Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editors: David Thomas and John Chesworth
Associate Editors: John Azumah, Clinton Bennett, Lejla Demiri, Martha Frederiks, Stanisław Grodź, Andrew Newman, Douglas Pratt

Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general history of relations between the two faiths as this is represented in works written by Christians and Muslims about the other and against the other. It covers all parts of the world in the period 1500-1914. Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online comprises thousands of comprehensive entries on individual works and their authors, together with introductory essays to the periods and areas covered, making it the fullest available source in this field.

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Pacifique de Provins

(408 words)

Author(s): Carnoy-Torabi, Dominique
René de l’Escalle or l’Escale, Pacificus Scaligerus, Renatus Scaligerus Date of Birth: 1588 Place of Birth: Provins Date of Death: 1648 Place of Death: Guyana Biography When René de l’Escalle became a Capuchin monk in 1605, he took the name Pacifique de Provins. He founded the Capuchin monastery in Provins and then, as he wanted to become a missionary, asked to be sent to Turkey in 1621. After his arrival in Constantinople in 1622, he went on to Egypt, the Holy Land and Syria. A letter he sent from Constantinople on the …

Païsios Ligaridēs

(1,334 words)

Author(s): Olar, Ovidiu
Pantaleone Ligaridi, Pantaleo Ligaridis, Pantaleon Ligaridius, Metropolitan Païsios of Gaza Date of Birth: Around 1609/10 Place of Birth: Chios Date of Death: 24 August 1678 Place of Death: Kiev Biography Born in Chios the son of Giovanni Ligaridēs and Orietta Callaronis, Pantaleone Ligaridēs was admitted into the Greek College of St Athanasius in Rome in 1623, when he was about 13 years old. Thirteen years later, in the Church of St Athanasius, he received with honours a doctorate in philosophy and theology. In the same chu…

Pajsije of Janjevo

(594 words)

Author(s): Petrovszky, Konrad
Pajsej; Pajsije Janjevac; Patriarch Paisius I of Peć Date of Birth: Unknown; probably middle of the 16th century Place of Birth: Probably the village of Janjevo (Serbian; Albanian: Janjeva), Kosovo Date of Death: 2 November 1647 Place of Death: Peć (Serbian; Albanian: Peja) Biography There is only very scant information about Pajsije’s origins and early years before he started ascending the Serbian church hierarchy at an already advanced age. Since the available sources mention that he was in his sixties (which could also just mean ‘very …

 Palinodia de la nephanda y fiera nación de los turcos

(810 words)

Author(s): Ángel Auladell, Miguel
Palinodia de la nephanda y fiera nación de los turcos‘Palinode on the unspeakable and fierce nation of the Turks’ Vasco Diaz de Tanco de Fregenal Date: 1547 Original Language: Castilian Description  This work, dedicated to Prince Philip, is divided into chapters that successively deal with various characteristics of the Turks (its full title is El libro llamado Palinodia que trata de las guerras de la nefanda nació turquesca y délos Capitanes: Príncipes: Reyes: y emperadores que entre ellos ha habido, y de los imperios Reynos: Principados: Comarcas…

Panagiōtēs Nikousios

(1,415 words)

Author(s): and Marinos Sariyannis, George Koutzakiotis
Panagiōtakēs Mamōnas, Panagiōtēs Vyzantios, Panaioti Nicusio, Panagiōtakēs, Panaiotachie, Panagiotes, Panagioti, Panagiotti, Panaïaoty, Panaiot, Panaioti, Panaiotti, Panajot, Panajoti, Panajotti, Panajotty, Panayotti Date of Birth: 1613 or 1621 Place of Birth: Probably Chios; possibly Constantinople or Nicosia Date of Death: 2 October 1673 Place of Death: Isaccea, Dobrogea (in present-day Romania) Biography Panagiōtēs Nikousios’ biography is difficult to establish due to the scarcity and contradictory nature of the extant sources, especially co…

 Pansebeia; or a View of all the religions of the world

(3,422 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Pansebeia- Alexander Ross, Hugh Ross, Thomas Ross Date: 1653 Original Language: English Description Alexander Ross’s  Pansebeia, or a View of the religions of the world was first published in 1653. By the end of the century, the text had appeared in six editions (several reprinted) and in Dutch, French and German translations. The 1555, 1658 and 1664 (all Octavo or small folio) editions were bound with  Apocalypsis, ... Faithfully and Impartially translated out of the Latine by J.D. This latter work contains the lives of 17 heretics, including Muḥammad, with copperplate…

