Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: David Thomas, Alex Mallett
Associate Editors: Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala, Johannes Pahlitzsch, Barbara Roggema, Mark Swanson, Herman Teule and John Tolan
Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general online history of relations between the faiths. It covers the period from 600 to 1500, when encounters took place through the extended Mediterranean basin and are recorded in Syriac, Arabic, Greek, Latin and other languages. Christian Muslim Relations Online comprises introductory essays on the treatment of Christians in the Qur’an, Qur’an commentaries, biographies of the Prophet, Hadith and Sunni law, and of Muslims in canon law, and the main body of more than two hundred detailed entries on all the works recorded, whether surviving or lost.

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(547 words)

Author(s): Binggeli, A.
Viae duxGuidebook Anastasius of Sinai Date: Unknown, probably around 680-90 Original Language: Greek Description The Hodegos, considered as Anastasius' main opus (320 pp.), is a handbook of argumentation and refutation of heresies, especially Monophysitism and Monothelitism, and a guide to Chalcedonian orthodoxy. There has been much discussion over its author and the date of composition. Sakkos, partly followed by Chrysos, has argued that the author is to be identified with Anastasius II, Patriarch of Antioch,…

 Ho kata tōn Sarakēnōn logos

(236 words)

Author(s): Salzmann, Miriam
Speech against the Saracens John Siceliotes Date: Unknown; late 10th or early 11th century Original Language: Greek Description We know of Siceliotes' speech against the Saracens only from one of his other works, his scholia to the Peri ide ōn ('On the ideas') of Hermogenes (Walz, Rhetores Graeci, vi, p. 447), where he says he delivered this speech in the presence of some dignitary (probably a member of the Senate). He emphasizes that it was a speech that arose from the occasion, neither invented ( proskepsamenos) nor practiced ( promelet ēsas) beforehand. So it is not, as Krumbacher…

Hrotsvit of Gandersheim

(611 words)

Author(s): McMillin, Linda A.
Hrotsvit of Gandersheim, Hroswitha, Hrosvit, Roswitha Date of Birth: Approximately 935 Place of Birth: Saxony Date of Death: Approximately 1000 Place of Death: Gandersheim, between the dioceses of Hildesheim and Mainz Biography Hrotsvit lived as a canoness at the abbey of Gandersheim where she was a prolific writer and playwright. Little is known about the details of her life aside from a small number of biographical clues contained within her writings. An independent Benedictine community of women, both nuns and canonesses, G…

Hugh of Flavigny

(697 words)

Author(s): Healy, Patrick
Biography The historian Hugh of Flavigny was born in either 1064 or 1065 in the region around Verdun, which was then part of the duchy of Upper Lotharingia. He entered the monastery of St-Vanne, Verdun, during the abbacy of Rudolf, which began on 25 May 1076. Hugh was devoted to Abbot Rudolf and shared his enthusiasm for the church reform program that was formulated in the pontificate of Gregory VII (1073-85). It was because of this devotion to reform that Abbot Rudolf and 40 of his monks – Hugh …

Hugh of Fleury

(1,016 words)

Author(s): Mégier and Martin de Ruiter , Elisabeth
Hugo monachus Floriacensis, Hugo a Sancta Maria Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Uncertain; maybe Cotentin, Normandy Date of Death: Approximately 1120 Place of Death: St-Benoît-sur-Loire, Loiret Biography Hugh, who may have been of Norman origin (Berland, ‘Les prieurés’, p. 124), lived, worked and died as a monk of the Benedictine Abbey of Fleury-sur-Loire. His literary works, and their dedicatees, show his ties to the family of William the Conqueror and his interest in the issue of the investiture contest. In his treatise De regia potestate et sacerdotali dignitate (1102), de…

 Ḥujaj al-milla l-Ḥanīfiyya wa-jawāb kull suʾāl

(417 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
‘Proofs for the Ḥanīfī community and an answer to every question’ Ḥujaj al-milla l-Ḥanīfiyya wa-jawāb kull suʾāl Date: 1455 Original Language: Arabic Description While not excessively long, at 63 folios Ḥujaj al-milla is not insubstantial, though according to Fritsch, Islam und Christentum, pp. 36-38, it is of questionable quality because it repeats many familiar issues and themes from earlier times. A note indicates that it was written in 1455 for Mehmed II, only two years after he had conquered Constantinople. The work comprises three parts, in the first of which Christia…

Ḥujaj al-milla l-Ḥanīfiyya wa-jawāb kull suʾāl

(28 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Ḥujaj al-milla l-Ḥanīfiyya wa-jawāb kull suʾāl David Thomas


(422 words)

Author(s): El Hour, Rachid
Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn Abī Naṣr Futūḥ al-Azdī l-Ḥumaydī l-Ẓāhirī Date of Birth: Before 1029 Place of Birth: Al-Bulayda, Majorca Date of Death: 17 December 1095 Place of Death: Baghdad Biography Al-Ḥumaydī was born on the island of Majorca, and began his education when he was only five years old. Among his teachers were Abū l-Qāsim Aṣbagh, who taught him in 1035-36, Abū Zayd al-Qayrawānī, who taught him his famous Risāla and the Mukhtaṣar al-Mudawwana (‘The abridgement of the Mudawwana’), and Ibn Ḥazm, who became his close friend. During the period of his education, al-Ḥumaydī t…

Ḥumayd ibn Saʿīd ibn Bakhtiyār

(282 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Ḥumayd ibn Bakhtiyār Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown, possibly mid-9th c. Place of Death: Unknown Biography Ibn al-Nadīm lists Ḥumayd ibn Saʿīd among theologians who may have been Muʿtazilī or Murji'ī. Since many of these died in the early 10th century, Ḥumayd would appear to have died at the same time. However, Van Ess ( TG iv, p. 132) identifies him as the Ḥumayd ibn Saʿīd ibn Ḥumayd ibn Baḥr who is mentioned by Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī as being imprisoned under the Caliph al-Wāthiq (842-47), which means that he may have lived half a century earlier than the F…

Humbert of Romans

(751 words)

Author(s): Burman, Thomas E.
Biography Born in the Dauphiné region of south-eastern France, Humbert of Romans went to the University of Paris in the 1220s, and entered the Dominican Order in 1224. He was sent to the convent of Lyons and had become prior there by 1237, and he may have gone on pilgrimage to the Middle East within the following few years. In about 1240, he was given charge over the Roman province of the Dominicans, and then in 1244 over the province of France. In 1254, he was elected master general of the order…