Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editors: David Thomas and John Chesworth
Associate Editors: John Azumah, Clinton Bennett, Lejla Demiri, Martha Frederiks, Stanisław Grodź, Andrew Newman, Douglas Pratt

Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general history of relations between the two faiths as this is represented in works written by Christians and Muslims about the other and against the other. It covers all parts of the world in the period 1500-1914. Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online comprises thousands of comprehensive entries on individual works and their authors, together with introductory essays to the periods and areas covered, making it the fullest available source in this field.


 Calvino-turcismus, id est calvinisticae perfidiae cum mahometana collatio et utriusque sectæ confutatio

(1,333 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Calvino-turcismus'"Calvino-turcismus", a comparison of the error of Calvinism with "Muhammadanism" and a refutation of each sect''A rebuttal of Calvinism by refuting the amalgam of Calvinism and Islam' William Rainolds Date: 1597 Original Language: Latin Description Calvino-turcismus is a Latin text of 1,222 pages, divided into four books. The title introduces the novel notion that Calvinism and Islam are so similar that they can be regarded as one combined heresy. Rainolds supports this argument by referencing accounts of Jews a…

 Cambridge MS Or. Ii.6.45: Tafsīr Sūrat al-Kahf

(787 words)

Author(s): Riddell, Peter
‘Cambridge MS Or. Ii.6.45: Commentary on the Qur’an Chapter of the Cave’ Tafsīr Sūrat al-Kahf Date: Approximately 1600 Original Language: Jawi Malay DescriptionThe date of this work can be estimated by tracing back from known events. The only surviving manuscript once belonged to the prominent Dutch Arabist Thomas Erpenius (d. 1624). Some of his manuscripts had been collected by the Dutch sailor Pieter Willemzoon van Elbinck, who visited Aceh with Dutch expeditions during the first decade of the 17th century. Van Elbinck is probably the person who obtained this manuscript…

 Cantio Petri Berislo

(832 words)

Author(s): Barany, Attila
Cantio Petri Berislo‘The song of Péter Beriszló’- Mikhael de Zabatke Date: 23 April 1515 Original Language: Hungarian Description The whereabouts of the original work are unknown. A copy was found in Vienna in the 19th century, and a partial facsimile edition was made by Jenő Ábel in the 1880s, but there is no precise knowledge about where the original copy is held. The poem is about Péter Beriszló (in Croatian Petar Berislavić, originating from a Trogir/Trau Dalmatian patrician family), a prominent leader in the anti-Ottoman struggle in early 16th-century Hungary and Croatia. It r…

Carel Poensen

(513 words)

Author(s): Kruithof, Maryse
Date of Birth: 9 May 1836 Place of Birth: Amsterdam Date of Death: 6 February 1919 Place of Death: The Hague BiographyAfter briefly training to become a decorator, Carel Poensen entered the seminary of the Dutch Missionary Society ( Nederlandsch Zendelinggenootschap, NZG) in Rotterdam in 1855, and he left the Netherlands five years later to work as a missionary in the Dutch Indies. He was assigned to the district of Kediri, a small town in south-east Java, where he arrived in 1863 and remained until 1891. After retiring from missionar…

Carel Quina

(784 words)

Author(s): van den Boogert, Maurits
Biography Carel Quina (1622-89), Knight of the Holy Sepulchre, hailed from a Calvinist mercantile family from Antwerp. Around the turn of the 17th century, the family moved to Amsterdam. Both Quina’s grandfather and father were called Carel, so they occasionally get mixed up in the identification of our traveller, who was born in Amsterdam in 1622. His mother was Janneke Mercier (or Merchier, also ‘Cocquiel dit Mercier’, 1595-1663), born in Wesel (Germany) to a couple who had migrated from Antwerp and would later set…

Carlo Camucio

(717 words)

Author(s): Tramontana, Felicita
Date of Birth: 20 June 1706 Place of Birth: Tolmezzo, Italy Date of Death: 6 October 1788 Place of Death: Rome BiographyCarlo Camucio was born in Tolmezzo in 1706 into an aristocratic family. He began his studies in Capodistria and completed them in Rome. In Rome, he was also made deacon by Pope Benedict XIII (r. 1724-30) in 1728 and then presbyter in 1729. In 1745, he came back to his hometown as rector of the pieve (rural parish church) of Tolmezzo and archdeacon of Carnia. He retained this office until 1756, when he was named bishop of Capodistria. In 1750, for the jubilee, Camucio embarke…

 Carro de dos vidas

(1,618 words)