Paolo Piromalli

(538 words)

Author(s): Halft, Dennis
Paolo Piromalli, Paulus Piromallus, Pūlūs Pīrmāl Date of Birth: 1591 Place of Birth: Siderno, Italy Date of Death: 1667 Place of Death: Bisignano, Italy Biography Paolo Piromalli (1591-1667) came from Siderno in Calabria. He joined the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) in around 1610, and spent the following two decades in Soriano Calabro, Naples, and Rome. In 1631, he was sent by the Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide to the mission in Persia and Greater Armenia, for the purpose of bringing the Armenian Orthodox popula…

 Papasnâme

(721 words)

Author(s): Avcı, Betül
Bir papas îmâna gelüb bunı te’lîf eylemişdür;, Mükâşefe-i Şeyh Abdurrahman;, Kitâb-ı mükâşefe;, Bahrü’l-mükâşefe‘The priest’s book’‘A priest came to faith and penned this’; ‘Vision of Şeyh Abdurrahman’; ‘The book of unveiling’; ‘The ocean of unveiling’ Derviş Mehmed Date: Possibly 1597-8 Original Language: Ottoman Turkish Description This vision narrative, which foretells the future of the Ottoman dynasty and the events of the end time, exists in seven manuscripts with various titles, and is most commonly known as  Papasnâme (‘The priest’s book’).  It takes up 30 folio…

 Paradise Lost: A poem in twelve books

(3,215 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
- John Milton Date: 1667, 1674 Original Language: English Description John Milton’s epic poem,  Paradise Lost, written in blank verse or ‘English heroic’, was first published in quarto in 1667. It was divided into ten books. The second edition in octavo followed in 1674, reorganised into 12 books (on the difference between the two editions, see R.G. Moyles,  The text of Paradise Lost, Toronto, 1985). The poem has 10,565 lines. Many editions and works of commentary have followed (see Miner, Moeck and Jablonski, Three centuries). Several poets have produced rhyming versions. It h…

 P‘ark‘ anełin astuacut‘ean

(1,523 words)

Author(s): Cowe, Peter
P‘ark‘ anełin astuacut‘ean‘Glory to the uncreated Godhead’ Verse colophon on Shah Ismail’s campaigns Karapet Bałis̆ec‘i Date: 1513 Original Language: Armenian Description This work is a poem of 122 lines in eight syllables featuring monorhyme (in – an) typical of the medieval Armenian tradition for extended verse narratives. Akinean and others have classified it as a lament ( ołb), but a number of factors militate against this designation. The piece was not conceived as a freestanding work and did not enter into wider circulation as a literary composi…

Pʻarsadan Gorgijaniże

(972 words)

Author(s): Maeda, Hirotake
Date of Birth: Around 1626 Place of Birth: Possibly Gori Date of Death: Probably after 1694 Place of Death: Possibly Isfahan Biography Pʻarsadan Gorgijaniże was a Georgian politician and historian who followed a unique political and cultural career in the Safavid Empire. He was originally from Gori in Georgia, and since according to his own statement he was 65 when he finished a copy of his Georgian translation of  Jāmiʿ-i ʿAbbāsī in October 1691 (he had made the translation itself in 1666), he was probably born around 1626. He was apparently not of aristocratic l…

Paschal Beverly Randolph

(461 words)

Author(s): Bowen, Patrick
Date of Birth: 8 October 1825 Place of Birth: New York City Date of Death: 29 July 1875 Place of Death: Toledo, Ohio Biography Paschal Beverley Randolph was born in 1825, the illegitimate child of an impoverished mixed white and African-American family. After being orphaned at the age of seven, he did odd jobs and travelled on the various ships on which he was employed. By the 1850s, he had established himself as a respected Spiritualist medium and developed connections with the Free Love movement. After renouncing cer…

 Patmut‘iwn nahatakut‘ean Dawt‘i Sebastac‘woy

(1,342 words)

Author(s): Cowe, Peter
‘Versified narrative of the martyrdom of Dawit‘ Sebastac‘i’ Mik‘ayēl son of the scribe Barłam Date: 1682 Original Language: Armenian Description This work is a  tał poem of 364 lines of 11 syllables arranged in four-line verses with stanzaic rhyme. An acrostic composed of the first letters of lines 312-23 incorporates the author’s ‘signature’, spelling out the phrase ‘Mik‘ayili ban e’ (‘This is Mik‘ayēl’s discourse’). A continuation of the verse then treats the related martyrology of Gaspar Kṛuan who gained the courage…

