Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editors: David Thomas and John Chesworth
Associate Editors: John Azumah, Clinton Bennett, Lejla Demiri, Martha Frederiks, Stanisław Grodź, Andrew Newman, Douglas Pratt

Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general history of relations between the two faiths as this is represented in works written by Christians and Muslims about the other and against the other. It covers all parts of the world in the period 1500-1914. Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online comprises thousands of comprehensive entries on individual works and their authors, together with introductory essays to the periods and areas covered, making it the fullest available source in this field.

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Nādir Shah

(768 words)

Author(s): Tucker, Ernest
Nādir Shah Afshār; Tahmāsp Qulī Khān; Nāder Shah Date of Birth: November 1688 Place of Birth: Darrah Gaz, Khurāsān Date of Death: 20 June 1747 Place of Death: Qūchān, Khurāsān BiographyNādir Shah Afshār was the founder of the Afshārid dynasty. Although he was on the throne for only 11 years (1736-47), he briefly conquered large parts of India and Central Asia. A Turkman tribesman from northern Khurāsān, by the late 1720s he had joined the army of Shāh Ṭahmāsp II (d. 1740), son of the previous Safavid ruler Shāh Sulṭān Ḥusayn (r. 1694-1722). Ṭahmāsp II was fighting several challengers,…

 Nagrobek Osmanowi

(719 words)

Author(s): Baron, Maciej
Nagrobek Osmanowi 'The tombstone for Osman' Fabian Birkowski Date: 1622 Original Language: Polish Description Birkowski’s sermon on the death of Sultan Osman II (r. 1618-22), Nagrobek Osmanowi (in full, Nagrobek Osmanowi cesarzowi tureckiemu. W roku Pańskim 1622, maja 20, w oktawę Zesłania Ducha świętego, ‘The tombstone of Osman, Ottoman Emperor. Anno Domini 1622, 20 May, in the octave of Pentecost’), comes to about ten pages in standard printed editions. As preacher to the royal court, Birkowski covered the most recent issues in his se…

 Nahatakut`iwn Grigori xostovanoł vkayin K`ristosi, or hasarakapēs koč‘i Loys Grigor, ełeloy i žamanaks Šah Sult‘an Hōsēyni, yami 1703

(2,148 words)

Author(s): Cowe, S. Peter
‘Martyrology of the confessor [and] martyr of Christ Grigor, widely known as ‘Light Grigor’ that occurred in the time of Shah Solt‘ān Ḥosayn in the year 1703’ Martyrology of Loys Grigor Date: Around 1703 Original Language: Armenian Description Nahatakut ‘iwn Grigori xostovanoł vkayin K ‘ristosi is by an unknown author. The original editor, Yarut‘iwn Tēr-Yovhaneanc‘, plausibly surmises that he may be identified as the Christian Armenian dressed in Muslim garb recorded in the text as being present with the martyr at the time of his death. T…

 Nahatakut‘iwn nor vkayin K‘ristosi S. Sahakay Brutnec‘woy

(1,057 words)

Author(s): Cowe, S. Peter
‘Martyrology of Christ’s neomartyr St Sahak Brutnec‘i’ Step‘anos Kafayec‘i Date: 1714 Original Language: Armenian Description Nahatakut‘iwn nor vkayin K‘ristosi S. Sahakay Brutnec‘woy (‘Martyrology of Christ’s neomartyr St Sahak Brutnec‘i’) is eight pages long in the critical edition published in 1903. This is based on the first edition published in 1893 by Łewond Alishan, who does not provide details concerning the manuscript from which the work derives. The protagonist is described as a tall, handsome 17-year-old youth from the village of Brut (Buhrut) in t…

 Nâmûs-i Musa yani Tevrat-ı şerif lisan-ı İbrânî’den Türk diline mütercem

(1,356 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Hannah
‘The Law of Moses, namely the Noble Torah, translated from the Hebrew tongue into the Turkish language’ Wojciech Bobowski, Albertus Bobovius Leopolitanus, Ali Bey; Ali Ufkî, Ali Bey es-Santuri (‘the cymbalist’) Date: Between about 1662 and 1665 Original Language: Ottoman Turkish Description Nâmûs-i Musa is Bobovius’ Ottoman Turkish translation of the Old and New Testaments, as well as a collection of the Old Testament Apocrypha (apparently influenced by the sponsors of the Dutch Reformed Church; see Privratsky, ‘History of Turkish Bible …

Napoleon Bonaparte Wolfe

(125 words)

