Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editors: David Thomas and John Chesworth
Associate Editors: John Azumah, Clinton Bennett, Lejla Demiri, Martha Frederiks, Stanisław Grodź, Andrew Newman, Douglas Pratt

Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general history of relations between the two faiths as this is represented in works written by Christians and Muslims about the other and against the other. It covers all parts of the world in the period 1500-1914. Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online comprises thousands of comprehensive entries on individual works and their authors, together with introductory essays to the periods and areas covered, making it the fullest available source in this field.


Iakob Shemok`medili

(575 words)

Author(s): Baindurashvili, Khatuna
Iakob Shemok`medili (Samebeli) Dumbaże Date of Birth: Early 17th century Place of Birth: Shemok`medi, Georgia Date of Death: 1713 Place of Death: Jerusalem BiographyIakob Dumbaże, later known as Shemok‘medili, was born in the village of Shemok‘medi in Guria, Georgia, in the first part of the 17th century. He received a religious education in Trebizond and, on his return to Georgia began working for the Georgian Orthodox Church. In 1647, he was appointed Metropolitan Bishop of Shemok‘medi and remained in this position until 1658. At the en…

Ianache Văcărescu

(1,954 words)

Author(s): Păun, Radu G.
Ienachiță Văcărescu Date of Birth: Unknown, maybe 1738/40 Place of Birth: Unknown, probably Bucharest Date of Death: 11 July 1797 Place of Death: Bucharest BiographyIanache (Ienăchiță) Văcărescu came from an old Wallachian aristocratic family, his father being the high dignitary Ştefan Văcărescu (d. 1763) and his mother the Moldavian noblewoman Ecaterina (Catinca) Done, a niece of the Moldovian chronicler Ion Neculce (1672-1745). Several members of his family are famous for their cultural and literary works. Văcărescu’s date of birth is not known, but may have been bet…

 Ianua linguarum D. Comenij ex lingua Latina in linguam Turcicam versa

(1,423 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Hannah
Zerrin ve küşâde dillerin kapusı türkî ve efrencî ‘The door of languages by Johannes Comenius translated from Latin into Turkish’‘The door of tongues unlocked’ Wojciech Bobowski, Albertus Bobovius Leopolitanus, Ali Bey; Ali Ufkî, Ali Bey es-Santuri (‘the cymbalist’) Date: 1658 Original Language: Latin Description This is the Ottoman Turkish translation of Johannes Amos Comenius’ (1592-1670)  Ianua linguarum reserata aurea, sive Seminarium linguarum & scientiarum omnium, hoc est compendiosa Latinam (et quamlibet aliam) linguam una cum scientiarum art…

Iase Tʻuši

(155 words)

Author(s): Baindurashvili, Khatuna
Date of Birth: Second half of the 16th century Place of Birth: Tʻušetʻi, Georgia Date of Death: Probably in the second half of the 17th century Place of Death: Isfahan Biography There is almost no biographical information available about Iase Tʻuši. As is indicated by his pseudonym Tʻuši, he was very probably born in Tʻušetʻi, Georgia, in the second half of the 16th century.  Iase Tʻuši was evidently a well-educated man by the standards of his time, familiar with both secular and religious literature. At the start of the 17th century, he went to Iran, and there he converted to Islam…

 IAyrs ays anun Gaspar

(521 words)

Author(s): Cowe, Peter
Vkayabanut‘iwn Gaspari‘This youth named Gaspar’, 'Martyrology of Gaspar' Mik‘ayēl son of the scribe Barłam Date: 1682 Original Language: Armenian Description Nothing is known about the author of this work, apart from his name, which is included in the poem. The work is a tał poem of 44 lines of 11 syllable lines arranged in four-line verses with stanzaic rhyme; it is cited by its incipit. It forms a continuation of the author’s verse martyrology of Dawit‘ Sebastac‘i, since Gaspar, who as a result of various trials had earlier renounced Christianity, was mo…

Ibn ʿAbd al-Rafīʿ al-Andalusī

(804 words)

Author(s): Chachia, Houssem Eddine
Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Rafīʿ ibn Muḥammad al-Sharīf al-Ḥusaynī l-Jaʿfarī l-Mūrsī l-Andalusī Date of Birth: Last third of the 16th century Place of Birth: Murcia, Spain Date of Death: 22 February 1643 Place of Death: Mecca Biography The exact date of Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Rafīʿ al-Andalusī’s birth in Murcia is unknown. It must have been sometime during the last third of the 16th century, as he states that he was young when he went to Tunisia with the expulsion of the Moriscos. Within six years of leaving Spain, he had begun to write  Al-anwār al-nabawiyya and had taken on important roles …

Ibn al-Amīr al-Ṣanʿānī

(740 words)

