Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editors: David Thomas and John Chesworth
Associate Editors: John Azumah, Clinton Bennett, Lejla Demiri, Martha Frederiks, Stanisław Grodź, Andrew Newman, Douglas Pratt

Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general history of relations between the two faiths as this is represented in works written by Christians and Muslims about the other and against the other. It covers all parts of the world in the period 1500-1914. Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online comprises thousands of comprehensive entries on individual works and their authors, together with introductory essays to the periods and areas covered, making it the fullest available source in this field.


 Radd ʿalā l-shaykh Bahāʾ al-Dīn al-Manūfī

(207 words)

Author(s): Walbiner, Carsten
‘Response to the Shaykh Bahāʾ al-Dīn al-Manūfī’ Buṭrus ibn Ghubraʾīl Date: 1627 Original Language: Arabic Description Sbath describes the content of this work briefly as ‘responses to accusations against Christianity’ made by an otherwise unknown Shaykh Bahāʾ al-Dīn al-Manūfī ( Al-fihris, p. 7). He mentions two copies in private hands in Cairo, one owned by the Coptic bookseller Jirjis Murqus and the the other by the Coptic priest ʿAbd al-Masīḥ Ṣalīb al-Barmūsī l-Masʿūdī. He provides no further information on the work. So far no trace…

 Al-radd ʿalā ʿulamāʾ al-Muslimīn

(1,411 words)

Author(s): Moukarzel, Joseph
‘Response to Muslim scholars’ Stephanus Roselli, Stéphane Ward Date: 22 April 1732 Original Language: Arabic DescriptionBefore discussing the contents of this polemical letter, it is important to explain how research has led to confusion between this treatise and another work by Ward. In an article published in 1931, Mīkhā ʾīl Ghabra ʾīl noted that Isṭifān Ward wrote ‘a pleasant letter summarising [taken from] his book Al-qarīn al-ḥakīm to counter those who claim that the Gospels and the Torah have been distorted. This letter was sent on 22 April 1732’ (p. 65…

 Radd-i Naṣārā

(944 words)

Author(s): Ashk Shirin, Ebrahim
‘Against the Christians’ Muḥammad Khalīl ibn Muḥammad Ashraf Qāʾinī Iṣfahānī; Mullā Khalīl Date: Probably before the siege of Isfahan by the Afghans in 1722 Original Language: Persian DescriptionThe unpublished manuscript of this work is kept in in the private library of Aṣghar Mahdavī, no. 8: 592. Mullā Khalīl wrote it in response to a work in Persian defending the beliefs of the Christians, which had probably been put into circulation around this time by a Christian author (this would be Hovhannes Mrkʿuz Jułeyeci, d. 17…

 Radd al-muftarī ʿan al-ṭaʿn fī l-Shushtarī

(1,457 words)

Author(s): Demiri, Lejla
‘Refutation of the slanderer concerning the defamation of al-Shushtarī’ ʿAbd al-Ghanī ibn Ismāʿīl ibn ʿAbd al-Ghanī ibn Ismāʿīl l-Nābulusī Date: 1685 Original Language: Arabic DescriptionThis is al-Nābulusī’s commentary on the famous poem by the Andalusian Sufi, Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī l-Shushtarī (d. 1269), a disciple of Ibn Sabʿīn (d. 1269-70). Al-Shushtarī used Christian imagery in his poetry to express his spiritual journey to God. As the poem had been criticised by some of al-Nābulusī’s contemporaries, he was asked to ex…

 Ragionamento di Antonio Possevino alla Signoria di Venetia in collegio di detta republica sopra il fatto et modo della lega il di 12 di Agosto 1582

(1,020 words)

Author(s): Smołucha, Janusz
‘Antonio Possevino’s reasoning presented to the Venetian Signoria in the hall of that Republic on the matter of the organising and acting of the League, on 12 August 1582’ Antonio Possevino Date: 8 December 1582 Original Language: Italian Description Returning from his diplomatic mission to the Poland-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Grand Duchy of Muscovy, Possevino gave a speech on plans to organise a Holy League against the Ottomans to the Venetian Council of Ten on 12 August 1582. The speech is known as the  Ragionamento di Antonio Possevino. The plans had been drawn up in cons…

Raphaël du Mans

(695 words)

Author(s): Thomson, Ann
Raphaël du Mans, Jacques Dutertre Date of Birth: 1613 (baptised 27 August 1613) Place of Birth: Le Mans Date of Death: 1 April 1696 Place of Death: Isfahan Biography Jacques Dutertre was born into a family of noblesse de robe (administrative nobility). Nothing is known about his life before he entered the Capuchin order (founded in 1634 by Gabriel de Paris) in Le Mans on 16 July 1636, taking the name Raphaël. After studying philosophy and theology, he was probably ordained priest around 1641-2. He probably left France in late 1645 o…

