Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editors: David Thomas and John Chesworth
Associate Editors: John Azumah, Clinton Bennett, Lejla Demiri, Martha Frederiks, Stanisław Grodź, Andrew Newman, Douglas Pratt

Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general history of relations between the two faiths as this is represented in works written by Christians and Muslims about the other and against the other. It covers all parts of the world in the period 1500-1914. Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online comprises thousands of comprehensive entries on individual works and their authors, together with introductory essays to the periods and areas covered, making it the fullest available source in this field.



(34 words)

Author(s): Steenbrink, Karel
Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Dagh-register van ‘tgene hier in Batavia ‘tsedert Primo January 1624 gepasseert is gelyck mede verscheyden tydingen van andere Qartieren becomen et cetera Karel Steenbrink

 Dagh-register van ‘tgene hier in Batavia ‘tsedert Primo January 1624 gepasseert is gelyck mede verscheyden tydingen van andere Qartieren becomen et cetera

(2,011 words)

Author(s): Steenbrink, Karel
‘Daily account of what has taken place here in Batavia since 1 January 1624, as well as some reports about other settlements’ Dagh-register Date: 1624-1799 Original Language: Dutch DescriptionOn 6 December 1621, Governor General Jan Pieterszoon Coen ordered all settlements of the VOC to keep a diary ( Dagh-register) of important events. This was to include reports about local politics and trade rivals, especially the British but also the French, Danish, Portuguese, Gujarati and others. An account was entered for every month, detailing the shi…

 'Ḍaḥḍ al-shaykh Ṣāliḥ ibn Manṣūr al-Kawtharānī';

(2,486 words)

Author(s): Sahin, Elena
'Al-maqāṣid al-saniyya fī ithbāt al-tathlīth wa-l-waḥdāniyya''Apologetic answer to the accusations made by Shaykh Ṣāliḥ ibn Manṣūr al-Kawtharānī' Jibrāʾīl ibn Farḥāt ibn Miṭr ibn Shāhīn al-Mashrūqī ibn Raʿd al-Ḥaṣrūnī al-Ḥalabī al-Mārūnī Date: 1727/8 Original Language: Arabic DescriptionAs well as his other activities, Jirmānūs Farḥāt also engaged in Christian-Muslim debates. According to Louis Cheikho and Joseph Nasrallah, he composed an apologetic work which starts with a poem of 42 verses and develops into a treatise of six ch…

Damião de Góis

(689 words)

Author(s): Martinez, Andreu
Biography Damião de Góis (also Goes), one of the outstanding Portuguese figures of the 16th century, was a humanist and official of the Portuguese Crown. He was born to a noble family in the service of the kings of Portugal, and his grandfather, Gomes Dias de Góis, had been in the entourage of Prince Henry the Navigator. In 1511, at a young age, Góis entered the service of King Manuel I, first as page and later as  moço da câmara (chamberlain), a position that his brother Fructo de Góis also held (Góis, Fides, religio, moresqve Aethiopvm, p. 12). In 1523, King João III sent him to An…

Daniel Havart

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Kruijtzer, Gijs
Daniel Houwert, Hauwert, Havert, Havardt Date of Birth: Probably 29 December 1650 Place of Birth: Probably Amsterdam Date of Death: 2 June 1724 Place of Death: Rotterdam BiographyAccording to two biographical notes, Daniel Havart was born in 1650 in Amsterdam to Elisabeth Vermeer and Servaes Houwert, although neither the date nor the place of his birth is confirmed by any records. In his publications, his name appears as Havart but alternative spellings found in records from his early life are Houwert, Hauwert, Havert and…

 Das siebend Capitel Danielis von des Türcken Gotteslesterung vnd schrecklicher morderey mit vnterricht Justi Jonae

(1,386 words)

Author(s): Hund, Johannes
Das siebend Capitel Danielis‘The seventh chapter of Daniel on the blasphemy of the Turk and his terrible murderous acts, together with an instruction of Justus Jonas’, ‘The seventh chapter of Daniel’ Jodokus (Jobst) Koch Date: Late 1529 or early 1530 Original Language: German Description Jonas finished Das siebend Capitel Danielis in autumn 1529, after the end of the Ottoman siege of Vienna in October 1529. The book, containing 32 quarto pages, was printed sometime around December 1529 or January 1530 by Hans Lufft, one of the most important printers of the Wittenberg Reformation. Altho…

Davitʻ Guramishvili

(792 words)

