Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editors: David Thomas and John Chesworth
Associate Editors: John Azumah, Clinton Bennett, Lejla Demiri, Martha Frederiks, Stanisław Grodź, Andrew Newman, Douglas Pratt

Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general history of relations between the two faiths as this is represented in works written by Christians and Muslims about the other and against the other. It covers all parts of the world in the period 1500-1914. Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online comprises thousands of comprehensive entries on individual works and their authors, together with introductory essays to the periods and areas covered, making it the fullest available source in this field.


Fabian Birkowski

(645 words)

Author(s): Baron, Maciej
Biography Fabian Birkowski was born into a burgher family in 1566 (though some give 1564 or 1569), the eldest of four children. In 1587, he gained a Bachelor of Arts degree, and taught Greek and Latin literature as well as philosophy and rhetoric. In 1593, he obtained a doctorate in philosophy, followed by a two-year tenure as a  docent-extraneus, when he lectured on classical literature. At this point, he gave up his academic career, and in 1597 he entered the Dominican Order, making his vows in 1598. Some sources suggest that his decision was motivated by a…

 Fabulae Muhammedicae sive nugae Alcorani; Specimen Suratarum, id est, Capitum aliquot ex Alcorani Systemate; Suratae unius atque alterius textum

(1,376 words)

Author(s): Ben-Tov, Asaph
‘Muhammadan fables’; ‘A sample of suras’; ‘The text of one and another sura’ Johann Zechendorff Date: Fabulae Muhammedicae, 1627; Specimen Suratarum, 1638; Suratae unius atque alterius textum, undated, probably 1647 Original Language: Arabic Description In 1626, after he had taught himself Arabic, Zechendorff acquired a manuscript of the Qur’an, a considerable investment for a poorly paid school master. The whole Qur’an was not available in print in his lifetime – only several scholarly  specimina comprising texts of one or several suras in Arabic accompanied by a La…

F.A. Klein

(412 words)

Author(s): Shelley, Michael T.
Frederick Augustus Klein Date of Birth: 1827 Place of Birth: Strasbourg Date of Death: 1903 Place of Death: Europe; precise location unknown Biography Born in Strasbourg in 1827, Frederick Augustus Klein studied at the Basel Mission Institute and then spent time at the Church Missionary Society College, Islington, for instruction in Anglican Church doctrine and practice. He completed his studies there in June 1851, and was ordained into the Anglican priesthood. Called by the Church Missionary Society (CMS), he left for Palestine in 1851, where he served at Christ C…

 Farmān-i ʿAli-Murād Khān

(511 words)

Author(s): Tiburcio, Alberto
ʿAlī-Murād Khān’s farmān on freedom of residence and practice for Christians ʿAlī-Murād Khān Zand Date: 25 May - 22 June 1781 Original Language: Persian DescriptionThis  farmān (royal edict), issued on behalf of ʿAlī-Murād Khān Zand, was written in response to a petition by a clergyman by the name of Avānūs, which is usually a transliteration of the Armenian name for John: Hovhannes or Yohvannes. Although it is difficult to establish the identity of this character, it is plausible that it could have been the same as an …

 Farsa dicha Turquesana, contra el mundo muy galana

(944 words)

Author(s): Hernando, Julio
Farsa turquesana'The most elegant Turkish farce, against the Turk', 'Turkish farce' Hernán López de Yanguas Date: About 1530 Original Language: Spanish Description The Farsa turquesana is a short, semi-allegorical play in 968 verses that presents the Christian reaction to the European campaigns of the Ottoman Empire during the first half of the 16th century. Given that the only preserved print edition has no date, the only definite date a   quo is 1523, the beginning of the pontificate of Pope Clement VII, one of the characters in the play. The gestures of mutual …

 Al-fatāwā l-ʿĀlamgīriyya

(2,038 words)

Author(s): Khalfaoui, Mouez
Al-fatāwā l-Hindiyya'Legal opinions of the time of Aurangzeb' Shaykh Niẓām al-Dīn Burhānpūrī Date: 1664-72 Original Language: Arabic Description Al-fatāwā l-ʿ Ālamgīriyya is a compendium of Muslim law according to the Ḥanafī school of jurisprudence. It was compiled by a team of more than 40 scholars between 1664 and 1672 in northern India under the supervision of Shaykh Niẓām al-Dīn Burhānpūrī and with the patronage of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. The work was a comprehensive restatement of Ḥanafī law, incorporati…

 Fatḥ al-ʿayn wa-kashf al-ghayn ʿan al-farq bayna l-basmalatayn wa-īḍāḥ maʿnā l-tasmiyatayn

(1,267 words)