 Razboji od Turaka

(373 words)

Author(s): Plejić Poje, Lahorka
Razboji od Turaka‘Struggles against the Turks’ Antun Bratosaljić Sasin Date: About 1593-5 Original Language: Croatian Description Sasin’s chronicle in verse is about the first two years of the Austro-Turkish ‘Long war’ (1593-1606). The time of writing can be narrowed down to 1593-5 because the death of Sultan Murat III in January 1595 is the last event mentioned. The poem extends to 1820 verses. The work deals with the battle of Sisak in 1593 and other struggles in the ‘Long war’, in which Christian armies fought with the Turks. Up to that time, poets of th…

 Razonamiento de las reales armas de los serenissimos e muy esclareçidos prínçipes e muy altos e muy poderosos reyes e señores, los señores don Ferando el quinto e doña Ysabel la segunda

(1,239 words)

Author(s): Carrasco Manchado, Ana Isabel
Razonamiento de las reales armasReasoning of the royal arms of the Catholic Monarchs Don Fernando and Doña Isabel, Reasoning of the royal arms Antonio García de Villalpando Date: Approximately 1487 Original Language: Castilian Description Razonaiento de las reales armas de los Reyes Católicos is an extensive treatise written in Castilian by the chaplain Antonio de Villalpando it is dedicated to Queen Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon (the Catholic Monarchs). Although written on an unknown date, references to the War of Gr…

 Razsuzhdenie na deistvitel’no kritichestkot sostoianie Ottomanskoi Porty

(1,256 words)

Author(s): Scarborough, Daniel
‘Reflections on the current critical condition of the Ottoman Empire’ Eugenios Voulgaris Date: 1780 Original Language: Russian Description This 79-page treatise was dedicated to Count Mikhail Rumiantsev, but was intended to influence the foreign policy of the Russian state, and of Christian Europe in general, towards the Ottoman Empire. Originally written in French, it was translated into Russian by Aleksandr Krulikov and published in 1780. Voulgaris used his influence at the Russian court to advocate the liberation of the Greek-speaking Christian subjects of…

 Real cédula en respuesta a Miguel López de Legazpi

(463 words)

Author(s): Donoso, Isaac
Real cédula en respuesta a Miguel López de Legazpi‘Royal decree in response to Miguel Lopez de Legazpi’ King Felipe II of Spain Date: 16 November 1568 Original Language: Spanish Description This document contains the reply sent by King Philip II to Miguel López de Legazpi’s Memoria de lo que se envió a pedir a su Majestad de merced, franquezas e libertades por los capitanes conquistadores oficiales que al presente en esta jornada e nuevo descubrimiento le sirven en las Yslas Filipinas, which is dated 1567. After the initial settlement in the Philippine Archipelago, Miguel …

 Records of the Church Council of the Reformed Church in Batavia

(681 words)

Author(s): Soleiman, Yusak
- The Church Council of the (Dutch) Reformed Church in Batavia Date: 1620 - c. 1796 Original Language: Dutch DescriptionThe presence and influence of Islam on the VOC during its first century in Batavia was probably insignificant. Batavia was a highly cosmopolitan new town with a population of people from all over the Indonesian archipelago as well as from Asia and Europe. Communication between the VOC government and the Church Council in Batavia with regard to Muslims suggests that the Muslim presence in the town was a relatively minor concern from the pe…

 Reformação da milícia e governo do Estado da Índia oriental

(712 words)

Author(s): Castro, Tiago
‘Reformation of the military and government of the Estado da Índia’ Francisco Rodrigues Silveira Date: Approximately 1621-2 Original Language: Portuguese DescriptionThe text of the Reformação, according to what Silveira himself says, is the sixth version of his manuscript, and would have been completed in the years 1622-3. Silveira also mentions that he had begun composing the work in 1590. In 1877, Costa Lobo published some sections of it under the title Memórias de um soldado da Índia. Lobo created his own thematic organisation and, in G.D. Winius’ words, ‘shattered …

 Refutatio Alcorani, in qua ad Mahumetanicae superstitionis radicem securis apponitur

(1,206 words)

Author(s): Tottoli, Roberto
‘Refutation of the Qur'an, in which the axe is laid to the root of Muḥammadan superstition’ Ludovico Marracci Date: Approximately 1680 Original Language: Latin Description The  Refutatio alcorani constitutes the second volume of the  Alcorani textus universus. It was published in Padua in 1698 and includes the Arabic text of the Qur’an followed by a Latin translation with annotations and refutations (26 pages of introduction, 838 pages of text and nine pages of index and corrections). Marracci dedicated the  Refutatio to Emperor Leopold I (r. 1658-1705), whose armies had…

