Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: David Thomas, Alex Mallett
Associate Editors: Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala, Johannes Pahlitzsch, Barbara Roggema, Mark Swanson, Herman Teule and John Tolan
Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general online history of relations between the faiths. It covers the period from 600 to 1500, when encounters took place through the extended Mediterranean basin and are recorded in Syriac, Arabic, Greek, Latin and other languages. Christian Muslim Relations Online comprises introductory essays on the treatment of Christians in the Qur’an, Qur’an commentaries, biographies of the Prophet, Hadith and Sunni law, and of Muslims in canon law, and the main body of more than two hundred detailed entries on all the works recorded, whether surviving or lost.

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(226 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Claudia
Nikēphoros, Nicephorus Date of Birth: Probably 10th century Place of Birth: Unknown; maybe Constantinople Date of Death: Unknown Place of Death: Unknown; maybe Constantinople Biography Nicephorus was a priest in the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. He is the author of the Life of St Andrew the fool, in which he says that he personally met the holy man and his pupil Epiphanius. Although the text suggests that Epiphanius is the patriarch of the same name who lived in the 6th century, we know from other passages that the version that has come down to us was finished in the 10th century. W…

Nicephorus Gregoras

(552 words)

Author(s): Heilo, Olof
Nikēphoros Grēgoras Date of Birth: About 1295 Place of Birth: Herakleia Pontike Date of Death: About 1360 Place of Death: Constantinople Biography Orphaned at an early age, Gregoras was brought up by his uncle, Bishop John of Heraclea, who also gave him his first formal education. In 1315, when he was about 20 years old, he was sent to Constantinople, where Patriarch John XIII Glycys (1315-19) taught him grammar, literature and logic. Living in the Monastery of Chora, he became the disciple of Theodore Metochites (12…

Nicetas Byzantios, Nicetas of Byzantium

(595 words)

Author(s): Rigo, Antonio
Nicetas of Byzantium Date of Birth: Unknown, probably 1st half 9th c. Place of Birth: Unknown, perhaps Constantinople Date of Death: Unknown, probably late 9th c. Place of Death: Unknown Biography The only information on the life of Nicetas, who is remembered as philosophos, didaskalos and patrikios, can be gathered from his works and the manuscripts which contain them. A first piece of evidence is supplied by a note found in a group of manuscripts that contain the Twenty-four syllogistic chapters on the procession of the Holy Spirit (J. Hergenröther, Monumenta graeca ad Photium ejus…

Nicetas Choniates

(488 words)

Author(s): Zorzi, Niccolò
Nikētas Chōniatēs Date of Birth: About 1155 Place of Birth: Chōnai, near ancient Colossae, today Honaz Date of Death: 1217 Place of Death: Nicea Biography Nicetas was born in Chōnai, in Phrygia (hence his name Chōniates, sometimes incorrectly given as Akominatos or Acominatus), in about 1155. When he was nine he moved to Constantinople, where his brother Michael (c. 1138-1222), who in 1182 would become metropolitan of Athens, was already resident. Nothing is known of his teachers. He entered the imperial bureaucracy, pr…

Nicetas Clericus

(196 words)

Author(s): Pratsch, Thomas
Nikētas Klērikos Date of Birth: Between about 900 and 920 Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Between 950 and 1000 Place of Death: Unknown Biography In 947, the imperial cleric ( vasilikos klērikos) Nicetas, in a letter to the Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus, described a confrontation between the Patriarch of Jerusalem, Christodoulus, and Muslims in the city over the celebration of Easter. It had broken out when the Muslims doubted the miracle of the fire on Holy Saturday. Nicetas had been present at this ceremony, when he took a gift of money from the emperor to the patriarch. Pri…

Nicholas of Amiens

(172 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Mechthild
Nicholaus (Nycolaus) Ambianensis Date of Birth: 1147 Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: After 1203 Place of Death: Unknown Biography Few details of Nicholas' life are known. He was presumably a pupil of Gilbert of Poitiers or of Alain of Lille, and was thus connected with the School of Chartres. Some sources mention him as the author of commentaries on Gilbert's writings. He certainly wrote the Chronica Latina, and his best known work was the Ars catholicae fidei, a systematic theology. Primary Sources of Information Chronica Latina, MGH SS 6, pp. 473-74 (repr. in M.-T. d’Alverny, Alain…

Nicholas of Cusa, Nicholas of Kues, Nicolaus Cusanus

(573 words)

Author(s): Tolan, John
Nicholas of Cusa Date of Birth: 1401 Place of Birth: Kues Date of Death: 11 August 1464 Place of Death: Todi, Italy Biography Nicholas was born in Kues (Bernkastel-Kues) on the River Mosel in Germany. He first studied in Heidelberg and then went on to Padua for law, and Cologne for theology. He was ordained a priest and entered the service of the papal legate, Cardinal Giordano Orsini. In 1433, he participated in the Council of Basel, where he met Juan de Segovia (q.v.) and discussed with him Islam and the Qur’an; it …

Nicholas of Lyra

(670 words)

Author(s): Krey, Philip
Biography Nicholas of Lyra, Franciscan, biblical exegete and regent master in Paris (1308-9), and Franciscan minister provincial of France (1319) and Burgundy (1325), was born in Lyre, Normandy, in the diocese of Évreux, a center of Jewish learning. He became acquainted with the Talmud, Midrash, and the works of Rashi (Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac, 1045-1105). His magnum opus, the Literal Postill on the whole Bible (1322/23-31), was a running commentary on the Old and New Testaments, intended for theologians and known for its double literal sense, affirmation of …

Nicolas Mysticus

(1,225 words)

Author(s): Vaiou, Maria
Nikolaos Mystikos Date of Birth: 852 Place of Birth: Italy Date of Death: 15 May 925 Place of Death: Possibly Constantinople Biography Nicolas was born to a slave-woman in Italy, either on the estate or in the house of Photius, the future patriarch of Constantinople. He studied together with the future Emperor Leo VI, and became a close friend of Photius. After Photius fell from favor and was deposed from the patriarchate in 887, Nicolas withdrew to the Tryphon monastery near Chalcedon, where he was tonsured, but Leo…

 Nikēta Byzantinou philosophou programma tēs hypogegrammenēs anatropēs tēs para tou Arabos Mōamet plastographētheisēs biblou

(459 words)

Author(s): Rigo, Antonio
Nicetas of Byzantium’s foreword to the following refutation of the book forged by the Arab Muḥammad’ Nicetas Byzantios, Nicetas of Byzantium Date: c. 870 Original Language: Greek Description Nicetas’ refutation of the Qurʾān is subdivided into 30 chapters of unequal length. The first, which constitutes approximately one quarter of the entire work, is devoted to the exposition of the Christian faith. Chapters 2 to 17 each deal with a sūra from the Qurʾān (Q 2 – 18), from which several passages are quoted. Chapter 18 is enti…

 Nikolaou patriarchou homilia eis tēn halosin tēs Thessalonikēs, rhētheisa en to amboni tēs megalēs ekklēsias meta tēn eisodon

(1,201 words)

Author(s): Vaiou, Maria
Homilia eis tēn halosin tēs ThessalonikēsSermon of Nicolas the Patriarch on the capture of Thessaloniki, delivered from the pulpit of the Great Church after the entry, Sermon on the capture of Thessaloniki Nicolas Mysticus Date: Probably 12 August 904 Original Language: Greek Description This sermon, which was delivered during the liturgy in the Church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, was preached in the aftermath of the capture of Thessaloniki by the renegade Leo of Tripoli (Ghulām Zurāfa, called Rashīq al-Wardāmī after his manumissio…