Author(s): Perez, Rafael
Carro de dos vidas'The two ways' Gómez García Date: 1500 Original Language: Spanish Description Carro de dos vidas was the first systematic treatise on Christian spirituality to be written in Spanish. It was printed in Seville in 1500, the year that saw the publication of García Jiménez de Cisneros’s Exercitatorio de la vida espiritual in the Monastery of Montserrat in Catalonia. Together, these works opened a particularly brilliant period for Spanish religious literature, which was to reach its zenith throughout the 16th century with Francisco de Osuna, Teresa of Ávila and …

 Carta das Novas. Que vieram a el rey nosso senhor do descobrimento do Preste Joham

(1,328 words)

Author(s): Chesworth, John
‘Letter of news, which was sent to the our lord the king, concerning the discovery of Prester John’‘The discovery of Abyssinia by the Portuguese in 1520’ Diogo Lopes de Sequeira Date: 1521 Original Language: Portuguese Description Carta das novas. Que vieram a el rei nossi senhor do descobrimento do Preste Jo ão is a thin folio of 14 leaves in two quires, signed A (eight leaves) and B (six leaves), which was probably published by Germão Galharde in Lisbon in 1521 (Thomas and Cortesão,  Discovery of Abyssinia, p. xiv).  Its contents are based on the report received by King Manuel…

 Carta de António Caiado para cum amigo

(626 words)

Author(s): Chesworth, John
Carta de António Caiado para cum amigo‘Letter from António Caiado to a friend’ António Caiado Date: 22 March 1561 Original Language: Portuguese Description Carta de Ant ónio Caiado para cum amigo is a letter from Caiado to an unknown friend who was also living in eastern Africa. It contains a first-hand account of the death of Dom Gonçalo de Silveira, a Jesuit killed during his mission to Monomotapa on 15-16 March 1561, and the events leading up to it. The letter is 93 lines long, and in the edition by da Silva Rego it takes up three pages. There are nine known manuscript copies. Caiado consis…

 Carta de D. Francisco Coutinho a D. Sebastião

(574 words)

Author(s): Vila-Santa, Nuno
Carta de D. Francisco Coutinho a D. Sebastião’Letter from Francisco Coutinho to King Sebastião’ Francisco Coutinho Date: 20 December 1561 Original Language: Portuguese Description This letter is the only one that Francisco Coutinho is known to have written during the time he was viceroy of India, and is a commentary on parts of the ‘regimento’, or instruction, given by the regent, Catarina of Austria, to Francisco when he left Lisbon.. It was part of the correspondence sent each year by viceroys, nobles and officials, …

 Carta de el-Rei D. Manuel ao Rei Catholico narrando-ilhe as viagens portugezas a India desde 1500 ate 1505

(1,224 words)

Author(s): Halikowski-Smith, Stefan
Carta de el-Rei D. Manuel'Letter of King Dom Manuel to the Catholic king describing to him the Portuguese voyages to India from 1500 to 1505' Carta de el-Rei D. Manuel Date: 23 October 1505 Original Language: Italian Description This 21-page work was published as a copy of a letter sent by the King of Portugal to the King of Castile, describing the progress made in discovering India up to 1505 ( successo de India). However, it is actually a compilation of material from Manuel’s letter of 1501, Vespucci’s Mundus novus letter (1502/3), an anonymous Portuguese account of Pedro Álvares…

 Carta de Francisco de Sousa Tavares ao rei

(527 words)

Author(s): Carvalho, Andreia
Carta de Francisco de Sousa Tavares ao rei‘Letter of Francisco de Sousa Tavares to the king’ Francisco de Sousa Tavares Date: 14 January 1535 Original Language: Portuguese Description This letter, which consists of five folios, was written between 1533 and 1536, when Tavares was in Cannanore as captain of the fortress. It was sent together with several others as a part of the annual correspondence from officials in India to the king in Lisbon, comprising reports and commentaries on Portuguese activities in Asia. The first two folios cover relations between the Portuguese and t…

 Carta del Gobernador de Filipinas, Miguel López de Legazpi, al Virrey de Nueva España

(445 words)

Author(s): Donoso, Isaac
Carta del Gobernador de Filipinas‘Letter from the Governor of the Philippines, Miguel López de Legazpi, to the Viceroy of New Spain’ Miguel López de Legazpi Date: 11 August 1572 Original Language: Spanish Description Over the years he spent in the Philippines, Miguel López de Legazpi sent a number of accounts of the country, its people, and the activities of the Spanish as they conquered it, to King Philip and the authorities in New Spain (Mexico). In this last letter, which he wrote just days before his death, he gives an acco…

 Carta do Emperador de Ethiopia pera sua Santidade de 26 de junho do anno de 1604

(632 words)