Author(s): Demiri, Lejla
‘Opening the eye and removing the cloud on the difference between the two basmalas, and expounding the meaning of the two ways of naming God’ ʿAbd al-Ghanī ibn Ismāʿīl ibn ʿAbd al-Ghanī ibn Ismāʿīl l-Nābulusī Date: 1720 Original Language: Arabic DescriptionThis short text was written in response to a question on whether the  basmala of the Gospel (In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit) was the same as the  basmala of the Qur’an (In the name of God, the Most Merciful, the Compassionate). In his response, al-Nābulusī first lays out his theology, empha…

 Fatḥ al-mubīn li-muḥibb al-Muslimīn al-Sāmirī ṣāḥib Kālikūt

(909 words)

Author(s): Abraham, Jose
‘The manifest victory of the Zamorin of Calicut, lover of Muslims’ Qāḍī Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz; Muḥammad al-Kālikūtī Date: Between 1579 and 1607 Original Language: Arabic Description Fatḥ al-mubīn li-muḥibb al-Muslimīn al-Sāmirī ṣāḥib Kālikūt (‘The manifest victory of the Zamorin of Calicut, lover of Muslims’), popularly known as  Fatḥ al-mubīn, is an epic poem that narrates the history of the demolition of the Portuguese fort at Chaliyam, to the south of Calicut, by joint Hindu and Muslim forces, under the able leadership of the Hind…

 Fātiḥa/muqaddima Kitāb al-naḥla

(891 words)

Author(s): Walbiner, Carsten
‘Introduction to “The book of the bee”’ Makāriyūs ibn al-Zaʿīm al-Ḥalabī Date: 1666 Original Language: Arabic Description Kitāb al-naḥla (‘The book of the bee’), one of the samplers so typical of the literary production of Macarius, contains in its ‘Introduction’ ( Fātiḥa/ Muqaddima) a rare piece of original writing by the author. Kitāb al-naḥla is a collection of remarks, excerpts and short tracts that are the fruit of Macarius’ reading, mainly of Greek books. It was compiled in 1666, when he was travelling from Georgia to Russia. The ‘Introducti…

 Fatwa del muftí de Orán

(1,373 words)

Author(s): Bernabé Pons, Luis F.
Respuesta que hizo el muftí de Orán a ciertas preguntas que [le] hicieron desde la Andalucía'Answer written by the mufti of Oran to some questions raised to him from al-Andalus', 'Fatwa of the muftī of Orán' Abū l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad ibn Abī Jumʿa l-Maghrāwī l-Wahrānī Date: 8 December 1504 Original Language: Spanish in Arabic letters (Aljamiado) Description This is a short text of only about eight folios in almost all versions. Although one Aljamiado manuscript dates it to 1563, all the other versions agree on 1 Rajab 910 (8 December 1504) as the date of co…

 Fawāʾid-i izdiwāj

(258 words)

Author(s): Tiburcio, Alberto
‘The benefits of marriage’ ʿAlī Qulī Jadīd al-Islām, António de Jesus Date: Probably before 1711 Original Language: Persian Description Fawāʾid-i izdiwāj is one of ʿAlī Qulī’s minor works, most likely written in preparation for Sayf al-mūʾminīn, as suggested by the fact that many of the themes addressed in this text also appear in his magnum opus. It covers pp. 291-310 in the 1994/5 version edited by Rasūl Jaʿfariyān. In his argumentation in this  risāla, ʿAlī Qulī uses some of the same rhetorical strategies of his major treatises, such as biblical citations and Hadi…

 Al-fawāʿid al-muhimma fī bayān ishtirāṭ al-tabarrī fī Islām ahl al-dhimma

(1,559 words)

Author(s): Şimşek, Murat
‘Important notes explaining the requirement on client people for a renunciation [when converting] to Islam’ Nuh ibn Mustafa Date: Mid-17th century; between 1630 and 1660 Original Language: Arabic Description This treatise, which covers folios 80-93 in the undated MS Istanbul, Süleymaniye Library – Hacı Beşir Ağa 652, addresses a debate on whether it is sufficient for a Christian converting to Islam to recite the  shahāda, ‘the testimony of faith’ (‘I testify that there is no god but God and I testify that Muḥammad is the messenger of God’) or whether the con…

 Al-fawz al-kabīr fī uṣūl al-tafsīr

(1,197 words)

Author(s): M. Ramsey, Charles
‘The great success in principles of interpretation’ Aḥmad Walī Allāh ibn ‘Abd al-Raḥīm al-‘Umarī l-Dihlawī Date: Unknown Original Language: Arabic DescriptionShāh Walī Allāh’s  Al-fawz al-kabīr fī uṣūl al-tafsīr is a treatise of about 100 pages on the subject of the principles of qur’anic commentary. He did not compose any work specifically about Christians, but he addressed the religions of the Jews and Christians and the condition of the Bible within this major work concerning exegetical principles ( uṣūl al-tafsīr). In his paradigm, religious guidance is primarily der…