 Regimento dado por Diogo Lopes a D. Rodrigo da Cunha, enviado como embaixador à corte do Preste João

(558 words)

Author(s): Chesworth, John
Regimento dado por Diogo Lopes a D. Rodrigo da Cunha‘Instructions given by Diogo Lopes to D. Rodrigo da Cunha, sent as ambassador to the court of Prester John’ Diogo Lopes de Sequeira Date: 25 April 1520 Original Language: Portuguese Description This document, six pages long (Rego, ‘Regimento’, pp. 20-33), was written by Lopes de Sequeira in the port of Massawa on the African coast of the Red Sea. It gives instructions to Rodrigo da Cunha de Lima about the conduct of an embassy to the Abyssinian court to meet with ‘Prester John’. It c…

 Regimento de D. Manuel I para o vice-rei D. Francisco de Almeida

(698 words)

Author(s): de Jesus, Roger Lee
Regimento de D. Manuel I para o vice-rei D. Francisco de Almeida‘Instructions from King Manuel I to the Viceroy Francisco de Almeida’ King Manuel I of Portugal Date: 5 March 1505 Original Language: Portuguese Description This is the first set of instructions for the Viceroy Francisco de Almeida and can be considered as one of the major documents that created the structure of the Portuguese Estado da Índia. All new viceroys and governors received instructions at the outset of their command, and these are some of the few that are e…


(451 words)

Author(s): Steenbrink, Karel
Reijsbeschrijvinge'Description of the journey of Cornelis Stout' Cornelis Stout Date: About 1680 Original Language: Dutch Description The work, 51 double folio pages long in the surviving manuscript, which is probably an autograph, is the diary of the sad history of Stout’s failed voyage to the Dutch colony in Surinam, where the young family planned to start a new life. Shortly after they left their homeland, their ship was seized by Algerian pirates and all their belongings were taken. The pork and wine on boa…

 Reise eines jungen Russen von Wien über Jassy in die Krimm

(876 words)

Author(s): Frary, Lucien
Travels in the Crimea Johann Christoph Gustav von Struve Date: 1791-4 Original Language: German Description This work consists of Struve’s reflections during his travels from Vienna to Moldavia, the Crimea, Poland and St Petersburg, on through southern Russia and the Crimea to Constantinople, and back to St Petersburg. Its full title is Reise eines jungen Russen von Wien über Jassy in die Krimm; und ausführliches Tagebuch der im Jahr 1793 von St. Petersburg nach Constantinopel geschickten russisch-kaiserlichen Gesandtschaft (‘Travels in the Crimea. A history of the emb…


(730 words)

Author(s): Steenbrink, Karel
‘Travels’ Nicolaas de Graaff Date: Unknown; before 1688 Original Language: Dutch DescriptionThe first 100 pages of this book (its full title is  Reisen van Nicolaus de Graaff, na de vier gedeelten des Werelds, als Asia, Africa, America en Europa, mitsgaders sijn Oostindische spiegel) contain brief and concise reports of de Graaff’s first 13 voyages. The following 130 pages cover his last three voyages.  Oost-Indise spiegel (98 pages) is re-printed with new pagination in the same volume. On his first voyage, de Graaff arrived in Aceh, Sumatra, where he saw th…

 Relaçam da cronica dos reys Dormuz

(1,527 words)

Author(s): Loureiro, Rui
Relaçam da cronica dos reys Dormuz'Account of a chronicle of the kings of Hormuz' Gaspar da Cruz Date: 1570 Original Language: Portuguese Description The Relaçam da cronica dos reys Dormuz (in full, Relaçam da cronica dos reys Dormuz, tirado dhũa Cronica q[ue] cõpos hũ rey do mesmo reyno, chamado Pachaturunxa, scripta em Arabigo, &sumariamente traduzida em lingoajem Portugues por hum religioso da ordem de Sam Domingos, q[eu] na ilha Dormuz fundou hũa casa de sua ordem, ‘Account of a chronicle of the kings of Hormuz, taken from a chronicle composed by one of the kings o…

 Relaçam do Equebar Rei dos Mogores

(506 words)

Author(s): Guenther, Alan
‘Account of Akbar King of the Mogores’ Antonio Monserrate Date: 26 November 1582 Original Language: Portuguese Description Having been given the task of recording the history of the first Jesuit mission to the court of Akbar, Monserrate wrote a daily chronicle in Portuguese, setting down his observations in detail. Upon his return to Goa, he was encouraged by his fellow priests to write out his history in full. After some delay, this task was completed in Latin as  Mongolicae legationis commentarius. However, an excerpt from his diary relating to Akbar was written up in Por…
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