Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: David Thomas, Alex Mallett
Associate Editors: Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala, Johannes Pahlitzsch, Barbara Roggema, Mark Swanson, Herman Teule and John Tolan
Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general online history of relations between the faiths. It covers the period from 600 to 1500, when encounters took place through the extended Mediterranean basin and are recorded in Syriac, Arabic, Greek, Latin and other languages. Christian Muslim Relations Online comprises introductory essays on the treatment of Christians in the Qur’an, Qur’an commentaries, biographies of the Prophet, Hadith and Sunni law, and of Muslims in canon law, and the main body of more than two hundred detailed entries on all the works recorded, whether surviving or lost.

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Roberto da Lecce

(917 words)

Author(s): McMichael, Steven J.
Roberto Caracciolo de Lecce Date of Birth: 1425 Place of Birth: Lecce, Italy Date of Death: 6 May, 1495 Place of Death: Lecce, Italy Biography Roberto da Lecce is considered, along with Giovanni da Capistrano (1386-1456) and Giacomo dalla Marca (1393-1476), one of the most popular preachers of the so-called ‘second wave’ of 15th-century Franciscan preachers, who followed in the wake of the much admired Bernardino da Siena (1380-1444). Roberto was educated by the Conventual Franciscans, professed vows with the early Observants (a reform movement), …

Robert of Ketton

(580 words)

Author(s): Burman, Óscar de la Cruz Palma and Cándida Ferrero Hernández, Thomas E.
Robert of Chester, Robertus Ketensis or Ketenensis or Ketinensis or Kettonsis, Robertus Retinensis or Retenensis, Robertus Anglicus or Anglus, Robertus Castrensis or Cestrensis, Robertus Anatensis or Astrensis or Astenensis or Ostiensis Date of Birth: Unknown, fl. 1141-57 Place of Birth: Ketton, Rutland, England Date of Death: unknown Place of Death: unknown Biography Nothing is known of Robert’s early life until the 1130s when he had made his way to Iberia in search of scientific knowledge. There he learned Arabic and began translating scientific texts, including al-Kindī’s Judi…

Robert the Monk

(565 words)

Author(s): Bull, Marcus
Robertus Monachus, Robert of Reims Date of Birth: Unknown; mid-11th century Place of Birth: Unknown; probably north-eastern France Date of Death: 1122 or soon after (if the identification of the author with Abbot Robert of St-Rémi is accepted) Place of Death: Unknown Biography The only information that the text of the Historia Iherosolimitana itself reveals about its author is that he was named Robert, that he was a monk, almost certainly of the monastery of St-Rémi, Reims in Champagne, and that he attended the Council of Clermont in November 109…

Rodrigo Jiménez de Rada

(1,199 words)

Author(s): Maser, Matthias
Biography Rodrigo Jiménez de Rada was born around 1170, the son of a nobleman. He received his education at the court of King Sancho IV of Navarre, but he went, probably in 1195, to study law and theology at Bologna and then Paris, though he seems not to have formally graduated. Back in the Iberian Peninsula around 1202-4, he was active in diplomatic affairs between the then rival kings of Navarre and Castile. His election as bishop of Osma in 1208 has been interpreted as a royal reward for his s…

Rodulfus Glaber

(514 words)

Author(s): Frassetto, Michael
Ralph Glaber, Raoul Glaber Date of Birth: About 980 Place of Birth: Burgundy Date of Death: About 1046 Place of Death: Auxerre Biography Little is know of the life of Rodulfus Glaber beyond what he reveals in his own writings. He was born into a family that may have been of the high nobility in Burgundy in about 980 and spent much of his life moving from one monastery to another. These movements may have been due to his willful and quarrelsome nature; Glaber notes that his 'character was more intractable and [his] beh…

Roger Bacon

(1,545 words)

Author(s): Power, Amanda
Biography Most of what is known about Bacon is drawn from works that he composed to send to the papal curia between about 1266 and 1271. He was one of the younger sons of an affluent Anglo-Norman family and seems to have been educated at the new university in Oxford, completing his studies somewhere between 1236 and 1241. During the 1240s, he taught the arts in Paris, and was one of the first to lecture there on Aristotle’s libri naturales and Metaphysics. He was already using translations of commentaries and treatises from the Muslim world, particularly those of Ibn Rushd, …

Roger II of Sicily

(581 words)

Author(s): Mallett, Alex
Biography Roger was a member of the ruling dynasty of Normans who had conquered much of southern Italy and Sicily during the late 11th century. On the death of his brother, Simon de Hauteville, in 1105, Roger became Count of Sicily, ruling independently upon his maturity in 1112, as well as claiming Calabria. On the death of the Norman ruler of Apulia in 1127, Roger claimed that as part of his territory as well, although his attempts to unify Sicily and Apulia were resisted by both the pope, who declared a crusade aga…

Roger of Stanegrave

(326 words)

Author(s): Paviot, Jacques
Biography Perhaps the young Roger of Stanegrave followed the Lord Edward (the future King Edward I of England) to the Holy Land in 1270; he seems to have been present when Edward received the Mongol envoys at Acre in September 1271. He entered (it is not known when) the Order of the Hospital, and seems to have been at Margat Castle in 1280. The following year, he was certainly in the Hospitaler battalion that participated in the battle of ‘La Chamelle’ (Homs) alongside the Mongols against the Mam…

 Roman de Mahomet

(449 words)

Author(s): Tolan, John
Roman de Mahon‘Story of Muḥammad’ Alexandre du Pont Date: 1258 Original Language: Old French Description The Roman de Mahomet is a French verse adaptation of Gautier de Compiègne’s Otia de Machomete (q.v.) . The content and treatment of Muḥammad’s life are essentially the same in both works, though in other aspects the translator takes considerable liberty with his source. Alexandre’s account is 1,996 verses long compared with Gautier’s 1,090, which is to some extent the result of the shorter verses of the French text, but is …


(217 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Qādir ibn ʿAbdallāh Date of Birth: 1141 Place of Birth: Al-Ruhā (Edessa) Date of Death: 1215 Place of Death: Ḥarrān Biography Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Ruhāwī would have known about Christianity from his earliest years, and may well have known some Christians closely. His home town of al-Ruhā had retained a substantial Christian population through all the centuries of Muslim rule, and its churches were a feature that travelers noted with admiration. Since 1098 it had been the crusader county of…


(451 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn ʿĪsā ibn ʿAlī ibn ʿAbdallāh al-Rummānī, al-Ikhshīdī Date of Birth: 909 Place of Birth: Baghdad Date of Death: 994 Place of Death: Baghdad Biography Abū l-Ḥasan al-Rummānī moved at the centre of Baghdad intellectual and cultural life in the 10th century. He was an expert in jurisprudence, and served as judge in an area of the capital, though he was recognized above all for his knowledge of Arabic language. As a young man, he witnessed the famous debate held in 932 on the merits of logic and grammar between the Christi…