Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editors: David Thomas and John Chesworth
Associate Editors: John Azumah, Clinton Bennett, Lejla Demiri, Martha Frederiks, Stanisław Grodź, Andrew Newman, Douglas Pratt

Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general history of relations between the two faiths as this is represented in works written by Christians and Muslims about the other and against the other. It covers all parts of the world in the period 1500-1914. Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online comprises thousands of comprehensive entries on individual works and their authors, together with introductory essays to the periods and areas covered, making it the fullest available source in this field.


 Ḥadīqat al-aqālīm

(923 words)

Author(s): Khan, Gulfishan
‘Garden of the zones’ Allāhyār bin Allāhyār Uthmānī Bilgramī Date: 1781, 1787 Original Language: Persian Description Ḥadīqat al-aqālīm, a topographical-cum-biographical memoir, is deeply influenced by the Ptolemaic geographical concept of the seven zones of the earth. It was completed in 1781, with an epilogue added in 1787. In the seventh zone, Murtaḍā Ḥusain gives a comprehensive account of Europe and the New World, including a detailed report on the position of the pope in pre-Reformation Europe, and an accou…

Hanibal Lucić

(469 words)

Author(s): Dulibić-Paljar, Dubravka
Biography Hanibal Lucić was a lyrical poet and dramatist. He spent most of his life on his native island of Hvar and on the island of Vis. There are no confirmed data about his education, but it is possible that he studied law in Italy. He performed various public functions in the municipal administration of Hvar, as city judge, lawyer and municipality advocate. His works were not printed in his own lifetime, and his Skladanje izvarsnih pisan razlicih počtovanoga gospodina Hanibala Lucia vlastelina hvarskoga (‘Collection of various outstanding writings of the revered master Ha…

 Hans Dernschwam’s Tagebuch einer Reise nach Konstantinopel und Kleinasien (1553-55)

(1,182 words)

Author(s): Küçükhüseyin, Sevket
Hans Dernschwam’s Tagebuch'Hans Dernschwam’s diary of a journey to Constantinople and Asia Minor (1553-55)’ Johannes Dernschwam von Hradizcin Date: 1555 Original Language: German Description In 1553, at the advanced age of 59, without any official assignment or authority and at his own expense, Dernschwam joined the Habsburg diplomatic mission sent by King Ferdinand I to Süleyman I that was headed by Antonius Verantius (Antun Vrančić) and Franz Zay, both of whom Dernschwam knew well. In Constantinople, the imperial amb…

Hans Löwenklau

(1,281 words)

Author(s): Höfert, Almut
Johannes Löwenklau, Joannes Leunclavius Date of Birth: 1541 Place of Birth: Coesfeld, Westphalia Date of Death: 1594 Place of Death: Near Eztergom, Hungary Biography Hans Löwenklau’s upbringing was guided by his uncle, who was Domvikar in Münster. He studied  artes  liberales and law in Wittenberg in 1555 with Philipp Melanchthon, and in Heidelberg in 1562. In 1566, he was appointed dean of the faculty of artes in Basel. He was meant to succeed his teacher, Wilhelm Xylander, as professor of Greek in Heidelberg after Xylander’s death in 1576, but with the deat…

Hartmann Schedel

(252 words)

Author(s): Green, Jonathan
Biography Hartmann Schedel was born in Nuremberg. After studying canon law and medicine at Leipzig and Padua, he was engaged as city physician in the Bavarian cities of Amberg and Nördlingen, before returning to his native Nuremberg in the early 1480s. Throughout his life, he copied manuscripts, collected inscriptions, and acquired books avidly, thus building up one of the largest personal libraries in late medieval Europe. Schedel exchanged correspondence with many of the leading German humanist…

Ḥasan ibn Aḥmad al-Ḥaymī

(525 words)

