Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editors: David Thomas and John Chesworth
Associate Editors: John Azumah, Clinton Bennett, Lejla Demiri, Martha Frederiks, Stanisław Grodź, Andrew Newman, Douglas Pratt

Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general history of relations between the two faiths as this is represented in works written by Christians and Muslims about the other and against the other. It covers all parts of the world in the period 1500-1914. Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online comprises thousands of comprehensive entries on individual works and their authors, together with introductory essays to the periods and areas covered, making it the fullest available source in this field.


 Babylon magna ruens

(422 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus
‘Babylon the great is fallen’ Enevald Svenonius Date: 1669 Original Language: Latin Description Babylon magna ruens is the first part in Enevald Svenonius’ large theological work in which he attempts to refute all doctrines that deviate from orthodox Lutheran Christianity. It was printed by the University of Turku in 1669, with the title Babylon magna ruens, Apoc. 18: 2.19, sue vox clamantis in aquilone adversus AntiChristum occidentalem (‘Babylon the Great is fallen, Rev. 18:2.19, or the voice of one crying in the north, against the western Antichrist’). Originally published as …


(1,035 words)

Author(s): Guenther, Alan
Mulla ʿAbd al-Qādir ibn Mulūk Shāh Badāʾūnī Date of Birth: 1540 Place of Birth: Todabhim, Rajastan, India Date of Death: Approximately 1615 Place of Death: Badaun, Rohilkhand, India BiographyʿAbd al-Qādir was born in Todabhim in eastern Rajastan, India, in 1540 and died in Badaun in 1615, though some scholars, such as Blochmann, have postulated an earlier date (Hardy, ‘Badāʾūnī’, following Storey,  Persian literature, p. 437; Blochmann, ‘Badáoní’, pp. 142-3). At the time of his birth, Rajastan and other parts of north India were under the control of the Af…


(484 words)

Author(s): Kilpatrick, Hilary
‘Poem in praise of Christ and his disciples’ Niqūlā al-Ṣāʾigh, al-Khūrī Niqūlāwus al-Ṣāʾigh al-Ḥalabī l-Rūmī Date: 1724 Original Language: Arabic DescriptionThe  badīʿiyya ( Dīwān, pp. 80-4) is a poem of 156 verses. The themes are as follows: address to the poet’s travelling companions and praise of them; attacks on critics and complaints about the unfaithfulness of former patrons; repentance and turning to Christ; praise of the Son and the Father; praise of the Apostles and saints as missionaries, preachers, healers…

Badr al-Dīn al-Qarāfī

(402 words)

Author(s): Fares Hassan, Said
Muḥammad ibn Yaḥya ibn ʿUmar ibn Yūnus al-Qāḍī ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Badr al-Dīn al-Miṣrī al-Qarāfī Date of Birth: 22 April 1533 (or a year earlier) Place of Birth: Cairo Date of Death: March 1600 (or a year earlier) Place of Death: Cairo Biography Al-Qarāfī came from a scholarly family. His grandfather was the eminent scholar Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Karīm ibn Aḥmad al-Damīrī, while his father was a judge and a leading figure in Egyptian scholarly circles. Al-Qarāfī received a traditional education, encompassing a combination of Islamic jurisprudence, Hadith and Arabic language. He graduall…

Bagrat (I) Muxranbatoni

(669 words)

Author(s): Rayfield, Donald
Biography Bagrat was the third son of King Konstantine II of Kartli (r. 1478-1505, and until 1484 also of Imeretia). Bagrat’s elder brothers were Davit X (king of Kartli 1505-25) and Giorgi IX (king of Kartli 1525-34). His younger brother Melkisedek was Catholicos of Georgia from 1538 to 1541. Their mother Tamar entered a convent shortly before her death in 1492, as did Davit X (as Damiane), Giorgi IX (as Gerasime) and others of Bagrat’s siblings. In 1512, frustrated by his brother Davit X’s unwillingness to resist invasions by their cousin King Aleksandre of Imeretia …

Bahāʾ al-Dīn al-ʿĀmilī

(841 words)

Author(s): Abisaab, Rula
Bahāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥusayn al-Ḥārithī l-ʿĀmilī; Shaykh Bahāʾī Date of Birth: 18 February 1547 Place of Birth: Baalbek Date of Death: 1 September 1621 Place of Death: Isfahan (buried in Mashhad) Biography Bahāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥusayn al-Ḥārithī l-ʿĀmilī, known as Shaykh Bahāʾī, was a leading Twelver Shīʿa polymath whose contributions span the fields of Islamic law, jurisprudence, Hadith, qur’anic commentary, mathematics, astronomy, literature and poetry. He trained no fewer than 77 scholars in the fields of theol…

