Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editors: David Thomas and John Chesworth
Associate Editors: John Azumah, Clinton Bennett, Lejla Demiri, Martha Frederiks, Stanisław Grodź, Andrew Newman, Douglas Pratt

Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general history of relations between the two faiths as this is represented in works written by Christians and Muslims about the other and against the other. It covers all parts of the world in the period 1500-1914. Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online comprises thousands of comprehensive entries on individual works and their authors, together with introductory essays to the periods and areas covered, making it the fullest available source in this field.



(387 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Zayn al-Dīn ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Zayn al-Dīn al-Maʿbarī; Zayn al-Dīn Makhdūm II Date of Birth: Early 16th century Place of Birth: Chombai, near Mahe, northern Malabar Date of Death: Uncertain; after 1583 Place of Death: Ponnani, Malabar Biography Zayn al-Dīn ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Zayn al-Dīn al-Maʿbarī was born in northern Malabar, on the south-west coast of India, to a Sunnī family from Yemen. They had emigrated to Maʿbar on the east coast of India, and then in the early 16th century to Malabar. His grandfather, named Zayn al-Dīn Makhdūm (1467-1521;  makhdūm, ‘the one who is served’,…

Macarius ibn al-Zaʿīm

(1,627 words)

Author(s): Walbiner, Carsten
Makāriyūs ibn al-Zaʿīm al-Ḥalabī Date of Birth: Unknown; about 1600 Place of Birth: Aleppo Date of Death: 22 June 1672 Place of Death: Damascus Biography Macarius (Makāriyūs) ibn al-Zaʿīm was born around 1600 in Aleppo into a clerical family; his father and his grandfather were both priests in the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch. Christened Yūḥannā, he received a basic education at the hands of his father. He followed the family tradition and became a priest. Before his ordination, he had married and had at least one c…

 Machumetis Saracenorum principis, eiusque successorum vitae, ac doctrina, ipseque Alcoran

(1,883 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Bruce
Machumetis Saracenorum principis‘The lives and teaching of Muḥammad, leader of the Saracens, and of his successors, and the Qur’an itself’ Theodor Buchmann Date: 1543 Original Language: Latin Description The folio edition of Machumetis Saracenorum appeared in Basel from the press of Johannes Oporinus in 1543. The project was nearly stopped by the censors in the city, who seized all copies of the text and briefly put Oporinus in prison. Their central objection was that Machumetis contained a Latin translation of the Qur’an, which Bibliander claimed to have revised. Onl…

Maciej z Miechowa

(320 words)

Author(s): Konopacki, Artur
Maciej Miechowita, Maciej Carpiga (Karpiga) Date of Birth: 1457 Place of Birth: Miechów Date of Death: 8 September 1523 Place of Death: Kraków Biography Maciej z Miechowa was the son of Stanisław Carpiga (Karpiga). He completed his studies at the University of Kraków between 1474 and 1478, obtaining his Master’s degree in philosophy in 1479. In 1482-3 he was head of the cathedral school at Wawel (a hill in Kraków where the cathedral stands next to the royal castle), then he completed medical studies in Italy and obtaining a doctorate. He was ordained on his return to Poland in 1488. He travel…

Macuncuzâde Mustafa Efendi

(589 words)

Author(s): Dinç, Emine Nurefşan
Date of Birth: Unknown; presumably second half of the 16th century Place of Birth: Istanbul Date of Death: Unknown; presumably 17th century Place of Death: Unknown Biography No information is available about the life of Macuncuzâde Mustafa Efendi except for the details he provides in his treatise about the two years he spent as a prisoner in Malta. According to this memoir, he was originally from Istanbul. In 1597, during the reign of Mehmed III (r. 1595-1603), he was sent to the Bâf province of Cyprus by Damad Efendi, the  kazasker (high-ranking military judge) of Rumelia, where he …

Madeleine de Scudéry

(687 words)

Author(s): Screpanti, Filippo
Mademoiselle de Scudéry Date of Birth: 15 November 1607 Place of Birth: Le Havre Date of Death: 2 June 1701 Place of Death: Paris BiographyMadeleine de Scudéry was born in Le Havre on 15 November 1607 to a minor noble Norman family. An orphan at age six, she received a solid education from her uncle, and after his death in 1637 she moved to Paris to join her older brother, the dramatist Georges de Scudéry. Through her brother, she was introduced to the literary salons of Paris and the circle of the Hôtel de Rambouillet…

Ma Dexin

(388 words)

