Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editors: David Thomas and John Chesworth
Associate Editors: John Azumah, Clinton Bennett, Lejla Demiri, Martha Frederiks, Stanisław Grodź, Andrew Newman, Douglas Pratt

Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general history of relations between the two faiths as this is represented in works written by Christians and Muslims about the other and against the other. It covers all parts of the world in the period 1500-1914. Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online comprises thousands of comprehensive entries on individual works and their authors, together with introductory essays to the periods and areas covered, making it the fullest available source in this field.

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 Ḥadīqat al-aqālīm

(923 words)

Author(s): Khan, Gulfishan
‘Garden of the zones’ Allāhyār bin Allāhyār Uthmānī Bilgramī Date: 1781, 1787 Original Language: Persian Description Ḥadīqat al-aqālīm, a topographical-cum-biographical memoir, is deeply influenced by the Ptolemaic geographical concept of the seven zones of the earth. It was completed in 1781, with an epilogue added in 1787. In the seventh zone, Murtaḍā Ḥusain gives a comprehensive account of Europe and the New World, including a detailed report on the position of the pope in pre-Reformation Europe, and an accou…

Hanibal Lucić

(469 words)

Author(s): Dulibić-Paljar, Dubravka
Biography Hanibal Lucić was a lyrical poet and dramatist. He spent most of his life on his native island of Hvar and on the island of Vis. There are no confirmed data about his education, but it is possible that he studied law in Italy. He performed various public functions in the municipal administration of Hvar, as city judge, lawyer and municipality advocate. His works were not printed in his own lifetime, and his Skladanje izvarsnih pisan razlicih počtovanoga gospodina Hanibala Lucia vlastelina hvarskoga (‘Collection of various outstanding writings of the revered master Ha…

 Hans Dernschwam’s Tagebuch einer Reise nach Konstantinopel und Kleinasien (1553-55)

(1,182 words)

Author(s): Küçükhüseyin, Sevket
Hans Dernschwam’s Tagebuch'Hans Dernschwam’s diary of a journey to Constantinople and Asia Minor (1553-55)’ Johannes Dernschwam von Hradizcin Date: 1555 Original Language: German Description In 1553, at the advanced age of 59, without any official assignment or authority and at his own expense, Dernschwam joined the Habsburg diplomatic mission sent by King Ferdinand I to Süleyman I that was headed by Antonius Verantius (Antun Vrančić) and Franz Zay, both of whom Dernschwam knew well. In Constantinople, the imperial amb…

Hans Löwenklau

(1,281 words)

Author(s): Höfert, Almut
Johannes Löwenklau, Joannes Leunclavius Date of Birth: 1541 Place of Birth: Coesfeld, Westphalia Date of Death: 1594 Place of Death: Near Eztergom, Hungary Biography Hans Löwenklau’s upbringing was guided by his uncle, who was Domvikar in Münster. He studied  artes  liberales and law in Wittenberg in 1555 with Philipp Melanchthon, and in Heidelberg in 1562. In 1566, he was appointed dean of the faculty of artes in Basel. He was meant to succeed his teacher, Wilhelm Xylander, as professor of Greek in Heidelberg after Xylander’s death in 1576, but with the deat…

Hartmann Schedel

(252 words)

Author(s): Green, Jonathan
Biography Hartmann Schedel was born in Nuremberg. After studying canon law and medicine at Leipzig and Padua, he was engaged as city physician in the Bavarian cities of Amberg and Nördlingen, before returning to his native Nuremberg in the early 1480s. Throughout his life, he copied manuscripts, collected inscriptions, and acquired books avidly, thus building up one of the largest personal libraries in late medieval Europe. Schedel exchanged correspondence with many of the leading German humanist…

Ḥasan ibn Aḥmad al-Ḥaymī

(525 words)

Author(s): Gori, Alessandro
Ḥasan ibn Aḥmad al-Ḥaymī Date of Birth: 1608 or 1609 Place of Birth: Al-Ḥayma, Yemen Date of Death: 1660 or 1661 Place of Death: Kawkabān, Yemen BiographyPractically nothing is known about the life of Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ḥasan ibn Aḥmad ibn Ṣāliḥ (or Ṣalāḥ) ibn Duʿays ibn Muḥammad ibn Ḥamza al-Ḥaymī, and there is only limited scattered data from which to reconstruct his biography. He was probably born in al-Ḥayma (hence his main  nisba ‘al-Ḥaymī’, by which he is most commonly known), an area near Kawkabān (north-west of Ṣanʿāʾ; from here comes his other  nisba al-Kawkabānī), in 1608 (or, …

