Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editors: David Thomas and John Chesworth
Associate Editors: John Azumah, Clinton Bennett, Lejla Demiri, Martha Frederiks, Stanisław Grodź, Andrew Newman, Douglas Pratt

Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general history of relations between the two faiths as this is represented in works written by Christians and Muslims about the other and against the other. It covers all parts of the world in the period 1500-1914. Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online comprises thousands of comprehensive entries on individual works and their authors, together with introductory essays to the periods and areas covered, making it the fullest available source in this field.

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Al-Maʿbarī

(387 words)

Author(s): Thomas, David
Zayn al-Dīn ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Zayn al-Dīn al-Maʿbarī; Zayn al-Dīn Makhdūm II Date of Birth: Early 16th century Place of Birth: Chombai, near Mahe, northern Malabar Date of Death: Uncertain; after 1583 Place of Death: Ponnani, Malabar Biography Zayn al-Dīn ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Zayn al-Dīn al-Maʿbarī was born in northern Malabar, on the south-west coast of India, to a Sunnī family from Yemen. They had emigrated to Maʿbar on the east coast of India, and then in the early 16th century to Malabar. His grandfather, named Zayn al-Dīn Makhdūm (1467-1521;  makhdūm, ‘the one who is served’,…

Macarius ibn al-Zaʿīm

(1,627 words)

Author(s): Walbiner, Carsten
Makāriyūs ibn al-Zaʿīm al-Ḥalabī Date of Birth: Unknown; about 1600 Place of Birth: Aleppo Date of Death: 22 June 1672 Place of Death: Damascus Biography Macarius (Makāriyūs) ibn al-Zaʿīm was born around 1600 in Aleppo into a clerical family; his father and his grandfather were both priests in the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch. Christened Yūḥannā, he received a basic education at the hands of his father. He followed the family tradition and became a priest. Before his ordination, he had married and had at least one c…

 Machumetis Saracenorum principis, eiusque successorum vitae, ac doctrina, ipseque Alcoran

(1,883 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Bruce
Machumetis Saracenorum principis‘The lives and teaching of Muḥammad, leader of the Saracens, and of his successors, and the Qur’an itself’ Theodor Buchmann Date: 1543 Original Language: Latin Description The folio edition of Machumetis Saracenorum appeared in Basel from the press of Johannes Oporinus in 1543. The project was nearly stopped by the censors in the city, who seized all copies of the text and briefly put Oporinus in prison. Their central objection was that Machumetis contained a Latin translation of the Qur’an, which Bibliander claimed to have revised. Onl…

Maciej z Miechowa

(320 words)

Author(s): Konopacki, Artur
Maciej Miechowita, Maciej Carpiga (Karpiga) Date of Birth: 1457 Place of Birth: Miechów Date of Death: 8 September 1523 Place of Death: Kraków Biography Maciej z Miechowa was the son of Stanisław Carpiga (Karpiga). He completed his studies at the University of Kraków between 1474 and 1478, obtaining his Master’s degree in philosophy in 1479. In 1482-3 he was head of the cathedral school at Wawel (a hill in Kraków where the cathedral stands next to the royal castle), then he completed medical studies in Italy and obtaining a doctorate. He was ordained on his return to Poland in 1488. He travel…

Macuncuzâde Mustafa Efendi

(589 words)

Author(s): Dinç, Emine Nurefşan
Date of Birth: Unknown; presumably second half of the 16th century Place of Birth: Istanbul Date of Death: Unknown; presumably 17th century Place of Death: Unknown Biography No information is available about the life of Macuncuzâde Mustafa Efendi except for the details he provides in his treatise about the two years he spent as a prisoner in Malta. According to this memoir, he was originally from Istanbul. In 1597, during the reign of Mehmed III (r. 1595-1603), he was sent to the Bâf province of Cyprus by Damad Efendi, the  kazasker (high-ranking military judge) of Rumelia, where he …

 Madīḥa ʿalā jabal Lubnān

(1,509 words)

Author(s): Moukarzel , Joseph
Madīḥa ʿalā jabal Lubnān'Panegyric on Mount Lebanon' Gabriele Barclaio, Ibn al-Qulaʿi, Barclaius, Gabriël Qlai, Gabriel Klahi Date: Sometime after 1487 Original Language: Arabic Description Ibn al-Qilāʿī wrote this poem to demonstrate to his contemporaries that the history of the Maronites had always been glorious when their ancestors were united in faith under the authority of their hierarchy; and that wars lost and persecutions endured were nothing but the result of their disobedience and sin. Its copyists have given it various names: Qiṣṣat Kisruwān wa-l-Mawārina (‘History …