Author(s): Cohen, Leonardo
‘Letter from the Emperor of Ethiopia to his Holiness, of 26 June 1604’ Zä Dəngəl, Emperor of Ethiopia Date: 1604 Original Language: Portuguese DescriptionAccording to Pedro Páez, although Zä Dəngəl was inclined to accept Catholicism, he preferred to keep this secret. The emperor was interested in marrying his son to the daughter of King Philip III of Spain (and Portugal) in order to consolidate the union between the two kingdoms. On 26 June 1604, he wrote letters to Pope Clement VIII, King Philip III, and Aires de Saldanha, the Viceroy of India, which Páez included them in História da Etióp…

 Carta do Governador António Moniz Barreto ao Idalcão

(687 words)

Author(s): Vila-Santa, Nuno
Carta do Governador António Moniz Barreto ao Idalcão'Letter from Governor António Moniz Barreto to Sultan Ali Adil Shah of Bijapur' António Moniz Barreto Date: 16 Febuary 1574 Original Language: Portuguese Description This is the only surviving letter from António Moniz Barreto during the period of his rule in India. It is included in Diogo do Couto’s chronicle, Décadas da Ásia. It is addressed to Sultan Ali Adil Shah of Bijapur (r. 1557-80), and forms part of a sequence of letters between the sultan and the Portuguese. Its main theme is the complaints …

 Carta do Governador D. João de Castro ao Sultão Mahmud Shah III do Guzerate

(400 words)

Author(s): de Jesus, Roger Lee
Carta do Governador D. João de Castro‘Letter from Governor João de Castro to Sultan Mahmud Shah III of Gujarat’ João de Castro Date: 7 November 1547 Original Language: Portuguese Description João de Castro’s correspondence is one of the largest of all the Portuguese viceroys and governors from the first half of the 16th century. Some of his letters, such as this one, are intended for local rulers. Like those of other governors, such as the letter from Francisco Mascarenhas to Sultan Murtaza Nizam Shah of Ahmadnagar after he besieged the Portugues…

 Carta do Padre D. Gonçalo para os irmãos da Companhia de Jesus de Portugal

(506 words)

Author(s): Nickel, Gordon
Carta do Padre D. Gonçalo para os irmãos da Companhia de Jesus de Portugal‘Letter from Father D. Gonçalo to the brothers of the Society of Jesus of Portugal’ Dom Gonçalo da Silveira Date: November 1559 Original Language: Portuguese Description This letter runs to three printed pages in Portuguese. Writing from Goa in November 1559, Don Gonçalo describes an anticipated mission to South Africa, to a kingdom he calls Inhambane (in his second letter he explains that actually this is the name of a port, or a place just inland from the por…

 Carta do Padre D. Gonçalo para os padres e irmãos do Colégia da Companhia de Jesus de Goa

(754 words)

Author(s): Nickel, Gordon
'Letter from Father Dom Gonçalo to the Fathers and Brothers of the College of the Society of Jesus in Goa’ Dom Gonçalo da Silveira Date: 9 August 1560 Original Language: Portuguese Description The letter was written on 9 August 1560, later in the year of Dom Gonçalo’s arrival in Africa. It is five printed pages in length. Dom Gonçalo opens the letter with thanksgiving that the king and queen of Tonge (Otongue) have received baptism, along with many relatives, including all the king’s sons and daughters, as well as many nobleme…

 Carta do Vice-rei Antão de Noronha a D. Sebastião

(856 words)

Author(s): Vila-Santa, Nuno
Carta do Vice-rei Antão de Noronha a D. Sebastião'Letter of Viceroy Antão de Noronha to King Sebastião' Antão de Noronha Date: 30 December 1564 Original Language: Portuguese Description This letter was sent by Antão de Noronha from India to the King in Portugal in 1564. It is just under ten folios long and, in addition to other details, it contains an account of political and military manoeuvres among Indian states, with some encouragement from Muslim agencies, that threatened the survival of the Portuguese in India. Part of the problem arose from the seizure of ships belonging …

 Carta do vice-rei D. Constantino de Bragança à rainha D. Catarina

(1,144 words)

Author(s): Vila-Santa, Nuno
Carta do vice-rei D. Constantino de Bragança à rainha D. Catarina‘Letter of the Viceroy D. Constantino de Bragança to Queen Catarina of Austria’ Constantino de Bragança Date: 20 January 1561 Original Language: Portuguese Description This is the only known letter written by Constantino of Bragança during his period in office (1558-61), although it is very likely that he wrote other letters to Queen Catarina as part of his vice-regal duties. It is a long letter of 16 folios. In one part (fols 32-35v) Constantino gives news about relations between the Portuguese and surround…
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