Author(s): Gori, Alessandro
Ḥasan ibn Aḥmad al-Ḥaymī Date of Birth: 1608 or 1609 Place of Birth: Al-Ḥayma, Yemen Date of Death: 1660 or 1661 Place of Death: Kawkabān, Yemen BiographyPractically nothing is known about the life of Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ḥasan ibn Aḥmad ibn Ṣāliḥ (or Ṣalāḥ) ibn Duʿays ibn Muḥammad ibn Ḥamza al-Ḥaymī, and there is only limited scattered data from which to reconstruct his biography. He was probably born in al-Ḥayma (hence his main  nisba ‘al-Ḥaymī’, by which he is most commonly known), an area near Kawkabān (north-west of Ṣanʿāʾ; from here comes his other  nisba al-Kawkabānī), in 1608 (or, …

 Have with you to Saffron-Walden

(905 words)

Author(s): Apolloni, Jessica
- Thomas Nashe Date: 1596 Original Language: English Description This work is Nashe’s final reply in his long-standing feud with the writer and scholar Gabriel Harvey and his brother Richard, arising from the pamphlet wars between them that had been particularly inflamed by Harvey’s scathing account of Robert Greene in  Four letters (1592). Its full title is  Have with you to Saffron-Walden. Or, Gabriell Harveys hunt is up. Containing a full answere to the eldest sonne of the halter-maker. Or, Nashe his confutation of the sinfull doctor. The mott or …

 Hazar erku hariwr t‘vakan

(932 words)

Author(s): Cowe, S. Peter
‘In the year 1200’‘Martyrology of T‘uxman Manuk Tigranakertc‘i in 1784’ Hazar erku hariwr t‘vakan Date: 1784 Original Language: Armenian DescriptionThis is a  tał poem comprising ten strophes of four octosyllabic lines with stanzaic rhyme, in the tradition of solemn occasional narrative verse. It has been transmitted without a distinct title and is therefore typically referred to by the  incipit. The first section provides a third-person description of events, while the remainder affords a direct apostrophe to the saint, interpreting the theological s…

Hazar erku hariwr t‘vakan

(31 words)

Author(s): Cowe, S. Peter
Date of Birth: Place of Birth: Date of Death: Place of Death: Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim RelationsHazar erku hariwr t‘vakanS. Peter Cowe

Heinrich Bullinger

(819 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Bruce
Biography Born the son of a cleric, Heinrich Bullinger was sent to study at a house of the Devotio Moderna at Emmerich in the Rhineland. In 1519, he graduated at the University of Cologne. Having embraced the solae of Martin Luther around 1520, Bullinger returned to Swiss lands to take the position of teacher at the cloister school at Kappel near lake Zurich. During this time, he carefully read the Bible in the original languages and established contact with Huldrych Zwingli, under whom he studied for five months. Bullinger was sen…

Heinrich von Poser

(394 words)

Author(s): von Poser, Alexis
Heinrich von Poser und Groß-Naedlitz Date of Birth: 23 August 1599 Place of Birth: Eisdorf Date of Death: 13 September 1661 Place of Death: Breslau Biography Heinrich von Poser und Groß-Naedlitz was born in Eisdorf, Silesia. His father died when he was only six years of age. He went to Marburg for his studies, but left the university and returned to his family’s estate before graduating. Rather than staying at home as his mother asked, he departed on a long journey and, starting in 1620, travelled via Venice and through …

 Heinrich von Poser und Groß-Nedlitz Lebens- und Todes-Geschichte

(1,011 words)

Author(s): von Poser, Alexis
‘The story of the life and death of Heinrich von Poser und Groß-Nedlitz’ Heinrich von Poser und Groß-Naedlitz Date: Written 1620-5; first published posthumously in 1675 Original Language: German Description Heinrich von Poser’s travelogue covers 174 pages (unpaginated) in the 1675 edition, and 147 pages in the 1999 modern edition. In the first quarter of the 17th century, he visited places and met persons that  were important in the Muslim world at that time. His description is from a Christian perspective and he uses derogatory terms for Muslims (‘…

Heitor Furtado de Mendonça

(522 words)

Author(s): Ribeiro, Eneida
Biography Heitor Furtado de Mendonça was a Portuguese Inquisitor responsible for the first activities of the Portuguese Holy Office in Brazil. There is little information about his life, though something of his personality is shown in his relationships with the people of the Brazilian colony during the years 1591-5, when he was active in the north-eastern parts of the colony. Heitor Furtado was born in Montemor, a small Portuguese village, sometime between 1543, when his parents married, and 1568-9, when his father died. In Portugal, he rose to become a …