Author(s): Moustafa, Mohamed A.
Muḥammad ibn Ismāʿīl ibn Ṣalāḥ ibn Muḥammad al-Ḥasanī l-Kaḥlānī l-Ṣanʿānī Date of Birth: 1688 Place of Birth: Kaḥlān Date of Death: 1769 Place of Death: Ṣanʿāʾ BiographyIbn al-Amīr al-Ṣanʿānī was born in Kaḥlān, Yemen, where his father introduced him to the Zaydī tradition. In 1695-6, he moved to Ṣanʿāʾ to learn from major scholars, including Ṣalāḥ ibn al-Ḥusayn al-Akhfash and ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAlī al-Wazīr, two eminent scholars who respond to him in his work  Jawāb al-suʾāl ʿan ijlāʾ ahl al-kitāb min al-Yaman, which is discussed below. He travelled to Mecca four times (in 171…

Ibn al-Ghurayr

(1,216 words)

Author(s): Fathi, Jean
Mār Ghrīghūryūs Yūḥannā ibn al-Ghurayr al-Zirbābī al-Shāmī Date of Birth: Unknown; about 1610 Place of Birth: Unknown; probably Damascus, Syria Date of Death: Between February 1678 and March 1686 Place of Death: Unknown; probably Damascus, Syria Biography Yūḥannā ibn al-Ghurayr, Syrian Orthodox bishop of Damascus, was an important transmitter of the Syriac and Christian Arabic heritage in the 17th century, and the translator of several major works from Syriac to Middle Arabic. While no contemporary biography of him is known, his activities as a scribe,…

Ibn Kemal

(1,537 words)

Author(s): & Muharrem Kuzey, Lejla Demiri
Kemalpaşazâde, Şemseddin Ahmed ibn Süleyman ibn Kemal Paşa Date of Birth: May 1469 Place of Birth: Edirne, Tokat, Amasya or Dimetoka Date of Death: April 1534 Place of Death: Istanbul Biography Ibn Kemal, or Kemalpaşazâde, was an eminent Ottoman historian, jurist, theologian, linguist and poet, who also served as Şeyhülislam from 1526 until 1534. He owes his name to his grandfather Kemal Paşa, an emir (military official) at the time of Mehmed II, who later also served as lala (tutor) to Şehzâde Bayezid II. Ibn Kemal’s father, Süleyman Çelebi, also held military offices i…

Ibn Nujaym al-Miṣrī

(529 words)

Author(s): Ryad, Umar
Zayn al-ʿAbidīn, Zayn al-Dīn ibn Ibrahīm ibn Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad ibn Abī Bakr Date of Birth: 1520 Place of Birth: Egypt Date of Death: 1563 Place of Death: Cairo Biography Ibn Nujaym was born in Egypt during the early period of Ottoman rule. Biographical references do not give detailed accounts to his early life and upbringing, his family or his father’s profession. After his elementary religious education, he probably joined the circles of well-known religious Ḥanafī scholars, such as Amīn al-Dīn ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-ʿĀl al-Ḥanafī (d. 1560), and gained his ijāza at a young age.…

Ibn Ṭūlūn

(584 words)

Author(s): Ryad, Umar
Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad ibn Ṭūlūn al-Ṣāliḥī l-Dimashqī l-Ḥanafī Date of Birth: 1473 Place of Birth: Al-Ṣālīḥiyya, Damascus Date of Death: 1546 Place of Death: Unknown Biography Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad ibn Ṭūlūn was one of the most prolific writers of his age, mostly noted for his works on Prophetic traditions, jurisprudence and history. His autobiography,  Al-fulk al-mashḥūn fī aḥwāl Muḥammad ibn Ṭūlūn, is an excellent source for his intellectual and religious career as well as the traditional Islamic education of his time. Born…

İbrahim Müteferrika

(1,127 words)

Author(s): & Serkan Ince, Lejla Demiri
Date of Birth: Unknown; presumably sometime between 1670 and 1674 Place of Birth: Kolozsvár (present-day Cluj-Napoca, Romania) Date of Death: 1747 Place of Death: Istanbul Biographyİbrahim Müteferrika was an Ottoman soldier, statesman, physicist, geographer, mapmaker, historian, editor, translator and intellectual, as well as the first Muslim to establish a publishing house in the Ottoman Empire. He was of Hungarian origin, born to a Christian family. Though some early 20th-century historians have claimed that he came from a Calvinist background (e.g. Karácson, …

 Ibrahim ou l'illustre bassa

(1,373 words)

Author(s): Screpanti, Filippo
‘Ibrahim, or the illustrious pasha’ Mademoiselle de Scudéry Date: 1641 Original Language: French Description Ibrahim ou l’illustre bassa was the first novel by Madeleine de Scudéry, written in collaboration with her brother, Georges de Scudéry. Although the evidence is inconclusive on this point, critics generally believe that Madeleine wrote much of the dialogues of the novel, whereas her brother provided the elements that served to create the historical background. The novel was published in Paris under the na…