 Have with you to Saffron-Walden

(905 words)

Author(s): Apolloni, Jessica
- Thomas Nashe Date: 1596 Original Language: English Description This work is Nashe’s final reply in his long-standing feud with the writer and scholar Gabriel Harvey and his brother Richard, arising from the pamphlet wars between them that had been particularly inflamed by Harvey’s scathing account of Robert Greene in  Four letters (1592). Its full title is  Have with you to Saffron-Walden. Or, Gabriell Harveys hunt is up. Containing a full answere to the eldest sonne of the halter-maker. Or, Nashe his confutation of the sinfull doctor. The mott or …

 Hazar erku hariwr t‘vakan

(932 words)

Author(s): Cowe, S. Peter
‘In the year 1200’‘Martyrology of T‘uxman Manuk Tigranakertc‘i in 1784’ Hazar erku hariwr t‘vakan Date: 1784 Original Language: Armenian DescriptionThis is a  tał poem comprising ten strophes of four octosyllabic lines with stanzaic rhyme, in the tradition of solemn occasional narrative verse. It has been transmitted without a distinct title and is therefore typically referred to by the  incipit. The first section provides a third-person description of events, while the remainder affords a direct apostrophe to the saint, interpreting the theological s…

Hazar erku hariwr t‘vakan

(31 words)

Author(s): Cowe, S. Peter
Date of Birth: Place of Birth: Date of Death: Place of Death: Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim RelationsHazar erku hariwr t‘vakanS. Peter Cowe

Heinrich Bullinger

(819 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Bruce
Biography Born the son of a cleric, Heinrich Bullinger was sent to study at a house of the Devotio Moderna at Emmerich in the Rhineland. In 1519, he graduated at the University of Cologne. Having embraced the solae of Martin Luther around 1520, Bullinger returned to Swiss lands to take the position of teacher at the cloister school at Kappel near lake Zurich. During this time, he carefully read the Bible in the original languages and established contact with Huldrych Zwingli, under whom he studied for five months. Bullinger was sen…

Heinrich Myrike

(400 words)

Author(s): van den Boogert, Maurits
Heinrich Mirike; Hendricus Myrike; Hendrik Mierckens; Henricus Mircken Date of Birth: About 1639 Place of Birth: Wesel, Germany Date of Death: 1710 Place of Death: Edirne, the Ottoman Empire BiographyThe Reverend Heinrich Myrike was born in Wesel, in modern-day Germany close to the Dutch border, in 1639. He studied in Duisburg, presumably theology, matriculating on 17 May 1664. He then worked as an army chaplain before being appointed pastor to the Dutch embassy in Istanbul on 8 September 1678. He arrived there, after a sto…

Heinrich Seike

(529 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Henry Sike Date of Birth: 1669 Place of Birth: Bremen Date of Death: 20 May 1712 Place of Death: Cambridge BiographyHeinrich Seike, later known as Henry Sike, was born in Bremen in 1669. Despite his family’s modest means, from April 1687 he attended the prestigious local Gymnasium, where his studies included Hebrew as well as Latin and Greek, mathematics and theology. As was not unusual at the time, he left after three years ‘without obtaining any kind of certificate’ (Forster, ‘Sike’, p. 255). Joining the Danish a…

Heinrich von Poser

(394 words)

Author(s): von Poser, Alexis
Heinrich von Poser und Groß-Naedlitz Date of Birth: 23 August 1599 Place of Birth: Eisdorf Date of Death: 13 September 1661 Place of Death: Breslau Biography Heinrich von Poser und Groß-Naedlitz was born in Eisdorf, Silesia. His father died when he was only six years of age. He went to Marburg for his studies, but left the university and returned to his family’s estate before graduating. Rather than staying at home as his mother asked, he departed on a long journey and, starting in 1620, travelled via Venice and through …

