Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editors: David Thomas and John Chesworth
Associate Editors: John Azumah, Clinton Bennett, Lejla Demiri, Martha Frederiks, Stanisław Grodź, Andrew Newman, Douglas Pratt

Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general history of relations between the two faiths as this is represented in works written by Christians and Muslims about the other and against the other. It covers all parts of the world in the period 1500-1914. Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online comprises thousands of comprehensive entries on individual works and their authors, together with introductory essays to the periods and areas covered, making it the fullest available source in this field.


 Gabaaseba Tʻeimurazisa da Rustʻvelisa

(554 words)

Author(s): Kharebava, Nana
Tʻeimuraziani, Cʻxovreba mepʻisa Tʻeimuraz pirvelisa'Dialogue between Tʻeimuraz and Rustʻveli'‘The lay of Tʻeimuraz’, ‘The life of Tʻeimuraz I’ Archʻil II Bagrationi Date: 1681-5 Original Language: Georgian Description Gabaaseba Tʻeimurazisa da Rustʻvelisa (‘Dialogue between Tʻeimuraz and Rustʻveli’) is a historical poem dedicated to the king and poet Tʻeimuraz I. It is also known as  Tʻeimuraziani (‘The lay of Tʻeimuraz’). It comprises 1,133 stanzas in the edition by R. Baramiże (1989), of which 950 cover the one hundred years of Georgian histo…

Gabriel de Chinon

(980 words)

Author(s): Cussen, Sinéad
Date of Birth: Early 1610 Place of Birth: Presumably Chinon, France Date of Death: 13 October 1668 Place of Death: Aparan, Armenia Biography Gabriel de Chinon was baptised in the parish of Saint-Etienne in Chinon on 4 June 1610 (Grimaud, 'Les auteurs Chinonais du XVIIe siècle', p. 26), but little is known about his early life, not even his full name or date and place of birth. He joined the Franciscan Capuchin order in Touraine in 1635, and travelled to Mosul and Baghdad before settling in Isfahan, in the Armenian quarter of New Julfa, ar…

Gabriel Naudé

(862 words)

Author(s): Gabriel, Frédéric
Date of Birth: 2 or 3 February 1600 Place of Birth: Paris Date of Death: 29 July 1653 Place of Death: Abbeville Biography Gabriel Naudé studied humanities and medicine in Paris, at the school of Jean-Cécile Frey, Claude Bélurgey and René Moreau. During this period he was already close to Guy Patin, a doctor famous for his free thinking. He soon became the librarian of the president of the Parliament, Henri II de Mesmes, and published his Advis pour dresser une bibliothèque in 1627. He had already gained a reputation through several earlier publications:  Le Marfore, ou Discours contre l…

Gabriel Sionita

(986 words)

Author(s): Moukarzel, Joseph
Jibrāʾīl al-Ṣuhyūnī Date of Birth: About 1576/7 Place of Birth: Ehden, Lebanon Date of Death: 1648 Place of Death: Paris Biography Gabriel Sionita was born in Ehden, northern Lebanon, around 1576/7. It is probably he who arrived at the College of the Neophytes in Rome on 14 December 1583 under the name of Gabriel Namae. He entered the Maronite College when it opened in 1584. In 1610, he obtained a doctorate in theology, and two years later he was ordained to the priesthood. In 1614, under the auspices of François Savary de Brèves (d. 1627), the former French ambassador to the …

Garcia de Orta, Garcia d'Orta

(288 words)

Author(s): Resende, Vasco
Garcia da Orta Date of Birth: About 1501 Place of Birth: Castelo de Vide, Portugal Date of Death: 1568 Place of Death: Goa, India Biography Garcia da Orta was born into a Converso family of Jewish origins around the beginning of the 16th century in the south of Portugal near the Spanish border. He attended the universities of Salamanca and Alcalá de Henares and returned to Portugal sometime around 1523, where he practised medicine for a while before lecturing in the University of Lisbon. In 1534, he left Portugal in the fleet commanded …

Gaspar Correia

(530 words)