Ibrāhīm Ṭaybilī

(606 words)

Author(s): Bernabé Pons, Luis F.
Ibrāhīm Ṭaybilī, Juan Pérez Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Possibly Toledo Date of Death: Unknown; after 1628 Place of Death: Probably Testour (Tunisia) Biography The only information we have about Ibrāhīm Ṭaybilī comes through his works, written in Spanish during his time in exile in Tunisia. He was born a Morisco in Toledo, and was known in Spain as Juan Pérez. His situation in Toledo or Castile appears to have been fairly comfortable, as he mentions trips to the theatre and buying books. In a well-known passag…

 Ibrahim, the thirteenth emperour of the Turks. A tragedy

(1,608 words)

Author(s): Andrea, Bernadette
- Mary Griffith Date: 1696 Original Language: English DescriptionPix was the last of ‘the female wits’ to debut her plays in 1696: Ibrahim, the thirteenth emperour of the Turks. A tragedy, appeared in late May or early June at Drury Lane Theatre; The Spanish wives, a farce, followed in October 1696 at the Dorset Garden Theatre (Oney, ‘Women playwrights’, p. 77), marking the finale of this epochal season. As Constance Clark notes, ‘the original number of performances [of Ibrahim] is not known’; however, she surmises that ‘it was well-received’, since it saw several revivals ( Three August…

 I cinque libri delle legge, religione, et vita de’ turchi: et della corte, et alcune guerre del Gran Turco

(3,334 words)

Author(s): Schwarz Lausten, Pia
Trattato dei costumi dei Turchi‘Five books about the laws, religion and life of the Turks, and the court and every war of the Grand Turk’, ‘Treatise on the customs of the Turks’ Giovanni Antonio Menavino Date: 1548 Original Language: Italian Description While Menavino dedicated the first manuscript version of his account to Pope Leo X in 1519, he dedicated the printed edition of 1548 to the ‘most Christian King of France’, expressing his gratitude for the king’s goodness and for being in his service. Menavino claims that the occasion i…

 I costumi et i modi particolari de la vita de Turchi, descritti da M. Luigi Bassano da Zara

(1,101 words)

Author(s): Madsen, Peter
I costumi et i modi particolari de la vita de Turchi'Customs and particular habits of the Turks’ Luigi Bassano da Zara Date: 1545 Original Language: Italian Description The introduction to this book expresses a wish to witness ‘the destruction and ultimate extermination of those mad dogs’, and the author foresees that his readers will want to shed tears at his accounts of the crimes ( sceleratezze) and superstitions of these impious people and of the slavery of so many poor Christians. Yet the majority of the 54 chapters (63 pages) do in many respects provide…

 Ieremias propheta

(376 words)

Author(s): Moser, Christian
Ieremias propheta‘Interpretation of the prophet Jeremiah’ Huldrych Zwingli Date: Possibly 1528/29 Original Language: German Description In Zwingli’s exegesis of the Prophet Jeremiah, preserved in a transcript of 124 folios made by a member of his audience, can be found the clearest expression of his conviction that the Turks are to be understood as a punishment from God ( Zwinglis sämtliche Werke, xvi, pp. 190-91). Jeremiah 27:12 gives him cause to consider why God allows Christians to fall under the rule of an un-Christian people, and his response is that t…

Ignacio de las Casas

(501 words)

Author(s): El Alaoui, Youssef
Date of Birth: 1550 Place of Birth: Granada Date of Death: January 1608 Place of Death: Ávila Biography Born into an assimilated Morisco family, Ignacio de las Casas studied at  la Casa de la Doctrina del Albaicín (the Albaicín House of Doctrine) between 1562 and 1567, when he was a disciple of the Morisco Jesuit Juan de Albotodo (1527-78). Between 1567 and 1570, he studied in Córdoba and, on 19 March 1572, he travelled to Rome to be received into the Society of Jesus as a novice, before taking his vows on 15 August. In 1573, he s…

Ignazio Lomellini

(391 words)

Author(s): Shore, Paul
Date of Birth: Around 1560 Place of Birth: Genoa Date of Death: 20 May 1645 Place of Death: Rome Biography Ignazio (originally Nicolò) Lomellini was born in about 1560 into the distinguished Lomellini albergo, one of the 28 extended clans that had long played a key role in the political life of Genoa. The Lomellini gained ducal status in 1538, and were among the albergi that equipped war galleys at their own expense during the action against the Turks in the 1570s. Ignazio Lomellini was probably the son of Carlo Lomellini and Maddelena Brignole (also of a no…