Author(s): Amirkhanashvili, Ivane
Date of Birth: 1705 Place of Birth: Guramiantkari, Georgia Date of Death: 21 July 1792 Place of Death: Myrhorod, Ukraine BiographyDavitʻ Guramishvili was born in 1705 in the village of Guramiantʻkari, eastern Georgia, where his ancestors, who were from southern Georgia, had settled at the beginning of the 15th century. Davitʻ’s father, Giorgi Shioshis-dże Guramishvili, entrusted his son to a nurse in a peasant family who were so poor that the poet retained the memories of the hardship and hunger they experienced into his old age. In summer 1728, Guramishvili was kidnapped by ma…


(787 words)

Author(s): Amirkhanashvili, Ivane
- Davitʻ Guramishvili Date: 1787 Original Language: Georgian DescriptionThe works of Davit‘ Guramishvili are brought together in one book under the title Davit‘iani, compiled by the author himself at the end of the 18th century. This title has a double meaning, on the one hand indicating the name of the author, while on the other, forming a reference to the Psalms of David, known in Old Georgian as the Davit‘ni. Davitʻiani is divided into four parts, by analogy with the four Gospels. It is a multidimensional, polyphonic, systemic work, imbued with a medieval worl…

 Dawit‘ Bēk kam patmut‘iwn Łap‘anc‘woc‘

(2,607 words)

Author(s): Cowe, S. Peter
Patmut‘iwn‘Dawit‘ Bēk or the history of the Lap‘anc‘ians’ Łukas Sebastac‘i Date: Mid-1730s Original Language: Armenian Description Dawit‘ Bēk kam patmut‘iwn Łap‘anc‘woc‘ (‘Dawit‘ Bēk or the history of the Lap‘anc‘ians’) is based on personal accounts by Step‘anos Shahumean and Tēr Awetis, who were present with Dawit‘ Bēk during the course of the conflict. It was composed in the mid 1730s, a few years after the events it relates. The autograph manuscript (V620) is held by the Armenian Catholic Mkhitarist Library, San…

 De afflictione Christianorum

(564 words)

Author(s): Höfert, Almut
De afflictione Christianorum‘On the suffering of the Christians’ Bartol Đurđević, Bartolomej Đurđević, Bartholomaeus Gjorgevic, Bartol Jurjević, Bartolomeo Georgijević, Bartholomaeo Georgievitz, Bartholomaeo Gyurgievits, Bartłomiej Georgiewicz Date: 1544 Original Language: Latin Description In this 32-page book (its fuller title is De afflictione tam captivorum quam etiam sub Turcae tribute viventium Christianorum, ‘On the suffering of both the captives and also the Christians living under the tribute of the Turk’), Georgius presents his expe…

 De bello Pannonico libri decem

(1,155 words)

Author(s): Szebelédi, Zsolt
'On the war in Hungary, ten books' Caspar Ursinus Velius Date: Between 1531 and 1537 Original Language: Latin Description The De bello Pannonico of Ursinus Velius amounts to 182 pages in the edition of Franciscus Kollár made in 1762. According to Kollár, the tenth book of the fragmentary work was left uncompleted because of Ursinus’s death. No critical edition has yet been published, and there is only one translation, into Hungarian. The manuscript, presumably in an incomplete form, can be found in a mid-16th-century codex held in the National Library of Austria. Consisting of ten book…

 Décadas da Ásia

(3,169 words)

Author(s): Maruyama, Toru
Décadas da Ásia'Decades of Asia' João de Barros Date: 1570 Original Language: Portuguese Description The original four volumes of the work are as follows: Primeira Década da Ásia dos Feitos, que os Portugueses fizeram no descobrimento, e conquista dos mares, e terras do Oriente, Lisbon: Germão Galhardo, 1552. In the 1777-78 edition, the two parts come to 478 and 447 pages. Segunda Década da Ásia, Lisbon: Germão Galhardo, 1553. In the 1777-78 edition, its two parts come to 572 and 496 pages. Terceira Década da Ásia, Lisbon: João Barreira, 1563. In the 1777-78 edition, its two par…

 Decades of the Newe Worlde, or West Indies

(1,727 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
De orbe novo decades- Richard Eden Date: 1555 Original Language: English Description Eden’s Decades of the New World gives an English translation of the first three books of Pietro Martire d’Anghiera's Latin De orbe novo decades, using the 1533 edition. It also translates the first part of Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdes’s La historia general de las Indias (1535), and gives an abridged account of Ferdinand Magellan’s voyage of circumnavigation. The whole book is 446 pages long, excluding preliminary sections. Written by Eden in a quasi-official c…

