th c.? (compiled possibly during the lifetime of Abū Qurra) Original Language: Greek Description This work opens with a short preface from the hand of a certain John the Deacon, who records that in his writings Abū Qurra 'worthily held up to public scorn the impious religion of the Agarenes' and further claims himself often to have been present when Abū Qurra debated with Muslims. He states that assa…

Elias II, Ibn al-Muqlī

(313 words)

Author(s): G.B. Teule, Herman
Biography Elias II is one of the lesser known patriarchs of the (‘Nestorian’) Church of the East. The patriarchal chronicles found in the two important theological encyclopedias, Kitāb al-majdal (‘The tower’) (q.v.) and Asfār al-asrār (‘The books of secrets’) (q.v.), mention him as metropolitan of Ḥazza/Irbil and Mosul before his patriarchal election. His consecration took place in the church of al-Madā’in in 1111, a service attended by several metropolitans and bishops, and also some medical doctors from the capital. Apart from…

Elias of Nisibis

(565 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Iliyyā ibn Shīnā, Bar Shīnāyā Date of Birth: 11 February 975 Place of Birth: Al-Sinn, Shennā (Syriac) Date of Death: 18 July 1046 Place of Death: Mayyāfāriqīn Biography The Nestorian Elias of Nisibis is undoubtedly the most significant eastern Christian writer of the 11th century. His reputation spread throughout the Islamic world for his expertise in medicine, mathematics, philosophy and philology, for his deep knowledge of Christian and Muslim theology, and for his participation in a series of sessions ( majālis) with the Muslim vizier Abū l-Qāsim al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī al-Ma…

 ʿEltā d-mawteh d-Muḥammad

(481 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
The affair of the death of Muḥammad Unknown author Date: Unknown, perhaps 8th/9th c. Original Language: Syriac Description This short polemical tale is to be found as an appendix to the East-Syrian recension of the Legend of Sergius Baḥīrā (q.v.). It relates how the Jew Kaʿb al-Aḥbār told Muḥammad's followers that their prophet was the Paraclete promised by Christ and that on the third day after his death he would rise up and go to heaven, to Christ who sent him. It explains that history proved Kaʿb wrong: when Muḥammad died, his fo…

 ʿEltā d-Quran

(462 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
The affair of the Qurʾān Unknown author Date: Unknown, probably 8th or 9th c. Original Language: Syriac Description This short polemical tale, which is to be found as an appendix to the East-Syrian recension of the Legend of Sergius Baḥīrā (q.v.), deals with the alleged corruption of the text of the Qurʾān during the first century of Islam. It begins with a description of how the Jew Kaʿb al-Aḥbār inserted his beliefs into the scripture originally written by the Syrian monk Sergius Baḥīrā, particularly beliefs about the lex talionis and divorce laws. He also allegedly spread the be…

Embrico of Mainz

(100 words)

Author(s): Tolan, John
Biography What little we know about Embrico is gleaned from the text of the Vita Mahumeti and from the Vita auctoris, a brief poem which states that the author of the Vita Mahumeti is named Embrico and is from Mainz.  It may well be the same Embrico who served as treasurer of Mainz cathedral from 1090 until 1112.  Primary Sources of Information Vita auctoris (Life of the author), contemporary Latin poem (edition and French trans. in Cambier, 'Embricon de Mayence', p. 469) Secondary Sources of Information See below Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Vita Mahumeti John Tolan