Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editors: David Thomas and John Chesworth
Associate Editors: John Azumah, Clinton Bennett, Lejla Demiri, Martha Frederiks, Stanisław Grodź, Andrew Newman, Douglas Pratt

Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general history of relations between the two faiths as this is represented in works written by Christians and Muslims about the other and against the other. It covers all parts of the world in the period 1500-1914. Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online comprises thousands of comprehensive entries on individual works and their authors, together with introductory essays to the periods and areas covered, making it the fullest available source in this field.


A.A. Prozorovskii

(720 words)

Author(s): Johnson, Eric
Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Prozorovskii Date of Birth: Approximately 1733 Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: 8 August 1809 (21 August 1809 New Style) Place of Death: Army camp on the Măcin branch of the Danube River, Ottoman Empire (in present-day Romania) Biography Alexander Prozorovskii was born into an old Muscovite noble family. His father had been sent to Holland for naval training by Peter the Great, and upon his return he rose to command a ship in the Russian Navy. He was forced to retire, however, after his leg was crushed in a boat collision, and he died in 1740. Young Alexander was…

ʿAbbās II, Shah of Persia

(1,482 words)

Author(s): Matthee, Rudolph
Date of Birth: 19 November 1633 Place of Birth: Isfahan Date of Death: 25 September 1666 Place of Death: Ashraf (Mazandaran) Biography Born in 1633, Shah ʿAbbās II, the son of Shah Ṣafī (r. 1629-42), was barely nine years old when he ascended the Safavid throne in 1642. In the first years of his reign, the court was dominated by a cabal consisting of his mother, Annā Khānūm, grand vizier Mīrzā Muḥammad ‘Sārū Taqī, and the  qurchībāshī, head of the tribal cavalry, Jānī Khān. ʿAbbās took effective power in 1645 by ridding himself of the latter two, first using Jānī Khān t…

ʿAbbās I, Shah of Persia

(2,801 words)

Author(s): Matthee, Rudolph
Date of Birth: 27 January 1571 Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: 19 January 1629 Place of Death: Ashraf, Mazandaran Biography Shah ʿAbbās I (r. 1587-1629), the fifth ruler of the Safavid dynasty (1501-1722), came to power at a time when tribal factionalism was tearing at the fabric of the state and foreign invaders had greatly reduced Iran’s territory. In his 40-odd-year reign, he managed to retake the borderlands lost by his predecessors, and also to add the Persian Gulf littoral to Safavid control and to incor…

Abbé Demanet

(572 words)

Author(s): Frederiks, Martha
Abbé Jean-Baptiste Demanet Date of Birth: First half of the 18th century Place of Birth: Unknown; probably France Date of Death: 12 July 1778 Place of Death: West Africa; probably Senegal BiographyJean-Baptiste Demanet was a French secular priest, best known for his two-volume work Nouvelle histoire de l’Afrique françoise, published in 1767. It seems he served for some time as a priest of the diocese of Trèves, but little else is known about him until he was appointed chaplain to the French troops stationed on Gorée Island (off the coast of p…

Abbot Eftimie

(535 words)

Author(s): Păun, Radu G.
Egumenul Eftimie Date of Birth: Unknown; probably around 1500 Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown; possibly after 1571 Place of Death: Unknown; possibly the monastery of Humor, Moldavia Biography  Few reliable details are known about the life and career of Eftimie. He certainly was the ‘apprentice’ of the bishop and chronicler Macarie of Roman, whom he likely knew during his life as a young monk. Eftimie has been successively identified as ‘bishop of Rădăuţi’ (1552), the ‘abbot of the Neamţ monastery’ (1553), who l…

Abbot Macarie

(1,075 words)

Author(s): Păun, Radu G.
Episcopul Macarie de Roman Date of Birth: Unknown; probably the end of the 15th century Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: 1 January 1558 Place of Death: Roman, Moldavia Biography Macarie was the most prominent Church Slavonic writer in 16th-century Moldavia. He was born at the end of the 15th century. We have practically no information about his youth, but he claims to have been an ‘apprentice’ of the metropolitan of Moldavia, Theoctist II (1509-28), whom he certainly met at the monastery of Neamţ, the foremost cultural centre of Moldavia …

Abbreviations and Foreword

(1,441 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
  FOREWORD David Thomas Christian-Muslim relations. A bibliographical History 6 ( CMR 6) continues the history of relations between Christians and Muslims as recorded in original sources in the period 1500-1600, following the same general approach as the earlier volumes in the series.  CMR 6 focuses on works from the 16th century in the countries of Western Europe, and shows that, while many of the preoccupations that dominated the Middle Ages were still prominent, particularly issues of political and religious relations between Christianity…