Author(s): Bowen, Patrick
Date of Birth: 25 December 1823 Place of Birth: Columbia, Pennsylvania Date of Death: 17 June 1891 Place of Death: Unknown; buried in Columbia, Pennsylvania BiographyLittle is known about the early life of Napoleon Wolfe. By the late 1850s he had established himself in Cincinnati, Ohio, as a physician who promoted the medicinal benefits of ‘inhalation’, the practice of inhaling the vapours of various chemicals. Throughout the next three decades, he published several works on this subject as a way to promote his medical …

 Narrative of a tour through Armenia, Kurdistan, Persia, and Mesopotamia

(3,450 words)

Author(s): Mosher, Lucinda
- Horatio Southgate Date: 1840 Original Language: English Description Narrative of a tour through Armenia, Kurdistan, Persia, and Mesopotamia , with an introduction, and occasional observations upon the condition of Mohammedanism and Christianity in those countries was published in 1840 in London and New York. Both editions are in two volumes, but they are paginated differently, and thus differ in length. London: vol. 1 has 325 pages, vol. 2 has 335; New York: vol. 1 has 334 pages, vol. 2 has 354. Here the London edition is follo…

 Narrative of the captivity of John Vandike, who was taken by the Algierines, in 1791

(879 words)

Author(s): Larson, Ian
- John Vandike Date: Approximately 1797 Original Language: English DescriptionJohn Vandike’s  Narrative is a 30-page account of his captivity in Algiers (in full,  Narrative of the captivity of John Vandike, who was taken by the Algierines, in 1791: an account of his escape, bringing with him a beautiful young English lady, who was taken in 1790 ; the ill usage she received from her master. The whole in a letter to his brother in Amsterdam). The work is supposedly translated from Dutch into English by ‘Mr. James Howe of Holland’. It is framed as a letter to a recipie…

 Nasīḥat al-Muslimīn wa-tadhkirat al-muʾminīn faḍāʾil al-jihād fī sabīl Allāh wa-karāmat al-mujāhidīn fī sabīl Allāh

(788 words)

Author(s): Riddell, Peter G.
‘Advice for Muslims and an admonition for believers on the virtue of jihad in the way of God and honouring those who wage jihad in the way of God’ ʿAbd al-Ṣamad al-Palimbānī Date: 1772 Original Language: Arabic DescriptionThis work consists of seven chapters and a conclusion, with the chapter titles providing a clear insight into the content of the work, as follows: 1.     The virtue of and instructions on jihad in the way of God; 2.     Hadith reports on the virtue of jihad in the way of God; 3.     The virtue of preparation for jihad in the way of God; 4.     Hadith accounts on the virtue of…

 Al-nāsikh wa-l-mansūkh fī l-Qurʾān

(236 words)

Author(s): Walbiner, Carsten
‘The abrogating and the abrogated in the Qur’an’ Makirdīj al-Kassīḥ ibn ʿAbdallāh al-Mukhallaʿ al-Armanī Date: Between 1690 and 1733 Original Language: Arabic DescriptionAccording to Paul Sbath, who found a single copy of this treatise in the possession of the heirs of the Greek Catholic merchant Rizqallāh Bāsīl in Aleppo, this work comprised two parts, each of ten chapters. Sbath summarises the contents briefly as ‘the contradictions of the Qur’an and the wrong principle of the abrogating and the abrogated’. Nothing else is known about this work. The manuscript is presumed lost. Sign…

 Nathan der Weise. Ein Dramatisches Gedicht, in fünf Aufzügen

(2,537 words)

Author(s): Tauchner, Christian
‘Nathan the wise. A dramatic poem in five acts’ Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Date: 1779 Original Language: German DescriptionLessing wrote  Nathan in 1778-9. The reason behind it and its date are quite precise: he had engaged in a controversy on reason and revelation through the publication of radical extracts from Herman Samuel Reimarus’s papers. Because of this conflict with the orthodox theology of his time, represented by Goeze, the senior pastor of Hamburg, the Braunschweig Ministry withdrew his licence to publis…

 Naʿt al-Nabī Muḥammad ʿalayhi l-salām fī l-Injīl

(667 words)

Author(s): Avcı, Betül
Risāla fī bayān taḥrīf al-Yahūd wa-l-Naṣārā; 'Description of the Prophet Muḥammad, peace be upon him, in the Gospel''Treatise in explanation of scriptural alteration by the Jews and the Christians’; İncilî; Ali ibn el-Yunânî Date: Early 18th century Original Language: Arabic DescriptionThis is a Muslim polemical treatise against Christianity from the early 18th century. Derviş Ali states that he composed it in order to explain ambiguous expressions in the Gospel and to add Sufi terminology to it. He notes that he studied the Gospel, Torah and Ps…

 Nauigation and vyages

(1,232 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Nauigation and vyages- Richard Eden Date: 1576 Original Language: English Description Eden completed his translation of the Latin version of Ludovico di Varthema’s (c. 1470-1517) account of his travels in Arabia, then to India and further east, just before his death in 1576. The Italian version, Itinerario de Ludouico de Varthema bolognese, appeared in 1510, the Latin in 1511. Eden’s translation was published posthumously in The historie of travayle into the West and East Indies, the 1577 enlarged version of his Decades of the New Worlde (1555), where it comprises pages 354-421.…

 Naukeurige beschrijvinge van ...