Al-Maghīlī

(1,346 words)

Author(s): Fares Hassan, Said
Abū ʿAbdullāh Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Karīm ibn Muḥammad al-Maghīlī l-Tilmisānī l-Jazāʾirī Date of Birth: About 1425-7 Place of Birth: Maghīla, Tilimsān, Algeria Date of Death: 1503/4 or 1505/6 Place of Death: Zawiyat Kunta, Tuoat, Algeria Biography Al-Maghīlī is one of the key figures in the spread of Islam in western Africa. He introduced the Qādiriyya Brotherhood to this region. At an early age, he acquired Islamic sciences, memorised the Qur’an, and became well-versed in Mālikī jurisprudence. Among his teachers were ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Thaʿālibī (d. 1470/1) and the qāḍī of Touat, A…

Mahomad Maydiodín Bantilan

(502 words)

Author(s): Donoso, Isaac
Muḥammad Muʿizz al-Dīn Pangiran Bantilan Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: 1763 Place of Death: Unknown BiographyMuʿizz al-Dīn Pangiran Bantilan was the younger brother of Sultan Alimudín of Sulu. When King Philip V of Spain (r. 1700-24, 1724-46) sent a letter dated 12 July 1744 to the Philippine sultans proposing that they accept Jesuit missionaries, one of those who accepted was Sultan Alimudín. This proved to be the catalyst for a new era of political relations; while sultans in both S…

 Mahometis Abdallae filii theologia dialogo explicata

(2,338 words)

Author(s): Cecini, Ulisse
Mahometis...theologiaCompendium Alcorani;, Epitome Alcorani‘The theology of Muḥammad’ Johann Albrecht von Widmanstetter; Johann Albert Widmanstetter; Hans Albrecht Widmannstetter; Johannes Albertus Widmanstadius; Widmestadius; Johann Albrecht Widmanstadt; Johann Albrecht Widmannstätter; Lucretius; Oesiander Date: 1543 Original Language: Latin Description Mahometis...theologia extends to 117 printed pages (its title in full is Mahometis Abdallae filii theologia dialogo explicata, Hermanno Nellingaunense interprete. Alcorani epitome Roberto K…

 Majālis-i Jahāngīrī

(1,397 words)

Author(s): Kollatz, Anna
‘Night assemblies at the court of Nūr al-dīn Jahāngīr’ ʿAbd al-Sattār ibn Qāsim Lāhōrī Date: Between 1608 and 1611 Original Language: Persian DescriptionThe  Majālis-i Jahāngīrī is a report of nightly assemblies ( majālis) at the Mughal court under the Emperor Jahāngīr. It covers the period 24 Rajab 1017-19 Ramaḍān 1020 AH (24 October 1608-15 November 1611 AD). The author ended his work only when Jahāngīr started his own autobiographical Jahāngīrnāma ( Tuzuk-i Jahāngīrī).The work is divided into 122 chapters (in the edition, 278 pages), which represent dated report…

Makirdīj al-Kassīḥ

(354 words)

Author(s): Walbiner, Carsten
Makirdīj al-Kassīḥ ibn ʿAbdallāh al-Mukhallaʿ al-Armanī Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Kilis (present-day south-central Turkey) Date of Death: After 1733 Place of Death: Unknown; probably Aleppo BiographyMakirdīj (from Armenian Mkrtič’) al-Kassīḥ was born to Armenian parents in the little town of Kilis, north of Aleppo; the year of his birth is unknown. He belonged to the Armenian Catholic community, which he served as a deacon. At a young age, he moved to Aleppo, where he received an education in philosophy and th…

 Malat‘ac‘i nor nahatakin vray T‘xat‘pr or martiros əław. T‘xat‘c‘i Sēfērōłlovēn K‘earami

(836 words)

Author(s): Cowe, S. Peter
‘On the neomartyr from Malatya who became a martyr in T‘ok‘at‘ by Sēfērołli T‘okat‘c‘i, son of K‘earam' Sēfērołli T‘okat‘c‘i Date: Around 1755 Original Language: Armenian DescriptionThe work is a poem of 12 four-line stanzas of 11 syllable lines, with caesura after the fifth or sixth syllable, featuring a rhyme scheme abcb, dddb that was typical of the medieval Armenian tradition, the b rhyme throughout being constituted by an apostrophe to the protagonist Yōhannēs. The work is followed by a codicil stanza of four lines, the first two of seven syllables, followed by two further lines of eight syllables, featuring a rhyme scheme aaba characteristic of Persian quatrains. It requests prayers from readers or listeners and promises divine recompense for those who heed this plea. The poem presents a simple, unvarnished account of events in the form of a literary…

