Christian-Muslim Relations 600 - 1500

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: David Thomas, Alex Mallett
Associate Editors: Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala, Johannes Pahlitzsch, Barbara Roggema, Mark Swanson, Herman Teule and John Tolan
Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general online history of relations between the faiths. It covers the period from 600 to 1500, when encounters took place through the extended Mediterranean basin and are recorded in Syriac, Arabic, Greek, Latin and other languages. Christian Muslim Relations Online comprises introductory essays on the treatment of Christians in the Qur’an, Qur’an commentaries, biographies of the Prophet, Hadith and Sunni law, and of Muslims in canon law, and the main body of more than two hundred detailed entries on all the works recorded, whether surviving or lost.

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Yoḥannān bar Zoʿbī

(435 words)

Author(s): G.B. Teule, Herman
Biography Yoḥannān bar Zoʿbī was a member of the East Syrian Church, a student of Rabban Simeon Shanqlāwī (i.e. of Shanqlābad/Shaqlawa) and a priest-monk of the monastery of Sabrishoʿ in the region of Bēt Qoqē near Irbil. Judging from a contemporary biographical note found in MS Vat Syr. 194, which contains his grammatical works, he was held in high esteem by the members of his community. The author of this note praises him as an extraordinary solitary, a monk, ascetic, priest and spiritual direc…

Yovhannēs Erznkacʿi Bluz

(983 words)

Author(s): Dadoyan, Seta B.
Biography Yovhannēs Erznkacʿi was born around 1230 in Erznka (Erzinjān, Erez, Eriza, Erizawan, Arznka), the capital of the province of Ekełeacʿ, on the upper reaches of the western Euphrates. He was nicknamed Bluz (or Čluz in the dialect of Erznka) because of his small stature. He claimed to be related to the nobility of the province. In his late twenties and despite his father’s objections, he entered the great Monastery of St Minas on Sepuh Leṙ (Sepuh Mountain) near the city. In 1268, in his late thirties, he was made vardapet. Yovhannēs began his literary career in early 1270s. Ear…

Yovhannēs vardapet

(120 words)

Author(s): Cowe, S. Peter
Biography A later scribal colophon appended to the martyrdom informs the reader that the original author was a certain Yovhannēs vardapet, who happened to be in the Derǰan region at that time and became an eyewitness to the events he describes. It adds that the writing was later inserted in a manuscript menologium by the scribe Karapet, from whose exemplar the current scribe copied most of the account, except for its introductory preface. Primary Sources of Information The only source directly associated with the author is the martyrology itself. Secondary Sources of Information H. Ačaṙ…

 Ystoria captionis Almarie et Turtuose

(373 words)

Author(s): Airaldi & Alex Mallett, Gabriella
History of the capture of Almeria and Tortosa Caffaro of Genoa Date: Late 1140s – early 1150s Original Language: Latin Description This relatively short chronicle (27 pages in the latest Italian translation) details a series of Genoese attacks on the Muslim territories of the Balearic islands, together with the cities of Almeria and Tortosa on mainland Iberia. On the first of these, which captured Minorca and besieged Almeria, Caffaro himself was the commander, so from a historical point of view this is a particular…

Yūḥannā al-Anṭākī

(349 words)

Author(s): N. Swanson, Mark
Biography Nothing is known about the author of a brief extract in ch. 18 of al-Muʾtaman ibn al-ʿAssāl’s famous theological compendium Majmūʿ uṣūl al-dīn apart from what can be gathered from the extract itself and al-Muʾtaman’s introduction to it. Al-Muʾtaman identifies the author as al-qaṣṣ anbā Yūḥannā al-Anṭākī, tilmīdh Ibn Buṭlān, that is, as a priest from Antioch and a student of the renowned East Syrian (‘Nestorian’) physican Ibn Buṭlān (d. 1066) (q.v.), who indeed settled in Antioch towards the end of his life and became a monk. Graf ( GCAL ii, 194-95) placed Yūḥannā among the …

Yuḥannā ibn Mīnā

(243 words)

Author(s): N. Swanson, Mark
Biography Almost nothing is known about Yūḥannā ibn Mīnā, the author of an appendix (or supplement) to the treatise Kayfiyyat idrāk ḥaqīqat al-diyāna, ‘How to discern the truth of a religion’, by the 9th-century translator and author Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq (q.v.). Yūḥannā was probably a Copt: ‘Mīnā’ is a common name among the Copts, and the appendix was known to Coptic Orthodox writers, e.g. al-Shams ibn Kabar (d. 1324).  Sbath claims that MS Sbath 1001, one of the manuscripts containing the work, dates to the 11th century – but elsewhere suggests that Yūḥannā should be considered a w…

Yūḥannā ibn al-Ṣalt

(253 words)

Author(s): Roggema, Barbara
Biography Virtually nothing is known about this author. Graf ( GCAL ii, p. 150) raises the possibility that he is the father of the East-Syrian Catholicos and scholar Ḥanūn ibn Yūḥannā ibn al-Ṣalt ( GCAL ii, pp. 150-51), which seems likely. If this is right, we may assume that since Ḥanūn was active in the late 9th and early 10th century, Yūḥannā lived in the second half of the 9th century and was also belonged to the Church of the East. The titles of four works of his are known to us only through Paul Sbath, who found them in the private manuscript collection of ʿAbd al-Mas…

Yūḥannā ibn Sawīrus

(634 words)