Author(s): Ho, Wai Yip
Yusuf Ma Dexin, Ma Fuchu, Abd al-Qayyum Ruh al-Din Yusuf Date of Birth: 1794 Place of Birth: Dali, Yunnan Date of Death: 1874 Place of Death: Yunnan BiographyBorn in Dali, Yunnan Province, in 1794, Ma Dexin was also known as Ma Fuchu among Chinese Muslims. He claimed the title  sayyid by linking himself as a 21st-generation descendant to Sayyid Ajall Shams al-Din (1211-79), the first governor of Yunnan in the Mongol Yuan dynasty. From his childhood, Ma was trained to read Arabic and Persian Islamic texts, as well as the Qur’an, and he eventually became a renowned madrasa teacher. In 1841, he …

 Madīḥa ʿalā jabal Lubnān

(1,509 words)

Author(s): Moukarzel , Joseph
Madīḥa ʿalā jabal Lubnān'Panegyric on Mount Lebanon' Gabriele Barclaio, Ibn al-Qulaʿi, Barclaius, Gabriël Qlai, Gabriel Klahi Date: Sometime after 1487 Original Language: Arabic Description Ibn al-Qilāʿī wrote this poem to demonstrate to his contemporaries that the history of the Maronites had always been glorious when their ancestors were united in faith under the authority of their hierarchy; and that wars lost and persecutions endured were nothing but the result of their disobedience and sin. Its copyists have given it various names: Qiṣṣat Kisruwān wa-l-Mawārina (‘History …


(1,346 words)

Author(s): Fares Hassan, Said
Abū ʿAbdullāh Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Karīm ibn Muḥammad al-Maghīlī l-Tilmisānī l-Jazāʾirī Date of Birth: About 1425-7 Place of Birth: Maghīla, Tilimsān, Algeria Date of Death: 1503/4 or 1505/6 Place of Death: Zawiyat Kunta, Tuoat, Algeria Biography Al-Maghīlī is one of the key figures in the spread of Islam in western Africa. He introduced the Qādiriyya Brotherhood to this region. At an early age, he acquired Islamic sciences, memorised the Qur’an, and became well-versed in Mālikī jurisprudence. Among his teachers were ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Thaʿālibī (d. 1470/1) and the qāḍī of Touat, A…

Mahomad Maydiodín Bantilan

(502 words)

Author(s): Donoso, Isaac
Muḥammad Muʿizz al-Dīn Pangiran Bantilan Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: 1763 Place of Death: Unknown BiographyMuʿizz al-Dīn Pangiran Bantilan was the younger brother of Sultan Alimudín of Sulu. When King Philip V of Spain (r. 1700-24, 1724-46) sent a letter dated 12 July 1744 to the Philippine sultans proposing that they accept Jesuit missionaries, one of those who accepted was Sultan Alimudín. This proved to be the catalyst for a new era of political relations; while sultans in both S…

 Mahometanus dogmatice et catechetice in lege Christi, Alcorano suffragante, instructus

(1,147 words)

Author(s): Manova, Iva
‘The Muslim educated dogmatically and catechetically in the law of Christ, with the support of the Qur’an’ Christophorus Peichich Bulgarus Date: 1717 Original Language: Latin DescriptionThe  Mahometanus, as the work is known, is intended as a handbook for Catholic missionaries working among Muslims. Pejkić presents it as a ‘spiritual weapon’, to be taken up in the struggle against the Ottoman Turks, the ‘greatest foe’ of the Habsburgs and of the whole of Christianity. At the same time, he also recommends it as a useful g…

 'Mahomet ', in Dictionnaire historique et critique

(1,404 words)

Author(s): Simonutti, Luisa
- Pierre Bayle Date: 1697 Original Language: French DescriptionThe Dictionnaire  histoire et critique was written between August 1693 and October 1696, and first appeared on 24 October 1696 (dated 1697) in two folio volumes. The second edition (1701, dated 1702), which occupies four volumes in folio, was the definitive text and the last published during Bayle’s lifetime, although a certain number of additions were incorporated into subsequent editions. There were numerous editions, reproductions and pirated editions during the 18th century and in the first decades of the 19th cent…

 Mahometis Abdallae filii theologia dialogo explicata

(2,338 words)

Author(s): Cecini, Ulisse
Mahometis...theologiaCompendium Alcorani;, Epitome Alcorani‘The theology of Muḥammad’ Johann Albrecht von Widmanstetter; Johann Albert Widmanstetter; Hans Albrecht Widmannstetter; Johannes Albertus Widmanstadius; Widmestadius; Johann Albrecht Widmanstadt; Johann Albrecht Widmannstätter; Lucretius; Oesiander Date: 1543 Original Language: Latin Description Mahometis...theologia extends to 117 printed pages (its title in full is Mahometis Abdallae filii theologia dialogo explicata, Hermanno Nellingaunense interprete. Alcorani epitome Roberto K…


