Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editors: David Thomas and John Chesworth
Associate Editors: John Azumah, Clinton Bennett, Lejla Demiri, Martha Frederiks, Stanisław Grodź, Andrew Newman, Douglas Pratt

Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general history of relations between the two faiths as this is represented in works written by Christians and Muslims about the other and against the other. It covers all parts of the world in the period 1500-1914. Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online comprises thousands of comprehensive entries on individual works and their authors, together with introductory essays to the periods and areas covered, making it the fullest available source in this field.



(387 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Zayn al-Dīn ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Zayn al-Dīn al-Maʿbarī; Zayn al-Dīn Makhdūm II Date of Birth: Early 16th century Place of Birth: Chombai, near Mahe, northern Malabar Date of Death: Uncertain; after 1583 Place of Death: Ponnani, Malabar Biography Zayn al-Dīn ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Zayn al-Dīn al-Maʿbarī was born in northern Malabar, on the south-west coast of India, to a Sunnī family from Yemen. They had emigrated to Maʿbar on the east coast of India, and then in the early 16th century to Malabar. His grandfather, named Zayn al-Dīn Makhdūm (1467-1521;  makhdūm, ‘the one who is served’,…

Macarius ibn al-Zaʿīm

(1,627 words)

Author(s): Walbiner, Carsten
Makāriyūs ibn al-Zaʿīm al-Ḥalabī Date of Birth: Unknown; about 1600 Place of Birth: Aleppo Date of Death: 22 June 1672 Place of Death: Damascus Biography Macarius (Makāriyūs) ibn al-Zaʿīm was born around 1600 in Aleppo into a clerical family; his father and his grandfather were both priests in the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch. Christened Yūḥannā, he received a basic education at the hands of his father. He followed the family tradition and became a priest. Before his ordination, he had married and had at least one c…

 Machumetis Saracenorum principis, eiusque successorum vitae, ac doctrina, ipseque Alcoran

(1,883 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Bruce
Machumetis Saracenorum principis‘The lives and teaching of Muḥammad, leader of the Saracens, and of his successors, and the Qur’an itself’ Theodor Buchmann Date: 1543 Original Language: Latin Description The folio edition of Machumetis Saracenorum appeared in Basel from the press of Johannes Oporinus in 1543. The project was nearly stopped by the censors in the city, who seized all copies of the text and briefly put Oporinus in prison. Their central objection was that Machumetis contained a Latin translation of the Qur’an, which Bibliander claimed to have revised. Onl…

Maciej z Miechowa

(320 words)

Author(s): Konopacki, Artur
Maciej Miechowita, Maciej Carpiga (Karpiga) Date of Birth: 1457 Place of Birth: Miechów Date of Death: 8 September 1523 Place of Death: Kraków Biography Maciej z Miechowa was the son of Stanisław Carpiga (Karpiga). He completed his studies at the University of Kraków between 1474 and 1478, obtaining his Master’s degree in philosophy in 1479. In 1482-3 he was head of the cathedral school at Wawel (a hill in Kraków where the cathedral stands next to the royal castle), then he completed medical studies in Italy and obtaining a doctorate. He was ordained on his return to Poland in 1488. He travel…

Macuncuzâde Mustafa Efendi

(589 words)

Author(s): Dinç, Emine Nurefşan
Date of Birth: Unknown; presumably second half of the 16th century Place of Birth: Istanbul Date of Death: Unknown; presumably 17th century Place of Death: Unknown Biography No information is available about the life of Macuncuzâde Mustafa Efendi except for the details he provides in his treatise about the two years he spent as a prisoner in Malta. According to this memoir, he was originally from Istanbul. In 1597, during the reign of Mehmed III (r. 1595-1603), he was sent to the Bâf province of Cyprus by Damad Efendi, the  kazasker (high-ranking military judge) of Rumelia, where he …

Madeleine de Scudéry

(687 words)

Author(s): Screpanti, Filippo
Mademoiselle de Scudéry Date of Birth: 15 November 1607 Place of Birth: Le Havre Date of Death: 2 June 1701 Place of Death: Paris BiographyMadeleine de Scudéry was born in Le Havre on 15 November 1607 to a minor noble Norman family. An orphan at age six, she received a solid education from her uncle, and after his death in 1637 she moved to Paris to join her older brother, the dramatist Georges de Scudéry. Through her brother, she was introduced to the literary salons of Paris and the circle of the Hôtel de Rambouillet…

 Madīḥa ʿalā jabal Lubnān

(1,509 words)