Author(s): Avelar, Ana Paula
Biography Gaspar Correia may have been born in 1492. By 1506 he may have been a member of King Manuel’s court. On 12 March 1512, he sailed to India and arrived at Goa on 15 August. Between 1512 and 1513, he worked as Afonso de Albuquerque’s secretary, accompanying him on the reconquest of Hormuz in September 1514, and witnessing his death on the return journey to Goa. In 1521, he followed Pêro Lopes de Sampaio in his voyage to the town of St Thomas of Meliapore in order to restore the chapel that had been erected at the place where St Thomas had reportedly lived. He remained there until 1524. Between 15…

Gaspar da Cruz

(962 words)

Author(s): Loureiro, Rui
Biography Gaspar da Cruz was born in Évora, Portugal, at an unknown date, perhaps in the early 1520s. He was admitted to the Dominican Convent of Azeitão near Setúbal, where he completed his religious education and was probably ordained. No details are known about this period of his life. In 1548, he sailed to India with that year’s fleet from Portugal, with a group of Dominicans under the leadership of Fr Diogo Bermudez. They were travelling east in order to open up Dominican missionary stations…

Gaspar de Aguilar

(577 words)

Author(s): Lomas, Manuel
Date of Birth: January 1561 Place of Birth: Valencia Date of Death: 26 July 1623 Place of Death: Valencia Biography Gaspar Aguilar was one of the principle playwrights of the Valencian Golden Age. Baptised on 14 January 1561 in the Church of San Martín de Valencia, he was the son of a wealthy craftsman with expertise in braid-work. Nothing is known about his education, although some biographers suggest that it could have been conducted under the auspices of his godfathers, who were of noble extraction. The outlines…

Gaspar de Leão

(793 words)

Author(s): Ventura, Ricardo
Biography Gaspar de Leão was born into a family of the minor nobility of the Algarve, in the south of Portugal. He studied at the University of Salamanca and graduated in ecclesiastical law in 1536. This means that he would have been studying in Salamanca at the same time as leading thinkers on natural law, such as Francisco Vitoria, Domingo de Soto and Azpilcueta Navarro, were developing their ideas, and when their theses on ius gentium (international law) were starting to be published and discussed. The influence of the thought of the Salamanca Law School is quite vi…

Gaspar de Sevilla

(575 words)

Author(s): Recheado, Carlene
BiographyGaspar de Sevilla was a 17th-century priest from the Capuchin Province of Andalusia who came to occupy the position of provincial of Andalusia. Very little is known about him, except that he was among the first group of 14 Spanish Capuchin missionaries from the provinces of Andalusia and Castile sent by Propaganda Fide to work among ‘the heathen and the Muslims in Nigritas’.  ‘Nigritas’ was the term used to designate the Guinea Coast from the Sahara desert in the north to present-day Sierra Leone in the south.The Capuchin missionaries reached the African coast on Christm…

Gavriēl, superior of Mount Athos

(926 words)

Author(s): Păun, Radu G.
Gavriēl ho prōtos; Gavril Protul Date of Birth: Unknown; probably between 1470 and 1480 Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown; probably after 1548 Place of Death: Unknown; probably Mount Athos Biography Gabriel’s origins are obscure. Some scholars argue that he was a Greek with a very good command of Church Slavonic, while others consider him a South-Slav (Serbian) with an excellent command of Greek. Nothing is known for certain about his family or early years. There is some evidence to indicate that he began his monas…

Gavriil, Metropolitan of Nazareth

(636 words)

Author(s): Sukina, Liudmila
Gavriil, Mitropolit Nazaretskii Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Possibly Greece Date of Death: Probably between 1652/3 and 1657 Place of Death: Jerusalem Biography Gavriil was a 17th-century church and political figure of Greek origin, and an ecclesiastical author. Nothing is known of his life prior to his ordination and service in the Middle East. In the 1640s, he spent three years in one of the residences of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Egypt, where he took a vow of obedience. He was ordained as archbishop …

 Geistliche Kriegsrüstung, wider den gemeinen Blutdurstigen Tyrannen, und Erbfeindt Christliches Namens, den Türcken

(2,294 words)