(1,289 words)

Author(s): Albertan-Coppola, Sylviane
‘Mahométisme’ Nicolas-Sylvestre Bergier Date: 1788-90 Original Language: French DescriptionHaving rejected Rousseau, d’Holbach, Voltaire and other Enlightenment philosophers, Abbé Bergier agreed to participate in Charles Joseph Panckoucke’s  Encyclopédie méthodique, a thematic edition adapted from Diderot and d’Alembert’s Encyclopédie of 1751-72, and composed of about 40 individual dictionaries. He was in charge of the  Dictionnaire de théologie, where he replaced the article ‘Mahométisme’, which the Chevalier de Jaucourt had written for the  Encyclopédie, with hi…

 Mahometism fully explained, and Mahometism explained, vol. II

(2,109 words)

Author(s): Matar, Nabil
- Joseph Morgan Date: 1723 and 1725 Original Language: English DescriptionMorgan’s first publication,  Mahometism fully explained (more fully,  Mahometism fully explained ... Written in Spanish and Arabick, in the Year MDCIII for the Instruction of the Moriscoes in Spain. By Mahomet Rabadan, an Arragonian Moor. Translated from the Original Manuscript, and Illustrated with large Explanatory Notes. By Mr. Morgan;1723), is a translation and ‘paraphrase’ from Spanish (and some  aljamiado) of the life of the Prophet Muḥammad, his family and his ancestry. Morgan dedi…

 Mahommedanism (a review) I

(251 words)

Author(s): Vogel, Stuart
- Charles Frederick Hogg Date: June 1891 Original Language: English DescriptionThis two-page article is the first in a series of articles on Islam in China. It is an account of the origin of the Chinese term for ‘Mahommedanism’ ( huijiao), as contained in an undated book with this title written by an ‘educated Mahommedan’ as a defence of the term. The article is two pages long, and in it Hogg summarises the argument of the book. Hogg is dismissive of the argument but finds the author’s style of arguing intriguing. He summarises it not because it is compelling, but becau…

 Mahommedanism (a review) II and III

(326 words)

Author(s): Vogel, Stuart
- Charles Frederick Hogg Date: August and September 1891 Original Language: English DescriptionThis article in two parts, each about five pages long, comprises the second and third parts in a series by Hogg on aspects of Islam in China. Together, they comprise a review of a book written in Chinese entitled Xiuzhenmengyin ('Guide to the rites of the true religion'), which was a one-volume work in Mandarin of around 60 pages, published in Canton in 1668. Its intention was to promote and elucidate the faith of Islam. Some Muslim rituals are described, and observations on Islam in Chi…

 Mahommedanism (laws and ceremonies) a review IV

(302 words)

Author(s): Vogel, Stuart
- Charles Frederick Hogg Date: December 1891 Original Language: English DescriptionThis article, nine pages long, is the fourth in Hogg’s series on Islam in China. It consists of a review of a six-volume work published in Nanking (Nanjing) that comprises a compilation in Chinese from books in Arabic. The title of this work, Tianfangdianli, can be translated as ‘The ceremonies of Arabia’, or ‘The heavenly place’, a reference to Arabia.  The review gives a brief summary of the work. Issues raised include translation and transliteration of names into Chinese and the …

 Mahommedanism. Note - recollections of a conversation, V

(232 words)

Author(s): Vogel, Stuart
- Charles Frederick Hogg Date: February 1892 Original Language: English DescriptionBased on personal conversations between Hogg and a Chinese Muslim, this five-page article describes public worship among the Muslims in a town in Henan province, and records the answer of this ‘educated Mahommedan’ to the statement: ‘Erh Sa (Jesus) was the son of God’. The author’s purpose is to describe Muslim beliefs. He does not attempt to offer a response or even to reflect on the Muslim’s reply.  The article lists terms and transliterations used by the Chinese Muslim community to desig…

 Majālis-i Jahāngīrī

(1,397 words)

Author(s): Kollatz, Anna
‘Night assemblies at the court of Nūr al-dīn Jahāngīr’ ʿAbd al-Sattār ibn Qāsim Lāhōrī Date: Between 1608 and 1611 Original Language: Persian DescriptionThe  Majālis-i Jahāngīrī is a report of nightly assemblies ( majālis) at the Mughal court under the Emperor Jahāngīr. It covers the period 24 Rajab 1017-19 Ramaḍān 1020 AH (24 October 1608-15 November 1611 AD). The author ended his work only when Jahāngīr started his own autobiographical Jahāngīrnāma ( Tuzuk-i Jahāngīrī).The work is divided into 122 chapters (in the edition, 278 pages), which represent dated report…
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