 Al-baḥth al-ṣarīḥ fī ayyimā huwa l-dīn al-ṣaḥīḥ

(571 words)

Author(s): Haredy, Mohsen
‘The frank research into which is the true religion’ Ziyāda ibn Yaḥyā l-Naṣb al-Rāsī l-Muhtadī Date: Unknown Original Language: Arabic Description Al-baḥth al-ṣarīḥ discusses highly disputed issues between Christianity and Islam. It covers 197 folios in the Dār al-Kutub MS, which is complete and is written in good handwriting, but neither the date of copying nor the name of the copier are known. In the Tübingen MS, there are a number of missing folios between the beginning of the 25th ‘doubt’ and the middle of the 28th ‘doubt’. The work focuses on the following themes: 1. Invalidation of…

Baltasar Barreira

(998 words)

Author(s): Frederiks, Martha
BiographyBaltasar Barreira was born in Lisbon in 1531. At the age of 25, he joined the Society of Jesus and served for a number years in Portugal before being sent abroad as a missionary. Biographers describing his Portuguese ministry especially laud his compassion and care for the sick during the 1569 plague epidemic in Lisbon (‘Barreira, Balthazar’, in Rose (ed.),  A new general biographical dictionary, p. 223).In 1577, Barreira was sent to the kingdoms of Luanda, Angola and Congo, where he worked for 14 years (d’Outreman, ‘Baltasar Barreira’, p. 74). It se…

Baltazar de Morales

(843 words)

Author(s): Alonso Acero, Beatriz
Biography Although there is as yet no study of the life of Baltazar de Morales, it is possible to deduce some facts about him from his Diálogo de las guerras de Orán, because the character of Navarrete in this work is really a representation of Baltazar himself. At the beginning of the Diálogo, he says he is from La Rambla near Cordova, and that he was a captain in all the wars that were waged when the counts of Alcaudete were governors of Oran. The thoroughness and detail with which he describes the battles and other military exploits indicate clearly that he had been an eye-witness of the events. Nav…

Balthazar Tellez

(485 words)

Author(s): Cohen, Leonardo
BiographyBalthazar Tellez (also Teles) was a Jesuit author. The son of a British captain, he entered the Society of Jesus as a novice at Coimbra in 1610, taking his simple vows that year and his solemn vows in 1631. He taught humanities, philosophy and theology for nine years at the colleges of Braga, Coimbra, Evora and Lisbon, where he rose to senior leadership positions. In 1624, he published Summa universae philosophiae in Lisbon.Tellez was later appointed rector of the Irish seminary of St Patrick, a seminary at the Santo Antão College, and superior of São Roqu…

Baṛī Ṣaḥib bint Muḥammad Quṭb Shāh

(1,264 words)

Author(s): Kruijtzer, Gijs
Hājī Baṛī Ṣaḥib wālida-yi Alī ʿĀdil Shāh; Khadīja Sulṭāna Date of Birth: Before about 1617 Place of Birth: Golconda sultanate, India Date of Death: 1668 Place of Death: Mokha BiographyAs the daughter of Sultan Muḥammad Quṭb Shāh of Golconda and the sister or half-sister of his successor, Baṛī Ṣaḥib entered the chronicles in 1633, at the time of her betrothal to Muḥammad ʿĀdil Shāh of the neighbouring sultanate of Bijapur. Piecing together the information available about her from contemporary chronicles, the  Muḥammad  nāma written at the court of Bijapur and the  Ḥadīqat al-salāṭīn w…

 Al-barq al-Yamānī fī l-fatḥ al-ʿUthmānī

(1,589 words)

Author(s): Gori, Alessandro
Al-futūḥāt al-‘Uthmāniyya li-l-aqṭār al-Yamāniyya ‘Yemeni lightning, on the Ottoman conquest’‘Lightning over Yemen. A history of the Ottoman campaign 1569-71’ Quṭb al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al-Nahrawālī al-Makkī Date: 1573 Original Language: Arabic Description Al-barq al-Yamānī fī l-fatḥ al-ʿUthmānī is a historiographical work written by Quṭb al-Dīn at the request of Koca Sinān Pasha (Albanian: Sinan Pasha Topoyani; c. 1520-96), the Ottoman conqueror of Yemen ( Fātiḥ-i Yaman), to describe the victorious expansion of the sultan’s rule in southern Arabia and …