Author(s): Awad, Wadi
Yūḥannā ibn Sūrus, Yūḥannā ibn Sawirus, Al-kātib al-Miṣrī Date of Birth: Unknown; end of the 11th or beginning of the 12th century Place of Birth: Cairo Date of Death: Unknown; perhaps the last decade of the 12th century Place of Death: Cairo Biography The name of the author in MS Vat Arabic 117 is Yūḥannā ibn Sawirus (or Sūrus). In the MSS of Abū l-Barakāt’s Miṣbaḥ al-ẓulma, ch. 7, various forms are found: Sawirus or Sūrus, Sūrīs, Sawīrus, or Sāwīrus. In other sources the form Sāwīrus occurs. Cheikho places the author in the 12th century, and Graf in the 14th, though a reading of the author’…

Yūḥannā ibn Wahb

(466 words)

Author(s): Moawad, Samuel
Yūḥannā ibn Wahb ibn Yūḥannā ibn Yaḥyā ibn Būlus Date of Birth: Unknown; probably late 12th century Place of Birth: Unknown; presumably Egypt Date of Death: Unknown; 13th century Place of Death: Unknown; presumably Egypt Biography Very little is known about Yūḥannā ibn Wahb. He was the biographer of the Coptic Patriarch Cyril III ibn Laqlaq (1235-43), with whom he had close contact. Our knowledge about him derives from this biography, preserved in the well-known History of the patriarchs. He was contemporary with Cyril III and an eyewitness to many of the events he narrat…

Yuḥannā, nicknamed ‘al-Mudabbir’ (Ethiopic: Yoḥannәs Mädäbbär), John (bishop) of Nikiou/Nikiu

(705 words)

Author(s): Fiaccadori, Gianfranco
John of Nikiou Date of Birth: Unknown, before the middle of the 7th c. Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Soon after 700 Place of Death: Unknown Biography The very scant information available about John’s personal circumstances is found in the almost contemporary Coptic Life of Patriarch Isaac (d. 692/93), attributed to Bishop Mēna of Nikiou (q.v.), John’s successor as bishop, and in the later Arabic History of the Patriarchs of Alexandria (q.v.). The part of this work that deals with John is likely to have been written by Mawhūb ibn Manṣūr ibn Mufarrij, who mad…

Yūḥannā Yūshaʿ ibn Shūshān

(347 words)

Author(s): G.B. Teule, Herman
Yoḥannōn Ishoʿ bar Shūshān Date of Birth: Unknown; possibly early 11th century Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: 6 (or 27) November 1072 Place of Death: Amida (Diyarbakir) Biography Yuḥannā was sunkellos (secretary) and pupil of the Syrian Orthodox Patriarch John IX (d. 1057). After the latter’s death, he was elected patriarch by the bishops belonging to the Maphrianate, i.e. the eastern territories of the West Syrian Church (roughly modern Iraq and Iran). This election was not recognized by the bishops of the western dio…

Yuḥannis, Yuʾannis, Yūḥannā ‘John the Deacon’ is a convenient appellation

(487 words)

Author(s): N. Swanson, Mark
John the Deacon Date of Birth: Early 8th c. Place of Birth: Egypt, perhaps in Giza Date of Death: Late 8th c. (after 767) Place of Death: Egypt, precise location unknown Biography The author of the principal source for Lives 43-46 of The History of the patriarchs of Alexandria (covering the years 704-67) was a certain Yuḥannis (= John, in the Arabic text also written Yuʾannis or Yūḥannā), a Coptic Orthodox monk and deacon. He was the spiritual son of Bishop Moses (Muwīsīs) of Wasīm in Giza, and loyal servant and companion of Michael (Khāʾīl) I, the 46th patriarch (743-67). John had the trus…

Yūsāb, bishop of Akhmīm

(415 words)

Author(s): N. Swanson, Mark
Biography We possess four fragments of information about a 13th-century Coptic Orthodox church leader named Yūsāb, bishop of Akhmīm in Upper Egypt:   1.      Yūsāb, bishop of Akhmīm, participated in the preparation of the holy chrism ( myron) during Holy Week 1257 (Munier, Recueil, pp. 34-35). 2.      The superscription to Buṭrus al-Sadamantī’s Maqāla fī l-ʿaqīda (‘Treatise on belief’; q.v.) indicates that he wrote it at the request of his former monastic confrere Bishop Yūsāb of Akhmīm, and provides a date: 16 Bashans AM 976 [12 May 1260]. 3.       According to Sbath, Fihris i, p. 74…

Yūsāb of Fuwwa

(586 words)

Author(s): Moawad, Samuel
Biography Yūsāb was a monk in the Monastery of St John the Short in Wādī l-Naṭrūn in the 13th century. He bore the surname al-Muḥabrak, ‘the deformed’. As a monk he was known as al-faqīh Yūsuf, Joseph the scholar or expert. Sometime between 1237 and 1239, he was consecrated bishop of Fuwwa in Lower Egypt by Patriarch Cyril III ibn Laqlaq (r. 1235-43). Later, he was involved in conflict with Cyril because of the patriarch’s practice of simony, and joined the party that sought reform. As the History of the patriarchs that bears his name reports, Yūsāb of Fuwwa played an important role …

Yūsuf al-Lubnānī

(420 words)

Author(s): Tilmans, Nico
Yūsuf al-Lubnānī al-Muhtadī Date of Birth: Uncertain; probably second half of the 12th century Place of Birth: Unknown; probably the Lebanon Date of Death: Uncertain; mid-13th century Place of Death: Unknown Biography The only source of information about Yūsuf al-Lubnānī is the unique manuscript in which his one known work is preserved. In the colophon (which is in a different hand from the rest) it is stated that he was a convert from Christianity to Islam, and that he composed a refutation of his former faith in 623 AH (1226…