Fedor Feoktistov Dorokhin

(248 words)

Author(s): Sukina, Liudmila
Biography Fedor Dorokhin was a nobleman of the rank of petty gentryman ( syn boiarskii). All that is known about him is contained in the report of the governor of Kiev, Iu.P. Trubetskoi, who interrogated him after his return from captivity in Ottoman Turkey. It is likely that Dorokhin entered military service as a youth. In 1660, he was captured by Crimean Tatars in a battle near the city of Chudnov. He spent about two years in Crimea, and was then sold into slavery in Constantinople in 1662. Until 1674, he served in the Turkish army as …

Fedot Afansev syn Kotov

(302 words)

Author(s): Sukina, Liudmila
Biography Fedot (some sources give his name as ‘Fedor’) Kotov was an affluent Moscow merchant who traded with Middle Eastern and Asian countries. Some scholars surmise that he was a descendant of an ancient merchant clan engaged in international trade and the collection of customs duties. He is first mentioned in documents dated to 1617 and 1619, which name him as one of the Russian merchants who supported the Boyar Duma’s plan to grant land and special rights to English traders in gratitude for England’s involvement in the Treaty of Stolbovo between Russia and Sweden. Kotov is mainly kn…

Felice Tempia

(341 words)

Author(s): Petrolini, Chiara
Felice Michele Giobbe Tempia Date of Birth: 1720 Place of Birth: Biella Date of Death: 13 September 1774 Place of Death: Turin BiographyThe priest Felice Tempia, canon and prior of the Church of Corpus Domini in Turin, was a prolific writer of eulogies, religious orations and other minor occasional pieces, all written in a magniloquent, flowery style ( Il modello di un soldato, secondo lo spirito del Vangelo, Turin: Davico, 1761; La redenzione degli schiavi sudditi di S.S.R.M. fatta in Algeri, Tunisi e Tripoli da’ PP. trinitarj scalzi detti di S. Michele, colla ora…

Feliks Petančić

(824 words)

Author(s): Špoljarić, Luka
Felix Brutus Petancius (de Petanciis), Felix Petancius Ragusinus, Felice Petanzio Date of Birth: About 1455 Place of Birth: Dubrovnik Date of Death: Between 1517 and 1522 Place of Death: Unknown Biography Feliks Petančić was an experienced Renaissance diplomat, humanist, scribe and miniaturist, who enjoyed a long career at the Hungarian court. Born a commoner around 1455 in Dubrovnik, he received his education in his home town. He started his career in 1478 as a local teacher and held this post until 1482, when he was appoint…

Félix de Alamín

(538 words)

Author(s): F. Cutillas, José
Félix de los Molinos Date of Birth: Approximately 1637 Place of Birth: Possibly Los Molinos, Province of Madrid Date of Death: Approximately 1727 Place of Death: Madrid BiographyVery little is known about the life of Félix de Alamín. Though Fray Manuel de Santo Thomas de Aquino gives an indication of his origins: Félix de Molina seu de los Molinos ò Alamin, in provincia Castellae ('Félix de Molina or de los Molinos or Alamín, in the province of Castile')  ( Verdadero carácter de Mahoma, 1793, p. 39; see Wickart, Bullarium, p. 366). Félix de Alamín was a ‘Capuchin apostolic mission…

Félix de Jesus

(163 words)

Author(s): Resende, Vasco
Félix de Jesus; Juan de Persia; Orūj Beg Bayāt Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Lisbon Date of Death: 1640 Place of Death: Goa Biography Born in Lisbon, Félix de Jesus left for India in 1605 charged with writing the history of the Augustinian missionaries in the East, a task to which he devoted the following 35 years of his life. He died in the Convent of our Lady of Grace in Goa in 1640.     Primary Sources of Information D.B. Machado,  Bibliotheca Lusitana, historica, critica, e cronologica, Lisbon, 1741-59, vol. 2, pp. 5-6 A.S. Rego (ed.), Documentação para a história das missões do …

Felix Fabri

(1,504 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Stefan
Biography After the early death of his father, Jos Schmid, and the remarriage of his mother, Fabri grew up in the families of his stepfather in Schaffhausen and of his great uncle Kyborg near Winterthur. In 1452, he entered the Dominican monastery in Basel, and maybe as early as 1465 he was part of a delegation of monks who visited the Dominicans in Ulm in order to reform the convent according to Observant rules. From 1468 or 1474 onwards, Fabri lived in Ulm as sub-prior, reading master and ‘prea…
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