ʿAbbūd Ṣaydaḥ

(101 words)

Author(s): Slim, Souad
ʿAbbūd ibn Ilyās ibn ʿAbduh Ṣaydaḥ Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown; probably Aleppo Date of Death: Unknown Place of Death: Unknown BiographyNothing is known about ʿAbbūd ibn Ilyās ibn ʿAbduh Ṣaydaḥ except that he was an Arabic-speaking Christian, and that he wrote his description of the fall of Constantinople in Aleppo in 1731. No other document has come to light that can be associated with him. Some internal evidence in the text gives reason to think that he was a Catholic, most likely a Melkite. Primary Sources of Information- Secondary Sources of Information- Works on Chr…

'Abd Allāh ibn al-‘Umarī l-Ṭarābulusī l-Ḥanafī

(445 words)

Author(s): Omran, Abdullah
Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Tripoli Date of Death: After 1772 Place of Death: Damascus BiographyContemporary biographies from the 17th and 18th centuries provide only scant information about the life of 'Abd Allāh ibn al-ʿUmarī l-Ṭarābulusī al-Ḥanafī. His date of birth is unknown, though it was probably towards the end of the 17th century or the beginning of the 18th, as his work Qabas al-anwār fī l-radd ʿalā l-Naṣārā l-ashrār was authored in the second half of the 18th century. He was born in Tripoli, where he spent his early childhood. He later travelled to Eg…

ʿAbd Allāh Zākhir

(641 words)

Author(s): el Gemayel, Ronney
Date of Birth: 1684 Place of Birth: Aleppo Date of Death: 31 August 1748 Place of Death: al-Shuwayr (Mount Lebanon) BiographyʿAbd Allāh Zākhir, son of Zakhariyā Ṣāʾigh, was a major figure in the Romanophile movement (which favoured union of the Eastern Churches with Rome), first in Aleppo until November 1722, then in Mount Lebanon, especially in al-Shuwayr, from 1722 until his death. He was part of the generation that saw the Melkite Antiochian community split in two after the death of Patriarch Athanasius Dabbās (…

ʿAbd al-Ghanī l-Nābulusī

(1,288 words)

Author(s): Demiri, Lejla
ʿAbd al-Ghanī ibn Ismāʿīl ibn ʿAbd al-Ghanī ibn Ismāʿīl l-Nābulusī Date of Birth: 1641 Place of Birth: Damascus Date of Death: 1731 Place of Death: Damascus BiographyAn eminent theologian, jurist, poet, Sufi, and great commentator on Ibn ʿArabī’s (d. 1240) mystical thought, ʿAbd al-Ghanī l-Nābulusī was one of the most illustrious intellectual figures of the 17th- and 18th-century Arab lands of the Ottoman Empire. He served as judge in al-Maydān (south of Damascus), and then as mufti of Damascus for a short period of time. He held a teaching post at th…

ʿAbd al-Ra⁠ʾūf al-Singkilī

(465 words)

Author(s): Riddell, Peter
ʿAbd al-Raʾūf ibn ʿAlī l-Jāwī l-Fanṣūrī l-Singkilī Date of Birth: Approximately 1615 Place of Birth: Singkel, Sumatra Date of Death: Approximately 1693 Place of Death: Kota Aceh BiographyLittle can be said about the first two decades of the life of ʿAbd al-Raʾūf. His full name points to a likely place of birth on the west coast of Sumatra in the town of Singkel. He would have grown up in the years of ascendancy of the kingdom of Aceh during the reign of its greatest sultan, Iskandar Muda (r. 1607-36). Aceh’s interaction w…

ʿAbd al-Ṣamad al-Palimbānī

(522 words)

Author(s): Riddell, Peter G.
Date of Birth: Around 1704 Place of Birth: Palembang, Sumatra Date of Death: Around 1789 Place of Death: Unknown; possibly Arabia BiographyʿAbd al-Ṣamad al-Palimbānī was born in Palembang, Sumatra, to a father who had migrated from Yemen and who was initially a local teacher of Islam before taking up the position of mufti in Kedah, Malaya. As a young man, ʿAbd al-Ṣamad retraced his family’s footsteps to Arabia, where he spent the greater part of his life, writing and studying with several prominent Malay scholars ba…