 De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas svscepta, ab Societate Iesv

(2,354 words)

Author(s): Morris, James Harry
‘The Christian expedition to China of the Society of Jesus’ Trigautius, Trigaultius, Jin Nige Date: 1615 Original Language: Latin DescriptionDuring his journey to Rome between 1612 and 1614, Trigault completed a Latin translation of an Italian manuscript originally written by Matteo Ricci, describing China and the Jesuit mission there. Trigault also edited Ricci’s text and composed an additional five chapters in order to bring the history up to date, to finish in approximately 1613. His text, which Ricci had compo…

 De Christiana religione et fidei pietate

(1,681 words)

Author(s): Katinis, Teodoro
De Christiana religioneDella Cristiana religione, Della religione Cristiana‘On the Christian religion and spirituality of faith’, ‘On the Christian religion’ Marsilio Ficino Date: 1474 (first edition of the vernacular version), 1476 (first edition of the Latin version) Original Language: Italian Description Ficino himself oversaw the publication of both the vernacular and Latin versions of his treatise De Christiana religione, so one may be certain that they reflect his intentions as the author. As with his translation of Dante’s On monarchy and the vernacular version of …

 De conditione vitae Christianorum sub Turca

(1,846 words)

Author(s): George ‎, Edward
De conditione vitae Christianorum sub Turca Quam misera esset vita Christianorum sub TurcaOn the condition of the life of Christians under the TurkHow miserable the life of Christians would be unde rthe Turk Juan Luis Vives Date: 1529 Original Language: Latin Description The topic reflected in the commonly employed title of De conditione, the fate of Christians actually under Turkish domination, is overshadowed by Vives’s anxiety over the questionable soundness of European Christians’ religious faith. The other title, ‘How miserable life would be…

 De conflictu Hungarorum cum Solymano Turcarum imperatore ad Mohach historia verissima

(1,291 words)

Author(s): Kasza, Péter
Historia verissimaClades in campo Mohacz;, Descriptio proelii inter Ludovicum et Solymanum ad Mohazium gesti; , Cladis Mohacsianae sub Ludovico II. descriptio‘The true history of the battle of the Hungarians against the Ottoman Emperor Süleyman at Mohács’ Stephanus Brodericus Date: Approximately February-March 1528 Original Language: Latin Description Apart from many diplomatic letters and two orations, Historia verissima is the only work written by Brodericus. It is an account of the decisive battle of Mohács between the Hungarian and Ottoman armie…

 Decree of toleration

(423 words)

Author(s): Tucker, Ernest
- Nādir Shah Afshār; Tahmāsp Qulī Khān; Nāder Shah Date: 12 April 1736 Original Language: Persian DescriptionThis is a royal decree apparently issued by Nādir shortly after his coronation on the Mughān steppe in Azerbaijan in the spring of 1736. The decree notes that, according to the Prophet Muḥammad, the Christian community is composed of several different sects that follow rites and practices different from each other. Each of these sects is associated with a particular people ( qawm), and each sect follows its own rules and customs. In recognition that all these people were fa…

 De Europae dissidiis et bello Turcico

(2,393 words)

Author(s): George ‎, Edward
De Europae dissidiis et bello Turcico‘On conflicts in Europe and the Turkish war’ Juan Luis Vives Date: 1526 Original Language: Latin Description De Europae dissidiis et bello Turcico, 30 pages in Majansius’s edition (to which the page numbers here refer), is a satirical dialogue in the vein of the Greek Dialogues of the dead of Lucian of Samosata (125-80); Lucian was a popular inspiration for satire among 16th-century humanists. The setting is the underworld, in the immediate wake of the Turks’ crushing defeat of the Hungarian army on 29 August 1526, at Mohács…

 Defensio fidei in causa neophytorum, sive Morischorum Regno Valentiae totiusque Hispaniae

(1,500 words)

Author(s): Poutrin, Isabelle
‘Defence of the faith on the issue of the neophytes or Moriscos of the Kingdom of Valencia and of the whole of Spain’ Jaime Bleda Date: 1610 Original Language: Latin Description The Defensio fidei was clearly aimed at those involved in deciding the fate of the Moriscos. It is composed of four parts, the first three essentially completed in 1601 and the last added in autumn 1609. In its published form, it runs to 617 pages. The first part (pp. 25-118) presents 91 items of evidence, in no apparent order, to prove the Moriscos’ he…
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