Henri Bespier

(271 words)

Author(s): Thomson, Ann
Date of Birth: 1627 or 1628 Place of Birth: Sedan, France Date of Death: 1676 Place of Death: Harfleur, France Biography Little is known about Henri Bespier’s life. He was the son of a Protestant from Gascony who moved to Sedan. After his studies, he became pastor of the Reformed church in Sénitot. In 1674, he married Marie Dammenson, daughter of the Président de Mirville. He was apparently involved in a dispute with Henry du Moulin, pastor at Le Havre, and was suspended by the Normandy Synod before being reinstated…

Henry Blount

(590 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography Henry Blount (or Blunt) was born on 15 December 1602 at Tyttenhanger, Hertfordshire. His father Thomas, who served for some time as sheriff of Hertfordshire, was knighted in 1603. The Blount family acquired their Tyttenhanger estate from Thomas’s aunt; before the dissolution of the monasteries, it had belonged to St Albans Abbey. Henry was educated at St Alban’s free school and at Trinity College, Oxford, graduating with a BA in 1618. He enrolled at Gray’s Inn, London, and then in 1629 …

Henry Smith

(667 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Date of Birth: Probably 1560 Place of Birth: Withcote, Leicestershire Date of Death: 4 July 1591 Place of Death: Husbands Bosworth, Leicestershire Biography Henry Smith was born into a wealthy Leicestershire family, probably in 1560. In 1573, he became a fellow-commoner at Queens’ College, Cambridge, but soon left to study privately with Richard Greenham (1535-94), rector of Dry Drayton, Cambridgeshire, who instructed him in Puritan theology. By 1576, Smith was a student at Lincoln College, Oxford, where he gained his…

Henry Stubbe

(1,097 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography Henry Stubbe (also Stubbs and Stubb), described by Wood, a contemporary and friend, as ‘the most noted Person of his age’ ( Athenae Oxonienses, vol. 3, p. 1068), was the son of an Anglican clergyman. He was born on 28 February 1632 in Partney, Lincolnshire. His father’s Separatist sympathies resulted in his ejection from his living, after which the family moved to Ireland. When the 1641 Irish uprising broke out, Henry’s mother took him and another of her children to safety in London, where she supported herse…

Henry Timberlake

(308 words)

Author(s): Holmberg, Eva Johanna
Biography Only very scant information remains of the early life of the merchant and traveller Henry Timberlake, apart from his being born in the parish of Titchfield, near Portsmouth. Such origins near the sea were appropriate for a man who later became known for his maritime career and for the writings that resulted. The next trace of Timberlake is found in the archival records of 1597, where his ownership of shares in the merchant ship Edward Bonaventure is noted. This ship was known for its trading ventures in Russia and the Levant, where Timberlake was also to travel on the ship Trojan in M…

 Here after foloweth a lytell treatyse agaynst Mahumet and his cursed secte

(2,201 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Here after foloweth a lytell treatyseIn Mahuetan et eius sectum- Christopher Saint German Date: 1530 or 1531 Original Language: English Description Printed in 1531 and thought anonymous until the recent identification of Christopher St German as author, this polemical tract of 88 pages sets out to refute Islam by presenting it as a form of Christian heresy. Nine chapters follow a two-page introduction. The list of contents is at the back. Chapter 1 covers Muḥammad’s (spelled ‘Mahumet’ throughout) birth, and Chapter 2 purports to describe how Muḥammad set himself up…

 Here begynneth a lytell treatyse of the turkes lawe called Alcaron. And also it speketh of Machamet the nygromancer

(1,739 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Here begynneth a lytell treatise- Wynkyn de Worde Date: Probably 1515 or 1519 Original Language: English Description Probably published in 1515, this work is an illustrated tract of 12 pages on six leaves, including what functions as a title page and which reads ‘Here begynneth a lytell treatyse of the turkes lawe called Alcoran. And also it talketh of Machamet the Nygromancer’, really the first two sentences rather than a title. The text is almost entirely reproduced from Wynkyn de Worde’s edition of the Travels of John Mandeville, which he had first printed with 72 woodcuts in 1…
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