ʿAbd al-Sattār

(827 words)

Author(s): Kollatz, Anna
ʿAbd al-Sattār ibn Qāsim Lāhōrī Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Uncertain; Bijapur or Lahore Date of Death: Unknown Place of Death: Unknown BiographyThe author of the  Majālis-i Jahāngīrī does not give his full name, either at the beginning or at the end of his text, but several indications nevertheless make clear that he must be the same ʿAbd al-Sattār ibn Qāsim Lāhōrī who is mentioned in several works of the Jesuit Hierònimo (Jerome) Xavier (1549-27 June 1617), who lived and worked at the Mughal court under Akbar and Jahāngīr.The main information on ʿAbd al-Sattār ibn Qāsim…

Abgar ʿAlī Akbar Armanī

(742 words)

Author(s): Tiburcio, Alberto
Date of Birth: Unknown; mid-17th century Place of Birth: Unknown; probably New Julfa, Isfahan Date of Death: After 27 January 1708 Place of Death: Unknown; probably Isfahan BiographyThe identity of the renegade Armenian merchant known after his conversion to Islam as ʿAlī Akbar Armanī remains a historical enigma. Some anecdotal cues in his memoir have led Sebouh Aslanian to infer that he may have been a member of the prominent Velijanian (or Veligianian) merchant family of Venice (I am thankful to Prof. Sebouh Aslanian of…

 About a holy martyr Ivan, who was tortured for Christ in the city of Kazan

(902 words)

Author(s): Soldat, Cornelia
O sviamom muchenike, izhe za Khrisma muchen vo gradeZhitie Ioanna Kazanskogo;, Skazanie velikago i slavnago chiudesi, ezhe byst‘ vo grade Kazani‘The life of Ioann of Kazan'’, ‘An account of the great and glorious wonders that happened in the town of Kazan'’ Nifont Kormilitsyn Date: Not later than the 1550s Original Language: Old Russian Description Many monks at Volokolamsk Monastery in the 1550-60s were veterans of the Kazan’ campaigns, so Nifont may not be the author of this work. The attribution is given by Kuntsevich, ‘Maloizvestnye zapisi’, wh…

Abraham Ecchellensis

(1,589 words)

Author(s): Moukarzel, Joseph
Ibrāhīm al-Ḥāqilānī Date of Birth: 15 February 1605 Place of Birth: Ḥāqil, Lebanon Date of Death: 15 July 1664 Place of Death: Rome Biography Abraham Ecchellensis was born in Ḥāqil, in the Byblos region of Lebanon, in 1605. He lost his father while he was still young, and at the age of nine he was sent to a priest to receive a basic education in reading, then in 1619 to Rome to continue his studies at the Maronite College. From 1624, he became an expert for the Propaganda Fide, certifying official letters written in Ea…

Abraham Erewants‘i

(153 words)

Author(s): Bournoutian, George
Abraham of Yerevan Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown Place of Death: Unknown BiographyNo biographical details exist about Abraham. It appears that he was the son of a certain Hovhannes, who lived in Yerevan, the centre of Persian defences against the Ottomans in the south Caucasus. His writing style is not that of a member of the clergy, but he was literate, and therefore not a peasant. His knowledge of European words and the frequent use of military terminology, as well as his …

Abraham III Kretats‘i

(354 words)

Author(s): Bournoutian, George
Abraham Kretats‘i, Abraham of Crete, also known as Rodost‘ots‘i (from Rodosto) or Tekirdaghts‘i (from Tekirdagh) Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Crete Date of Death: 18 April 1737 Place of Death: Echmiadzin BiographyFew details are known about the life of Abraham Kretats‘i, other than that he was born in Crete to a Greek mother, and that he was prelate of the Armenians of Trakia (Thrace), i.e. Rodosto or Tekirdag (to the west of Istanbul) from 1709 to 1734, hence his also being known as Rodost‘ots‘i (from Rodosto) or Tek…

 A brief outline of the evidences of the Christian religion

(1,110 words)

Author(s): Grafton, David D.
- Archibald Alexander Date: 1825 Original Language: English Description Alexander wrote A brief outline in response to the challenge issued to biblical revelation by rationalist, Deist and Enlightenment thought in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. First published in 1825, it originated as a sermon, and was later expanded twice, first into the publication of  A brief outline, and then into  Evidences of the authenticity, inspiration, and canonical authority of the Holy Scriptures. The 1825 edition is 287 pages long. Alexander responds most directly to the arguments o…
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