 Patmut‘iwn nor vkayin K‘ristosi srboyn Gabriēl

(882 words)

Author(s): Cowe, Peter
vkayabanut‘iwn Gabriēli‘History of the neomartyr St Gabriēl’, 'Martyrology of Gabriēl' Patmut‘iwn nor vkayin K‘ristosi srboyn Gabriēl Date: After 1662 Original Language: Armenian Description Patmut‘iwn nor vkayin K‘ristosi srboyn Gabriēl is a short anonymous work, preserved in Yerevan at the Maštoc‘ Matenadaran Institute of Manuscripts - M1173, fols 116v-118r. It records the martyrdom of Gabriēl. The protagonist was born to Armenian Christian parents in the district of Galata, across the Golden Horn from Constantinople. As a young man he had been…

Patmut‘iwn nor vkayin K‘ristosi srboyn Gabriēl

(40 words)

Author(s): Cowe, Peter
Date of Birth: Place of Birth: Date of Death: Place of Death: Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Patmut‘iwn nor vkayin K‘ristosi srboyn Gabriēl Peter Cowe

 Patmut‘iwn of Kat‘oghikos Abraham Kretats‘i

(1,299 words)

Author(s): Bournoutian, George
Patmagrut‘iwn anc‘ic‘n iwroy ew Natr-Sahin Parsic‘‘The chronicle of Abraham of Crete’ Abraham Kretats‘i, Abraham of Crete, also known as Rodost‘ots‘i (from Rodosto) or Tekirdaghts‘i (from Tekirdagh) Date: 1737 Original Language: Armenian DescriptionThe  Patmutʻiwn of Katʻoghikos Abraham Kretatsʻi is a primary source for the events that occurred from April 1734 to November 1736 in the south Caucasus with the arrival of Nādir Khan (Ṭahmāsp Quli Khan; r. 1736-47), later Nādir Shah Afshār. Abraham wrote his Chronicle  in 1736-7, and it exists in many MSS. It was first pu…

 Patmut‘iwn paterazmatsn 1721-1736 t‘.t‘

(1,282 words)

Author(s): Bournoutian, George
‘History of the wars 1721-36’ Abraham of Yerevan Date: after 1738 Original Language: Armenian DescriptionTwo manuscripts of the History exist, both held by the Armenian Catholic Mkhitarist Library, San Lazzaro, in Venice. MS 2717, dated to after 1738, has no chapter headings, is written in a poor hand with numerous spelling and grammatical errors, and contains many Persian and Turkish words. The narrative begins with the Afghan invasion of Iran in 1721 and ends with the conquest of Qandahar by Nādir Shah Afshār (…

Patriarch Yuʾannis XVIII

(309 words)

Author(s): Walbiner, Carsten
Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: al-Fayyūm, Egypt Date of Death: June 1798 Place of Death: Cairo BiographyNot much is known about the life of Patriarch Yuʾannis, other than that he came from the town of al-Fayyūm, and his baptismal name was Yūsif. At an unknown date, he entered the monastery of St Anthony in the Eastern Desert of Egypt, an important intellectual and religious centre of Coptic Christianity in Ottoman times. Using the monastery’s large library, and through exchanges with others in the monaste…

Patrick Gordon

(351 words)

Author(s): Bushkovitch, Paul
Biography Patrick Gordon, a Catholic, was educated at the Jesuit College in Braunsberg, Royal (Polish) Prussia, in 1651-3, and then served in the Swedish and Polish armies until he entered Russian service in 1661, in which he remained to the end of his life. He served in the war against Poland to 1667, then in the war with Crimea (siege of Chigirin, 1677-8), and was chief commander in Kiev from 1679.  He returned briefly to England and Scotland in 1686 on personal and diplomatic business. When he arrived back in Russia, he participated in the Crimean campaign of 1687 and drew cl…

Paulo da Trindade

(705 words)

Author(s): de Faria, Patricia
Friar Paulo da Trinidade Date of Birth: Approximately 1570 Place of Birth: Macau Date of Death: 1651 Place of Death: Goa BiographyPaulo da Trindade was of Portuguese ancestry and was born in Macau around 1570. He entered the Franciscan order in India, and became a lector in theology at St Bonaventura College ( Colégio de São Boaventura) in Goa. Between 1633 and 1636, he was the commissioner general of the Franciscan provinces of the Orient, and from the 1630s he acted as the qualifier and deputy of the Inquisition of Goa. He was appointed as Inquisit…
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