Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: David Thomas, Alex Mallett
Associate Editors: Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala, Johannes Pahlitzsch, Barbara Roggema, Mark Swanson, Herman Teule and John Tolan
Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general online history of relations between the faiths. It covers the period from 600 to 1500, when encounters took place through the extended Mediterranean basin and are recorded in Syriac, Arabic, Greek, Latin and other languages. Christian Muslim Relations Online comprises introductory essays on the treatment of Christians in the Qur’an, Qur’an commentaries, biographies of the Prophet, Hadith and Sunni law, and of Muslims in canon law, and the main body of more than two hundred detailed entries on all the works recorded, whether surviving or lost.

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Fidentius of Padua

(329 words)

Author(s): Paviot, Jacques
Biography On the evidence of his name, Fidentius was born in Padua or its surroundings (or alternatively he was from the Franciscan convent there). In July 1266, he was vicar of the Franciscan province of the Holy Land – a function for which one had to be 40 years old. That year, at the request of the grand master of the Temple, he sent two friars to Safed castle, which was under siege by Baybars. Two years later, he was in Tripoli, where he read a prophetic book, the Liber Clementis, brought to him by a Syrian Christian. After the fall of Antioch (18 May 1268), he went to Baybars’ e…

 Fīhi mā fīhi

(556 words)

Author(s): Lewisohn, Leonard
'What is in it is in it', 'Discourses' Mawlānā Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī Date: Before 1273 Original Language: Arabic Description In Rūmī’s Discourses, or Fīhi mā fīhi, a miscellany of 71 of his lectures or extemporaneous talks gathered together by an unknown compiler after his death, several well-known anecdotes about Jesus from the Qur’an are related that expound a sort of Sufi esoteric Christianity (cf. Lewisohn, ‘The esoteric Christianity of Islam’). One finds this, for instance, in Rūmī’s belief in the existence of an interior Jesus within each person, who must be born again ( Fīhi mā fīhi, p.…

 Fī l-ittiḥād

(153 words)

Author(s): N. Swanson, Mark
On the Union [of divinity and humanity in Christ] Sāwīrus ibn al-Muqaffaʿ Date: Unknown; mid or late 10th century Original Language: Arabic Description MZ no. 2, HP no. 2. This work is lost. While the title may refer especially to a topic of Christian intra-confessional disagreement, it is unlikely that Sāwīrus would have ignored Islamic critiques of Christian doctrines about Christ. It is not impossible that this title is a doublet, and that it and Īḍāḥ al-itthād (see below) refer to one and the same (lost) work. Significance The proper description of Christ’s simultaneous divinit…

 Firdaws al-Naṣrāniyya

(809 words)

Author(s): Faultless, Julian
The paradise of Christianity Ibn al-Ṭayyib Date: After 1018 Original Language: Arabic Description Firdaws al-Naṣrāniyya is a complete commentary on the Bible. The beginning of the introduction to the work is lost, but in the section that survives Ibn al-Ṭayyib launches a stinging attack on his ecclesiastical contemporaries. In this same section, he implies that his sources are not Arabic, and they are therefore presumably Syriac. Indeed, Sanders has noted Syriacisms in the language of the commentary ( Commentaire, text vol., pp. ii-iii). Ibn al-Ṭayyib also states that the…

 Fī l-tawḥīd

(235 words)

Author(s): N. Swanson, Mark
On the unicity [of God] Sāwīrus ibn al-Muqaffaʿ Date: Unknown; mid or late 10th century Original Language: Arabic Description MZ no. 1, HP no. 1. This lost work is cited (though whether as a past or a future work is not clear) in the second chapter of Miṣbāḥ al-ʿaql (see below), where the reader is referred to it for quotations from Greek sages (Hermes, Plato, Pythagorus, and others) that bear witness to the Trinity. Without a doubt, Sāwīrus’ treatment of the Christian doctrine of God engaged the debates of Muslim scholars (including the phil…