Malik Ayāz

(1,166 words)

Author(s): Balachandran, Jyoti Gulati
Malik Ayāz-i Khāṣṣ-i Sulṭānī, Meliqueaz Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Probably 1522 Place of Death: Junagadh Biography Malik Ayāz was a royal slave ( ghulām-i khāṣṣ) in the Gujarat Sultanate (c. 1407-1573). He rose to be a semi-independent ruler of Diu, a port-city on the southern edge of the Kathiawar peninsula in Gujarat. There is no unanimity among scholars regarding his exact origins. Several contemporary and later sources written in Persian, Arabic and Portuguese identify him variously as Russian, Armenian, Turkish, Persian (Gilani) and even Javanese. For instance, the mid 16…

 Mande

(402 words)

Author(s): Pandžić, Zvonko
Tripče de Utolče- Marin Držić; Marino Darsa Date: After 1547, probably between 1549 and 1551 Original Language: Croatian with Turkish and Latin idioms Description The original title of Držić’s comedy has not survived, and it is known by the names of the main characters. Mande (short for Magdalena) is the wife, and Tripče is her husband (diminutive of Triphon, the name of the patron saint of the coastal town of Kotor, today in Montenegro, where the play takes place). It was lost for many centuries, and did not appear in print until 1875. The Turk Mustafa appears in Act 4, scene 1, and Ac…

Manoel Barradas

(566 words)

Author(s): Martínez, Andreu
BiographyManoel Barradas was a Jesuit missionary and author. He entered the Society of Jesus as a novice in 1587 and set sail for Goa, India, four years later. He served in India in various educational and administrative positions, as well as pursuing his studies (Beccari, ‘In vitam’, p. v

Manoel de Almeida

(526 words)

Author(s): Cohen, Leonardo
BiographyManoel de Almeida was born in Viseu, Portugal. Despite his parents’ objection, he becam…

 Manuductio ad conversionem Mahumetanorum

(1,817 words)

Author(s): Colombo, Emanuele
‘Handbook to convert Muslims’ Tirso González de Santalla Date: 1687 Original Language: Latin Description Manuductio ad conversionem Mahumetanorum (in full  Manuductio ad conversionem Mahumetanorum in duas partes divisa. In prima veritas Religionis Chiristianae Catholicae Romanae manifestis notis demonstratur. In secunda falsitas Mahumetanae Sectae convincitur) is divided into two volumes. The first, covering 364 pages in the 1687 first edition, is dedicated to demonstrating the divinity of Christ and the truth of the Catholic Church ( pars prima,  in quo se…

Manuel Álvares

(703 words)

Author(s): Frederiks, Martha
Emmanuel Avuares Date of Birth: Unknown (second half of the 16th century) Place of Birth: Portugal Date of Death: 1616 or 1617 Place of Death: Sierra Leone

Manuel da Costa

(393 words)

Author(s): Mattia Tommasino, Pier
Emmanuel Acosta Date of Birth: 1525 Place of Birth: Ponta Delgada, Azores Islands Date of Death: Unknown Place of Death: Unknown Biography Manuel da Costa was born in Ponta Delgada in 1525 in the Azores. He entered the Society of Jesus on 18 May 1551 in Coímbra, was ordained priest in about 1556 and professed his final vows on 27 June 1562. Da Costa entered the Society of Jesus while studying law at the University of Coímbra, and also studied philosophy and theology for two years. From the second half of the 1550s, h…

Manuel da Nóbrega

(491 words)

Author(s): Ribeiro, Eneida
Biography Manuel da Nóbrega was born in Minho, north of Porto, Portugal, in 1517, the son of a judge, Baltasar da Nóbrega. He studied canon law in Coimbra (1538-41) and humanities in Salamanca. In 1544, he joined the Society of Jesus, and he was appointed to head the first group of Jesuits in South America. He travelled to Brazil, and established his headquarters in the newly founded city of Salvador on 29 March 1549, remaining in the country until his death. He played a leading role in evangelis…
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