 Heinrich von Poser und Groß-Nedlitz Lebens- und Todes-Geschichte

(1,011 words)

Author(s): von Poser, Alexis
‘The story of the life and death of Heinrich von Poser und Groß-Nedlitz’ Heinrich von Poser und Groß-Naedlitz Date: Written 1620-5; first published posthumously in 1675 Original Language: German Description Heinrich von Poser’s travelogue covers 174 pages (unpaginated) in the 1675 edition, and 147 pages in the 1999 modern edition. In the first quarter of the 17th century, he visited places and met persons that  were important in the Muslim world at that time. His description is from a Christian perspective and he uses derogatory terms for Muslims (‘…

Heitor Furtado de Mendonça

(522 words)

Author(s): Ribeiro, Eneida
Biography Heitor Furtado de Mendonça was a Portuguese Inquisitor responsible for the first activities of the Portuguese Holy Office in Brazil. There is little information about his life, though something of his personality is shown in his relationships with the people of the Brazilian colony during the years 1591-5, when he was active in the north-eastern parts of the colony. Heitor Furtado was born in Montemor, a small Portuguese village, sometime between 1543, when his parents married, and 1568-9, when his father died. In Portugal, he rose to become a …

Helena Petrovna Blavatsky

(1,505 words)

Author(s): Rudbøg, Tim
Date of Birth: 12 August 1831 (Old Style: 31 July 1831) Place of Birth: Ekaterinoslav, Russia Date of Death: 8 May 1891 Place of Death: London BiographyHelena Petrovna Blavatsky’s life prior to her move to New York on 7 July 1873 is difficult to reconstruct owing to lack of sufficient source material. Some of the events after 1873 are also at times unclear, as her own statements are our only source.  Blavatsky, whose influence on modern spiritualism has been compared to that of Martin Luther and St Paul on Christianity, was of Russian noble descent, the daughter of…

Henri Bespier

(271 words)

Author(s): Thomson, Ann
Date of Birth: 1627 or 1628 Place of Birth: Sedan, France Date of Death: 1676 Place of Death: Harfleur, France Biography Little is known about Henri Bespier’s life. He was the son of a Protestant from Gascony who moved to Sedan. After his studies, he became pastor of the Reformed church in Sénitot. In 1674, he married Marie Dammenson, daughter of the Président de Mirville. He was apparently involved in a dispute with Henry du Moulin, pastor at Le Havre, and was suspended by the Normandy Synod before being reinstated…

Henri de Boulainvilliers

(675 words)

Author(s): Venturino, Diego
Date of Birth: 11 October 1658 Place of Birth: Saint-Saire-en-Bray, Normandy Date of Death: 23 January 1722 Place of Death: Paris BiographyThe life of Henri de Boulainvilliers is not well known. There are various references to him in the works of Marais, Saint-Simon, Montesquieu and Voltaire, but no trace of correspondence has ever been found. The eldest child of a long-established family, Henri was sent to the Oratorian College of Juilly in 1669. In 1674, he began a military career with the Mousquetaires du Roi, bu…

Henry Blount

(590 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography Henry Blount (or Blunt) was born on 15 December 1602 at Tyttenhanger, Hertfordshire. His father Thomas, who served for some time as sheriff of Hertfordshire, was knighted in 1603. The Blount family acquired their Tyttenhanger estate from Thomas’s aunt; before the dissolution of the monasteries, it had belonged to St Albans Abbey. Henry was educated at St Alban’s free school and at Trinity College, Oxford, graduating with a BA in 1618. He enrolled at Gray’s Inn, London, and then in 1629 …

Henry Jessup

(1,209 words)

Author(s): Ferree Womack, Deanna
Date of Birth: 19 April 1832 Place of Birth: Montrose, Pennsylvania Date of Death: 28 April 1910 Place of Death: Beirut BiographyHenry Harris Jessup was the son of William and Amanda Harris Jessup of Montrose, Pennsylvania, and a member of the American Syria Mission for 54 years. He graduated from Yale College in 1851 and Union Theological Seminary in 1855, and received an honorary Doctor of Divinity degree from Princeton University in 1865. Jessup accepted an appointment with the American Board of Commissioners for…
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