Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: David Thomas, Alex Mallett
Associate Editors: Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala, Johannes Pahlitzsch, Barbara Roggema, Mark Swanson, Herman Teule and John Tolan
Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general online history of relations between the faiths. It covers the period from 600 to 1500, when encounters took place through the extended Mediterranean basin and are recorded in Syriac, Arabic, Greek, Latin and other languages. Christian Muslim Relations Online comprises introductory essays on the treatment of Christians in the Qur’an, Qur’an commentaries, biographies of the Prophet, Hadith and Sunni law, and of Muslims in canon law, and the main body of more than two hundred detailed entries on all the works recorded, whether surviving or lost.

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Gomes Eanes de Zurara

(303 words)

Author(s): Tolan, John
Biography The illegitimate son of a canon of Coimbra and Evora, Gomes Eanes de Zurara worked at the court of King Duarte of Portugal (1433-38) as a curator of the royal archives. During the reign of Afonso V (1438-81), he was knighted and eventually became the kingdom’s chief chronicler. He composed a number of chronicles narrating the reigns of the Portuguese kings and in particular their conquests in North Africa (in one of these, Crónica da Tomada de Ceuta, ed. R Brasil, Lisbon, 1992, pp. 271-…

 Greek translation of Riccoldo da Monte di Croce, Libellus (or Tractatus) contra legem Saracenorum

(1,298 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz
'Against the religion of the Saracens' Demetrius Cydones Date: Between 1360 and 1369 Original Language: Greek Description The Greek title of this work is given in different forms: 1. Rikardou anaskeuē tēs para tou kataratou Mouchamet tois Sarakinois tetheisēs nomothesias, metenechtheisēs de ek tēs Italikēs dialektou eis tēn Hellada dia tinos Dēmētriou. ‘Refutation, written by Ricardus, against the law, imposed on the Saracens by the damned Muḥammad, translated from the Italian to the Greek dialect by a certain Demetrius’. This, perhaps the earli…

 Α Greek translation of the Qurʾan

(935 words)

Author(s): Simelidis, Christos
Α Greek translation of the Qurʾan Unknown Date: First half of the 9th century Original Language: Greek DescriptionIn his  Refutation of the book fabricated by the Arab Muḥammad, Nicetas of Byzantium (fl. c. 860-85) quotes about 230 verses of the Qurʾan in Greek translation. The translator was not Nicetas himself, since Nicetas sometimes misunderstands the Greek translation or wants to elevate its vernacular language. A small number of qurʾanic verses are also cited in the Anathemas of the conversion ritual for Muslims wis…

Gregory Dekapolites

(346 words)

Author(s): Sahas, Daniel J.
Biography The source of information about Gregory is a Life written by a certain Ignatius, ‘deacon and sacristan of the Great Church of God’ (Constantinople), later professor of rhetoric at the patriarchal school of St Sophia, bishop of Nicea from 845, and author of Lives of other moderate iconophile personalities such as the Patriarchs Tarasius (784-806) and Nicephorus I of Constantinople (806-15). He tells how early in his youth Gregory left the world for an ascetic and monastic life. During the reign of the iconoclast Emperor Theophilus (829-42), he emb…

Gregory of Tat‘ew

(797 words)

Author(s): La Porta, Sergio
Grigor Tat‘ewats‘i, Krikor Dat‘evats‘i Date of Birth: 1344 Place of Birth: Either the fortress of T‘mok‘/T‘mogvi, Georgia, or in Vayots‘ Dzor, Armenia Date of Death: 1409 Place of Death: Monastery of Tat‘ew Biography Gregory of Tat‘ew was an Armenian Apostolic monk and director of the school at the Monastery of Tat‘ew in the Armenian province of Siwnik‘. According to Gregory’s student, Matthew of Jugha (Matt‘ēos Jughayets‘i), Gregory was born in the Georgian fortress of T‘mok‘/T‘mogvi and raised by his brother at the court of K…

Gregory Palamas

(742 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes
Grēgorios Palamas Date of Birth: 1294 Place of Birth: Constantinople Date of Death: 14 November 1359 Place of Death: Thessaloniki Biography Gregory Palamas was born in 1294 (this is according to Beyer, PLP; the traditional dating is 1296) in Constantinople, the son of a senator. Since his father was also the teacher of the grandson of the Emperor Andronicus II Palaeologus, Palamas was brought up in the imperial court. At the age of about 20, however, he left the capital for Mount Athos to become a monk. After spending about si…

Gregory the Cellarer

(254 words)

Author(s): Schadler, Peter
Grēgorios ho kellaritēs, Gregorius monachus, Gregory the Monk, Gregory the Galesiote Date of Birth: After 967 Place of Birth: Constantinople Date of Death: Between 1058 and 1100 Place of Death: Unknown, probably Mt Galesion near Ephesus Biography Almost nothing is known about Gregory, except what he reveals about himself in the Vita he wrote. Born in Constantinople and generally well educated, he was a younger disciple of Lazarus, and became a monk at the Resurrection Monastery at Galesion sometime after 1030. He served as trapezopios and then later cellarer of the monastery. …

Gregory VII

(1,637 words)

Author(s): Mastnak, Tomaž
Pope Gregory VII, Hildebrand Date of Birth: About 1020-25 Place of Birth: Unknown, possibly Sovana in southern Tuscany Date of Death: May 25 1085 Place of Death: Salerno Biography Hildebrand’s family background and early life remain obscure. He was of modest origins but did not grow up in destitution. He later claimed that, as a child, he had been schooled at Rome. His education was completed in the Lateran palace with boys from leading Roman families and he most probably became a monk in his adolescence. He entered the pap…

Grigor Magistros

(1,551 words)

Author(s): van Lint, Theo Maarten
Grigor Magistros Pahlawuni, Grigor Magistros Pahlavuni Date of Birth: Approximately 990 Place of Birth: Bĵni, valley of the Hrazdan river, province of Nig, region of Ayrarat, Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia Date of Death: 1058/1059 Place of Death: Tarōn Biography Grigor Magistros Pahlawuni was born c. 990 on the family estate of Bĵni near Ani, the capital of the Bagratid Armenian kingdom, and died in Tarōn, west of Lake Van, c. 1058. He was an erudite layman and is primarily known for his unique corpus of 88 letters, which follow pattern…

Guibert of Nogent

(231 words)

Author(s): Tolan, John
Guibertus abbas Novigentis, Guibert de Nogent Date of Birth: Uncertain, about 1060 Place of Birth: Clermont en Beauvais Date of Death: Uncertain, about 1125 Place of Death: Probably Nogent Biography Born into a family of minor Picard nobility, Guibert became a monk at the monastery of St Germer en Fly, and subsequently was elected abbot of Nogent sous Coucy, where he remained until his death.  He is best known for a fairly prolific and idiosyncratic collection of written works, including exegesis (focusing on tropological or…

Guido Terrena de Perpignan

(259 words)

Author(s): Tolan, John
Guido Terrena Date of Birth: Last quarter of the 13th century Place of Birth: Perpignan Date of Death: 21 August 1342 Place of Death: Probably Avignon Biography Guido Terrena studied theology in Paris, obtaining the degree of magister theologiae in 1312. He subsequently became regent master, then provincial of the Carmelites. He was general prior of the order from 1318 to 1321, then bishop of Majorca from 1321 to 1332, and afterwards Elna from 1332 to 1342. Guido was the author of a number of treatises on theology, philosophy and canon law, in particular commentaries: on Peter Lombard’s Sent…