Barthélemy d’Herbelot

(579 words)

Author(s): Haddad, Jonathan
Barthélemy d’Herbelot de Molainville Date of Birth: 4 December 1625 Place of Birth: Paris Date of Death: 8 December 1695 Place of Death: Paris Biography Barthélemy d’Herbelot’s interest in the Bible and pious Catholicism determined the movements that led him to a career in Orientalist erudition. Little is known of his early life in Paris, but in 1655 he decided to travel to Rome to study Hebrew and gain familiarity with other Oriental languages. While there, he began building his networks at the Vatican Library before r…

Bartholomaeo Georgius

(837 words)

Author(s): Höfert, Almut
Bartol Đurđević, Bartolomej Đurđević, Bartholomaeus Gjorgevic, Bartol Jurjević, Bartolomeo Georgijević, Bartholomaeo Georgievitz, Bartholomaeo Gyurgievits, Bartłomiej Georgiewicz Date of Birth: 1505 Place of Birth: Near Esztergom, Hungary Date of Death: After 1566 Place of Death: Unknown Biography Bartholomaeo Georgius was the author of several very popular books about the Ottomans, who usually figured in European representation as ‘Turks’. According to his autobiographical report in De ritibus et differentijs Graecorum (in Klockow and Ebertowski, De captivitate sua; …

Bartholomäus Ziegenbalg

(1,029 words)

Author(s): Jeyaraj, Daniel
Bartholomew Ziegenbalg Date of Birth: 10 July 1682 Place of Birth: Pulsnitz, Germany Date of Death: 23 February 1719 Place of Death: Tharangambadi, India BiographyBartholomäus Ziegenbalg was born near Dresden in Saxony in 1682. Both his parents died when he was still a young boy, but he remembered especially his mother for her piety. After completing his school education in Görlitz in 1702, he enrolled on a course of study to improve his knowledge of biblical and classical European languages at a high school in Berlin,…

Bartoloměj Dvorský

(125 words)

Author(s): Lisy-Wagner, Laura
Biography Little is known about the life of Bartoloměj Dvorský, other than what he wrote about himself in his polemic, Proti Alchoranu. He was an Utraquist pastor in the town of Kouřim in central Bohemia, and the Ottoman successes in Hungary in the 1540s provoked him to write this work. Primary Sources of Information The only source associated with the author is the Proti Alchoranu itself. Secondary Sources of Information L. Lisy-Wagner, Islam, Christianity, and the making of Czech identity, 1453-1683, Burlington VT, 2013 T. Rataj, České země ve stínu půlměsíce. Obraz Turka v ran…

Batyrsha Aliev

(550 words)

Author(s): Bayer, Natalie
Abdulla Aleev; Gabdulla Galiev; Abdulla Miazgaldin; Gubaidulla Miagziadlin; Batyrsha Gubaidulla; Bahâdur Shah Date of Birth: Around 1710 Place of Birth: Karyshbash village, Bashkiria Date of Death: 1762 Place of Death: Shlisselburg fortress BiographyAccording to the majority of sources, Batyrsha was born in Bashkyria in a Mishar family. His father was possibly a Muslim scholar, and gave him his primary education in the village of Karyshbash. In the 1730s and 1740s, Batyrsha attended madrasas in the Kazan region, travelling extensively in the Orenburg, Kazan and Tobolsk regions. I…

 Beča grada obkruženje od cara Mehmeta i Kara-Mustafe velikoga vezijera

(1,217 words)

Author(s): Brković, Ivana
‘The siege of Vienna by Sultan Mehmed and the Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa’ Petar Bogašinović Date: 1684 Original Language: Croatian Description Beča grada obkruženje od cara Mehmeta i Kara Mustafe velikoga vezijera (in full,  Beča grada obkruženje od cara Mehmeta i Kara-Mustafe velikoga vezijera složeno u pjesan u jezik slovinski po Petru Toma Bogašinovića Dubrovčaninu, ‘The siege of Vienna by Sultan Mehmed and the Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa. A poem composed in the Slavic language by Petar Toma Bogašinović of Dubrovnik’) is a historical epyllion (shor…