Author(s): Gaze Loghin, Emma
‘Spiritual armour, against the common bloodthirsty tyrant and arch-enemy of Christianity, the Turk’ Sebastianus Bruckensis, Sebastianus a Baden, Sebastianus von Baden, Sebastian II. Fuchs von Baden Date: 1595 Original Language: German Description Sebastian von Baden published  Geistliche Kriegsrüstung in Bruck an der Thaya in 1595, to ‘test my newly established press’ (fol. 3v). The work is printed in quarto and consists of 130 folios, with each folio numbered consecutively on its recto side. Its full title is  Geistliche Kriegsrüstung, wider den gemeinen Blutdurstigen …

 Genealogia Turcorum imperatorum, lex imperii domi militiaeque habita

(782 words)

Author(s): Špoljarić, Luka
Genealogia Turcorum imperatorum‘Genealogy of the Turkish emperors and the regulation of their empire at home and at war’ Felix Brutus Petancius (de Petanciis), Felix Petancius Ragusinus, Felice Petanzio Date: 1502 Original Language: Latin Description Genealogia Turcorum imperatorum is a short work dedicated to Vladislas II, in which Feliks Petančić briefly describes the state of the Ottoman Empire at the time. He presented it to the king together with  Quibus itineribus. The work is preserved in two redactions which open with the same prologue where Petančić urg…

Georg Axverdean

(35 words)

Author(s): Cowe, Peter
Date of Birth: Place of Birth: Date of Death: Place of Death: Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Martyrology of Asul Yarut‘iwn Tplisec‘i Peter Cowe

George Ashwell

(513 words)

Author(s): Mugler, Joshua
Biography George Ashwell attended Wadham College, Oxford, from the age of 16; he received a BA in 1632 and an MA in 1635. After graduating, he was elected a fellow of the College, where he became a respected tutor. Ashwell’s life was thrown into chaos by the rise of the Puritans and the English Civil War, as he remained a committed royalist and a Laudian Anglican throughout his life. He preached before King Charles I (r. 1625-49) and his Parliament when they were forced to convene at Oxford during the war, and was subsequently awarde…

George Bowen

(1,069 words)

Author(s): Grafton, David D.
Date of Birth: 30 April 1816 Place of Birth: Middlebury, Vermont Date of Death: 4 February 1888 Place of Death: Bombay BiographyGeorge was the eldest son of Charles Bowen. He grew up working for his father until he was 18, when he decided he wanted to pursue academic studies. He did not have a formal education, but rather read Greek, Latin, French, Italian languages, philosophy and a wide variety of classics, especially Edward Gibbon’s Decline and fall of the Roman Empire, which was a primary cause of his religious cynicism. He had always read voraciously throughout his yo…

George Bush

(1,162 words)

Author(s): Grafton, David D.
Date of Birth: 12 June 1796 Place of Birth: Norwich, Vermont Date of Death: 19 September 1859 Place of Death: Rochester, New York BiographyGeorge Bush, born on 12 June 1796, was the eldest of four siblings. His mother, Abigail Maroin, died when he was four and his father, John Bush, when he was 22. His family soon recognised that George was fit for academia. After a time at Dartmouth College, he enrolled at Princeton Theological Seminary in 1818. Following graduation, he was ordained in the Presbyterian Church and in …

George Fox

(1,673 words)

Author(s): Meggitt, Justin
Biography George Fox was born into a family of Puritan weavers in Drayton-in-the-Clay, in the English Midlands, in 1624. Initially apprenticed to a shoemaker, a religious crisis drove him from his home just after his nineteenth birthday ( A journal or historical account, p. 3). However, his despair at the failings of the various kinds of Christianity of his day was dramatically resolved sometime in 1647 as a result of a direct revelation in which he was told that ‘there is one, even Jesus Christ, that can speak to thy Condition’ ( A journal or historical account, p. 8). The belief that the…

George of Hungary

(623 words)

Author(s): Classen, Albrecht
Biography George was born in 1422 or 1423 in Transylvania, in present-day Romania. When the Turks conquered the town of Mühlbach (in Romanian Sebeş) in 1438, he was taken prisoner and sold into slavery. He had arrived in that town a year before, probably to attend school in the local Dominican monastery (he was about 15 or 16 then, as he says himself). He may have been of German or Hungarian origin, but the majority of scholars assume that he belonged to the so-called ‘Siebenbürger Sachsen’, henc…
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