Author(s): Moukarzel , Joseph
Madīḥa ʿalā jabal Lubnān'Panegyric on Mount Lebanon' Gabriele Barclaio, Ibn al-Qulaʿi, Barclaius, Gabriël Qlai, Gabriel Klahi Date: Sometime after 1487 Original Language: Arabic Description Ibn al-Qilāʿī wrote this poem to demonstrate to his contemporaries that the history of the Maronites had always been glorious when their ancestors were united in faith under the authority of their hierarchy; and that wars lost and persecutions endured were nothing but the result of their disobedience and sin. Its copyists have given it various names: Qiṣṣat Kisruwān wa-l-Mawārina (‘History …


(1,346 words)

Author(s): Fares Hassan, Said
Abū ʿAbdullāh Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Karīm ibn Muḥammad al-Maghīlī l-Tilmisānī l-Jazāʾirī Date of Birth: About 1425-7 Place of Birth: Maghīla, Tilimsān, Algeria Date of Death: 1503/4 or 1505/6 Place of Death: Zawiyat Kunta, Tuoat, Algeria Biography Al-Maghīlī is one of the key figures in the spread of Islam in western Africa. He introduced the Qādiriyya Brotherhood to this region. At an early age, he acquired Islamic sciences, memorised the Qur’an, and became well-versed in Mālikī jurisprudence. Among his teachers were ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Thaʿālibī (d. 1470/1) and the qāḍī of Touat, A…

Mahomad Maydiodín Bantilan

(502 words)

Author(s): Donoso, Isaac
Muḥammad Muʿizz al-Dīn Pangiran Bantilan Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: 1763 Place of Death: Unknown BiographyMuʿizz al-Dīn Pangiran Bantilan was the younger brother of Sultan Alimudín of Sulu. When King Philip V of Spain (r. 1700-24, 1724-46) sent a letter dated 12 July 1744 to the Philippine sultans proposing that they accept Jesuit missionaries, one of those who accepted was Sultan Alimudín. This proved to be the catalyst for a new era of political relations; while sultans in both S…

 'Mahomet ', in Dictionnaire historique et critique

(1,404 words)

Author(s): Simonutti, Luisa
- Pierre Bayle Date: 1697 Original Language: French DescriptionThe Dictionnaire  histoire et critique was written between August 1693 and October 1696, and first appeared on 24 October 1696 (dated 1697) in two folio volumes. The second edition (1701, dated 1702), which occupies four volumes in folio, was the definitive text and the last published during Bayle’s lifetime, although a certain number of additions were incorporated into subsequent editions. There were numerous editions, reproductions and pirated editions during the 18th century and in the first decades of the 19th cent…

 Mahometis Abdallae filii theologia dialogo explicata

(2,338 words)

Author(s): Cecini, Ulisse
Mahometis...theologiaCompendium Alcorani;, Epitome Alcorani‘The theology of Muḥammad’ Johann Albrecht von Widmanstetter; Johann Albert Widmanstetter; Hans Albrecht Widmannstetter; Johannes Albertus Widmanstadius; Widmestadius; Johann Albrecht Widmanstadt; Johann Albrecht Widmannstätter; Lucretius; Oesiander Date: 1543 Original Language: Latin Description Mahometis...theologia extends to 117 printed pages (its title in full is Mahometis Abdallae filii theologia dialogo explicata, Hermanno Nellingaunense interprete. Alcorani epitome Roberto K…


(1,289 words)

Author(s): Albertan-Coppola, Sylviane
‘Mahométisme’ Nicolas-Sylvestre Bergier Date: 1788-90 Original Language: French DescriptionHaving rejected Rousseau, d’Holbach, Voltaire and other Enlightenment philosophers, Abbé Bergier agreed to participate in Charles Joseph Panckoucke’s  Encyclopédie méthodique, a thematic edition adapted from Diderot and d’Alembert’s Encyclopédie of 1751-72, and composed of about 40 individual dictionaries. He was in charge of the  Dictionnaire de théologie, where he replaced the article ‘Mahométisme’, which the Chevalier de Jaucourt had written for the  Encyclopédie, with hi…

 Mahometism fully explained, and Mahometism explained, vol. II

(2,109 words)

Author(s): Matar, Nabil
- Joseph Morgan Date: 1723 and 1725 Original Language: English DescriptionMorgan’s first publication,  Mahometism fully explained (more fully,  Mahometism fully explained ... Written in Spanish and Arabick, in the Year MDCIII for the Instruction of the Moriscoes in Spain. By Mahomet Rabadan, an Arragonian Moor. Translated from the Original Manuscript, and Illustrated with large Explanatory Notes. By Mr. Morgan;1723), is a translation and ‘paraphrase’ from Spanish (and some  aljamiado) of the life of the Prophet Muḥammad, his family and his ancestry. Morgan dedi…