Bǝlatteen geta Ḫǝruy Wäldä Sellase

(38 words)

Author(s): Gebreyes Beyene, Solomon
Date of Birth: Place of Birth: Date of Death: Place of Death: Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Chronicle of Šawan kings Solomon Gebreyes Beyene

Benedict Curipeschitz

(370 words)

Author(s): Küçükhüseyin, Sevket
Benedikt Curipešič, Kuripešič, Kuripečič, Kuripešić Date of Birth: Around 1490 Place of Birth: Oberburg, Southern Styria Date of Death: Unknown Place of Death: Unknown; after 1531 Biography Little is known about Benedict Curipeschitz. He was born around 1490 in Oberburg in Southern Styria, modern Gornji Grad in Slovenia. Although he was of Slovenian origin, he regarded himself as a citizen of the German Holy Roman Empire: in his  Itinerarium he remarks that he and his companions in Constantinople missed nothing ‘except for our German freedom’ ( das unns nichts abganngen, dann …

Benedykt Chmielowski

(518 words)

Author(s): Borkowski, Mikołaj Piotr
Date of Birth: 1700 Place of Birth: The diocese of Łuck, Volhyn (present-day north-western Ukraine) Date of Death: 7 April 1763 Place of Death: Firlejów (present-day Lipivka, western Ukraine) BiographyBenedykt Chmielowski was born in 1700, possibly on 20 or 21 March, assuming the practice of the time of naming newborns after the patron saint of the day of their birth. He came from a noble family that used the  Nałęcz coat of arms. He studied at a Jesuit academy in Lwów (Lviv), and then entered the diocesan seminary in Lwów in 1722. He worked for some time at the …

Benjamin Keasberry

(854 words)

Author(s): Thian Hock Tan, Malcolm
Benjamin Peach Keasberry Date of Birth: 1811 Place of Birth: Hyderabad, India Date of Death: 6 September 1875 Place of Death: Singapore BiographyBenjamin Peach Keasberry was born in 1811 in Hyderabad, India, the son of a British Indian Army officer, who was later appointed British resident in Java under Stamford Raffles during the British conquest and occupation there at the time of the Napoleonic Wars. After his early life in Java and education in Hyderabad, Keasberry came to Singapore in the late 1820s as a young m…

 Benjamin Peach Keasberry's writings

(1,352 words)

Author(s): Thian Hock Tan, Malcolm
- Benjamin Peach Keasberry Date: 1839-75 Original Language: English DescriptionBenjamin Keasberry served between 1839 and 1875 as a missionary to Malay Muslims in Singapore, and left a considerable legacy in his writings. He produced many tracts in Jawi Malay, among them translations of the New Testament and John Bunyan's  Pilgrim’s progress in romanised Malay, and also a translation of the New Testament into Jawi. His missionary reports and correspondence were in English.  Keasberry’s focus was to preach the Gospel. He does not mention Islam directly in his print…

Benjamin Schultze

(781 words)

Author(s): Liebau, Heike
Date of Birth: 7 January 1689 Place of Birth: Sonnenburg (present-day Słonsk, Poland) Date of Death: 25 September 1760 Place of Death: Halle/Saale BiographyBorn in Sonnenburg (present-day Słonsk, Poland) on 7 January 1689 as the twelfth child in his family, Benjamin Schultze’s formal education started at the age of four at the local school. In 1704, he continued his education in Landsberg/Warthe, the most important town of the New Mark at that time. There, he first heard about the Tranquebar Mission in south-east Indi…

Bernardin Frankapan

(574 words)

Author(s): Moretti, Violeta
Bernardinus Frangipanus, Bernardinus de Frangepanibus, Bernardin Frankapan Modruški, Bernardin Frankapan Ozaljski Date of Birth: 1453 Place of Birth: Croatia Date of Death: Before 5 June 1530 Place of Death: Unknown Biography Bernardin Frankapan, Croatian count ( comes perpetuus) and member of a powerful aristocratic family, was the son of Isotta d’Este, Duchess of Ferrara, and the Croatian viceroy ( ban) Stjepan III Frankapan of Modruš. He was well-known as a soldier, diplomat and patron of culture. In 1486 a survey of Frankapan’s estate at Modruš was …

Bernardo Pérez de Chinchón

(845 words)