(2,738 words)

Author(s): Steenbrink, Karel
‘An accurate description of...’ Olfert Dapper Date: 1668-88 Original Language: Dutch Description Olfert Dapper was a prolific writer of books on ‘foreign parts’, although he never travelled outside The Netherlands. His books are compilations of materials gathered from a variety of sources, such as travelogues, letters and interviews. Between 1668 and 1688, he published a series of eight volumes, all beginning with Naukeurige  beschrijvinge  van ... (‘An accurate description of …’). Dapper started his series with a description of mainland Africa and the Africa…

 Nauwkeurige en waarachtige ontdekking en wederlegginge van de Afgoderye der Oost-Indische heydenen

(904 words)

Author(s): Joosse, Leendert Jan
‘An accurate and truthful discovery and refutation of the Gentiles of the East Indies’ Philippus Baldaeus Date: 1672 Original Language: Dutch Description In one volume Baldaeus includes four sections: a description of Malabar, a description of Ceylon, a dictionary and grammar of Malabar, and a refutation of non-Christian faiths. Each of these is numbered separately in the Dutch volume, while the German translation of 1672 numbers them consecutively as one work. In the first section of  Nauwkeurige beschrijvinge van Malabar (190 pages, including many maps and pictures) Bald…

 Navigatione de Lisbona a Callichut

(1,313 words)

Author(s): Chesworth, John
Navigatione de Lisbona a Callichut‘Voyage from Lisbon to Calicut’ Navigatione de Lisbona a Callichut Date: Early 16th century Original Language: Italian Description In 1500, Manuel I, King of Portugal, commissioned a fleet of 12 ships to be sent to India and East Africa. The expedition was to be led by Pedro Álvares Cabral and included some Franciscan friars and clergy, who were to remain in India. The king instructed Cabral to build a factory in Calicut, to establish relations with Christian kingdoms in India and to…

 Nazarenus: Or, Jewish, gentile, and Mahometan Christianity

(2,418 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
- John Toland Date: 1718 Original Language: English DescriptionJohn Toland’s  Nazarenus: Or, Jewish, gentile, and Mahometan Christianity was published in London in 1718 (references below refer to this edition). A second, revised edition was published later the same year with the same pagination. The work  was also included in the posthumously published  Theological and philosophical works of the late Mr John Toland (1732), edited by Toland’s earliest biographer, Pierre Desmaizeaux (where it begins at p. 104). It consists of a preface (i-xxv), two letter…

 Nea synopsis diaphorōn historiōn archomenē apo ktiseōs kosmou kai lēgousa heōs tē nyn echronia

(2,533 words)

Author(s): Ioannis Kyriakantonakis, Paschalis Kitromilides and
‘New synopsis of diverse histories from the creation of the world to the present’ Tzigalas, Sigalas, Cigalas Date: 1637 Original Language: Greek (vernacular) Description Matthaios Kigalas’s  Nea synopsis diaphorōn historiōn was published in Venice, at the printing house of Antonios Ioulianos from Ioannina, in 1637, with a second edition in 1650, under the full title  Nea synopsis diaphorōn historiōn archomenē apo ktiseōs kosmou kai lēgousa heōs tē nyn echronia. Periechei de eti kai tēn halōsin tēs Konstantinoupoleōs, metagegrammenē apo tēn Tourcogr…

 Nederlandsch-Indisch Plakaatboek

(1,692 words)

Author(s): Steenbrink, Karel
Compendium of decrees by the Government of the Dutch East Indies Nederlandsch-Indisch Plakaatboek Date: 17th/18th century Original Language: Dutch DescriptionAfter exploratory trips to Asia between 1595 and 1600, traders in the young Dutch Republic established the VOC ( Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie; Dutch East India Company). The VOC built, or captured from the Portuguese, fortifications along the route, or in key locations, for the spice trade from Arabia and India to the Malay Archipelago. Jan Pieters­zoon Coen and his Dutch fo…

Nederlandsch-Indisch Plakaatboek

(26 words)

Author(s): Steenbrink, Karel
Date of Birth: Place of Birth: Date of Death: Place of Death: Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim RelationsNederlandsch-Indisch PlakaatboekKarel Steenbrink
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