 Majālis-i Jahāngīrī

(1,397 words)

Author(s): Kollatz, Anna
‘Night assemblies at the court of Nūr al-dīn Jahāngīr’ ʿAbd al-Sattār ibn Qāsim Lāhōrī Date: Between 1608 and 1611 Original Language: Persian DescriptionThe  Majālis-i Jahāngīrī is a report of nightly assemblies ( majālis) at the Mughal court under the Emperor Jahāngīr. It covers the period 24 Rajab 1017-19 Ramaḍān 1020 AH (24 October 1608-15 November 1611 AD). The author ended his work only when Jahāngīr started his own autobiographical Jahāngīrnāma ( Tuzuk-i Jahāngīrī).The work is divided into 122 chapters (in the edition, 278 pages), which represent dated report…

Makirdīj al-Kassīḥ

(354 words)

Author(s): Walbiner, Carsten
Makirdīj al-Kassīḥ ibn ʿAbdallāh al-Mukhallaʿ al-Armanī Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Kilis (present-day south-central Turkey) Date of Death: After 1733 Place of Death: Unknown; probably Aleppo BiographyMakirdīj (from Armenian Mkrtič’) al-Kassīḥ was born to Armenian parents in the little town of Kilis, north of Aleppo; the year of his birth is unknown. He belonged to the Armenian Catholic community, which he served as a deacon. At a young age, he moved to Aleppo, where he received an education in philosophy and th…

 Malat‘ac‘i nor nahatakin vray T‘xat‘pr or martiros əław. T‘xat‘c‘i Sēfērōłlovēn K‘earami

(836 words)

Author(s): Cowe, S. Peter
‘On the neomartyr from Malatya who became a martyr in T‘ok‘at‘ by Sēfērołli T‘okat‘c‘i, son of K‘earam' Sēfērołli T‘okat‘c‘i Date: Around 1755 Original Language: Armenian DescriptionThe work is a poem of 12 four-line stanzas of 11 syllable lines, with caesura after the fifth or sixth syllable, featuring a rhyme scheme abcb, dddb that was typical of the medieval Armenian tradition, the b rhyme throughout being constituted by an apostrophe to the protagonist Yōhannēs. The work is followed by a codicil stanza of four lines…

Malik Ayāz

(1,166 words)

Author(s): Balachandran, Jyoti Gulati
Malik Ayāz-i Khāṣṣ-i Sulṭānī, Meliqueaz Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Probably 1522 Place of Death: Junagadh Biography Malik Ayāz was a royal slave ( ghulām-i khāṣṣ) in the Gujarat Sultanate (c. 1407-1573). He rose to be a semi-independent ruler of Diu, a port-city on the southern edge of the Kathiawar peninsula in Gujarat. There is no unanimity among scholars regarding his exact origins. Several contemporary and later sources written in Persian, Arabic and Portuguese identify him variously as …

 Malta illustrata ovvero descrizione di Malta

(1,587 words)

Author(s): Zammit, William
‘Malta illustrated, a description of Malta' Giovannantonio Ciantar Date: 1772, 1780 Original Language: Italian DescriptionGiovanni Antonio Ciantar’s Malta illustrata (in full, Malta illustrata ovvero descrizione di Malta isola  nel mare siciliano e adriatico, con le sue antichità,  ed altre diverse notizie, ‘Malta illustrated, a description of Malta, an island in the Sicilian and Adriatic seas, including its antiquities and various other notes’) was published in two volumes in 1772 and 1780 respectively. The second volume was publish…


(402 words)

Author(s): Pandžić, Zvonko
Tripče de Utolče- Marin Držić; Marino Darsa Date: After 1547, probably between 1549 and 1551 Original Language: Croatian with Turkish and Latin idioms Description The original title of Držić’s comedy has not survived, and it is known by the names of the main characters. Mande (short for Magdalena) is the wife, and Tripče is her husband (diminutive of Triphon, the name of the patron saint of the coastal town of Kotor, today in Montenegro, where the play takes place). It was lost for many centuries, and did not appear in print until 1875. The Turk Mustafa appears in Act 4, scene 1, and Ac…

Manoel Barradas

(566 words)

Author(s): Martínez, Andreu
BiographyManoel Barradas was a Jesuit missionary and author. He entered the Society of Jesus as a novice in 1587 and set sail for Goa, India, four years later. He served in India in various educational and administrative positions, as well as pursuing his studies (Beccari, ‘In vitam’, p. v et passim). In 1601, he was ordained priest, and in 1612 he made the fourth solemn vow of admission into the Jesuit Order, after which he was appointed associate provincial of the Malabar province. In 1621, he was chosen to reinforce the Jesuit mission in Et…
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