Author(s): Pons Fuster, Francisco
Biography Bernardo Pérez was born in Chinchón at the end of the 15th century. He possibly studied at the University of Alcalá de Henares, obtaining the degree of Master of Theology. A son and grandson of Jewish converts, his paternal grandfather was condemned by the Inquisition as a heretic and he contaminated all his descendants. But Bernardo Pérez was cleared by the Inquisitor General Alonso Manrique, which allowed him to hold certain positions. In 1523/5, for reasons that are not clear, he moved to Gandí…

Besarion Orbelishvili

(898 words)

Author(s): Chikvaidze, Eka
Date of Birth: Latter part of the 17th century Place of Birth: Kʻartʻli, Georgia Date of Death: 1737 Place of Death: Mcʻxetʻa, Georgia BiographyCatholicos Besarion, an ecclesiastical writer, hymnographer, hagiographer, polemicist and liturgist, belonged to the influential house of Orbelishvili-Baratʻashvili, known for their culture and traditions. From 1680 to 1723, he was a priest at the Gareji Monastery of St John the Baptist and an active figure on the Gareji literary scene. The colophon of a manuscript copied in 1…

 Beschrijvinge vande lantrijs, in Europa en Asia, gedaen door de heer Carel Quina

(1,634 words)

Author(s): van den Boogert, Maurits
‘Description of the overland journey, in Europe and Asia, conducted by Mister Carel Quina’ Carel Quina Date: Possibly after 1678 Original Language: Dutch Description In this account, consisting of 153 manuscript pages and 179 pages in the printed edition, Quina describes the entire overland journey from leaving Amsterdam on 27 July 1668 and arriving in Jerusalem on 6 April 1669. The return journey is not described. The most relevant sections begin in Austria, where the author includes a brief account of the second sieg…

 Beseda molebnaia o blagochestivom gosudare i o pobede na vragi

(407 words)

Author(s): Soldat, Cornelia
‘Te Deum for the pious ruler and for victory over the enemy’ Iov Date: April 1695 Original Language: Old Russian DescriptionIov wrote his  Beseda molebnaia in April 1695, in anticipatory praise of Peter the Great’s victory over the Ottomans at Azov, which was to take place in the summer of that year. Consisting of 44 manuscript pages, it is written in prose and syllabic verses, and is composed of 15 parts. The first two consist of a petition to the former Metropolitan Iov of Novgorod, now archimandrite at the Monastery St Sergius, asking him to pray for the author. The text ends with four pr…


(869 words)

Author(s): Karichashvili, Lia
Besarion Gabashvili Date of Birth: 1750 Place of Birth: Georgia; presumably Tbilisi Date of Death: 24 or 25 January 1791 Place of Death: Iași, Romania BiographyThe poet Besarion Gabashvili, also known as Besiki, is thought to have been born in 1750, the son of Zakʻaria Gabashvili, father confessor of Tʻeimuraz II, king of Kʻartʻli (r. 1732-62), and a well-known writer and church figure of the period. Besarion Gabashvili was brought up and educated with the princes in the royal court. Zakʻaria Gabashvili was engaged in a doctrinal dispute with Catholicos Anton I, who had th…

 Beweis der Wahrheit der Christlichen Religion

(2,103 words)

Author(s): Grodź, Stanisław
Ueber die Religion‘Proof of the truth of the Christian religion’ Gottfried Less Date: 1768-85 Original Language: German DescriptionIn these works on Christian apologetics, Less reacts against various opinions (often attacks) on Christianity and argues in favour of its primacy over other religions. At various points he devotes some attention to  Muhammed – as he calls him – and his religion. Beweis der Wahrheit der christlichen Religion (‘Proof of the truth of the Christian religion’) was first published in Göttingen and Bremen in 1768; it is 648 pages long.…

 Bewys van den waren godsdienst met overige Nederduitsche gedichten

(2,855 words)

Author(s): van Liere, Lucien
‘Proof of the true religion with other Low German poems’ Hugo Grotius Date: 1622, 1627 Original Language: Dutch Description Grotius’ Bewys van den waren godsdienst was partly written during his captivity at Loevestein castle. When he was suffering from depression, his close friend Gerardus Vossius (1577-1649) tried to cheer him up by encouraging him to study and write. In December 1619, Grotius wrote to Vossius to say that he was considering working on a booklet against ‘unbelievers and Jews’. A few months later, in March 1620, he had already finished the first three parts of the book. The …
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