Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editors: David Thomas and John Chesworth
Associate Editors: John Azumah, Clinton Bennett, Lejla Demiri, Martha Frederiks, Stanisław Grodź, Andrew Newman, Douglas Pratt

Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general history of relations between the two faiths as this is represented in works written by Christians and Muslims about the other and against the other. It covers all parts of the world in the period 1500-1914. Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online comprises thousands of comprehensive entries on individual works and their authors, together with introductory essays to the periods and areas covered, making it the fullest available source in this field.


Racconto della prodigiosa conversione di un maomettano alla santa fede cattolica

(44 words)

Author(s): Petrolini, Chiara
Date of Birth: Place of Birth: Date of Death: Place of Death: Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim RelationsRacconto della prodigiosa conversione di un maomettano alla santa fede cattolicaChiara Petrolini

 Racconto della prodigiosa conversione di un maomettano alla santa fede cattolica

(1,892 words)

Author(s): Petrolini, Chiara
‘The account of the miraculous conversion of a Muslim to the holy Catholic faith’ Racconto della prodigiosa conversione di un maomettano alla santa fede cattolica Date: 1734 Original Language: Italian DescriptionThis work is contained in a printed text kept in the Biblioteca Vallicelliana in Rome. It is eight pages long. There is no indication of publisher or date, apart from the year 1734 handwritten on the first page. To our knowledge this is the only copy. There is also a short version in manuscript form, dated 10 August …

 Radd ʿalā l-shaykh Bahāʾ al-Dīn al-Manūfī

(207 words)

Author(s): Walbiner, Carsten
‘Response to the Shaykh Bahāʾ al-Dīn al-Manūfī’ Buṭrus ibn Ghubraʾīl Date: 1627 Original Language: Arabic Description Sbath describes the content of this work briefly as ‘responses to accusations against Christianity’ made by an otherwise unknown Shaykh Bahāʾ al-Dīn al-Manūfī ( Al-fihris, p. 7). He mentions two copies in private hands in Cairo, one owned by the Coptic bookseller Jirjis Murqus and the the other by the Coptic priest ʿAbd al-Masīḥ Ṣalīb al-Barmūsī l-Masʿūdī. He provides no further information on the work. So far no trace…

 Al-radd ʿalā ʿulamāʾ al-Muslimīn

(1,411 words)

Author(s): Moukarzel, Joseph
‘Response to Muslim scholars’ Stephanus Roselli, Stéphane Ward Date: 22 April 1732 Original Language: Arabic DescriptionBefore discussing the contents of this polemical letter, it is important to explain how research has led to confusion between this treatise and another work by Ward. In an article published in 1931, Mīkhā ʾīl Ghabra ʾīl noted that Isṭifān Ward wrote ‘a pleasant letter summarising [taken from] his book Al-qarīn al-ḥakīm to counter those who claim that the Gospels and the Torah have been distorted. This letter was sent on 22 April 1732’ (p. 65…

 Radd-i Naṣārā

(944 words)

Author(s): Ashk Shirin, Ebrahim
‘Against the Christians’ Muḥammad Khalīl ibn Muḥammad Ashraf Qāʾinī Iṣfahānī; Mullā Khalīl Date: Probably before the siege of Isfahan by the Afghans in 1722 Original Language: Persian DescriptionThe unpublished manuscript of this work is kept in in the private library of Aṣghar Mahdavī, no. 8: 592. Mullā Khalīl wrote it in response to a work in Persian defending the beliefs of the Christians, which had probably been put into circulation around this time by a Christian author (this would be Hovhannes Mrkʿuz Jułeyeci, d. 17…

 Radd al-muftarī ʿan al-ṭaʿn fī l-Shushtarī

(1,457 words)

Author(s): Demiri, Lejla
‘Refutation of the slanderer concerning the defamation of al-Shushtarī’ ʿAbd al-Ghanī ibn Ismāʿīl ibn ʿAbd al-Ghanī ibn Ismāʿīl l-Nābulusī Date: 1685 Original Language: Arabic DescriptionThis is al-Nābulusī’s commentary on the famous poem by the Andalusian Sufi, Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī l-Shushtarī (d. 1269), a disciple of Ibn Sabʿīn (d. 1269-70). Al-Shushtarī used Christian imagery in his poetry to express his spiritual journey to God. As the poem had been criticised by some of al-Nābulusī’s contemporaries, he was asked to ex…

 Ragionamento di Antonio Possevino alla Signoria di Venetia in collegio di detta republica sopra il fatto et modo della lega il di 12 di Agosto 1582

(1,020 words)

Author(s): Smołucha, Janusz
‘Antonio Possevino’s reasoning presented to the Venetian Signoria in the hall of that Republic on the matter of the organising and acting of the League, on 12 August 1582’ Antonio Possevino Date: 8 December 1582 Original Language: Italian Description Returning from his diplomatic mission to the Poland-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Grand Duchy of Muscovy, Possevino gave a speech on plans to organise a Holy League against the Ottomans to the Venetian Council of Ten on 12 August 1582. The speech is known as the  Ragionamento di Antonio Possevino. The plans had been drawn up in cons…

Raphaël du Mans

(695 words)

Author(s): Thomson, Ann
Raphaël du Mans, Jacques Dutertre Date of Birth: 1613 (baptised 27 August 1613) Place of Birth: Le Mans Date of Death: 1 April 1696 Place of Death: Isfahan Biography Jacques Dutertre was born into a family of noblesse de robe (administrative nobility). Nothing is known about his life before he entered the Capuchin order (founded in 1634 by Gabriel de Paris) in Le Mans on 16 July 1636, taking the name Raphaël. After studying philosophy and theology, he was probably ordained priest around 1641-2. He probably left France in late 1645 o…

 Raymund Lull. First missionary to the Moslems

(841 words)

Author(s): Grafton, David D.
- Samuel M. Zwemer Date: 1902 Original Language: English Description Raymund Lull is a short 171-page work. It is the first English language biography of the 14th-century Catalan missionary, known as doctor illuminatus. The life of Raymund Lull (1235-1315) can be found in several earlier studies on missions, but this is the first full-length biography in English. Zwemer, utilised other important studies, including Adolf Helffrich’s  Raymund Lull und die Anfäng d. Catalonischen Literature (Berlin, 1858) and Adolf Keller’s  Geisteskampf des Christentums gegen d. Islam bis…

 Razboji od Turaka

(373 words)

Author(s): Plejić Poje, Lahorka
Razboji od Turaka‘Struggles against the Turks’ Antun Bratosaljić Sasin Date: About 1593-5 Original Language: Croatian Description Sasin’s chronicle in verse is about the first two years of the Austro-Turkish ‘Long war’ (1593-1606). The time of writing can be narrowed down to 1593-5 because the death of Sultan Murat III in January 1595 is the last event mentioned. The poem extends to 1820 verses. The work deals with the battle of Sisak in 1593 and other struggles in the ‘Long war’, in which Christian armies fought with the Turks. Up to that time, poets of th…

 Razonamiento de las reales armas de los serenissimos e muy esclareçidos prínçipes e muy altos e muy poderosos reyes e señores, los señores don Ferando el quinto e doña Ysabel la segunda

(1,239 words)

Author(s): Carrasco Manchado, Ana Isabel
Razonamiento de las reales armasReasoning of the royal arms of the Catholic Monarchs Don Fernando and Doña Isabel, Reasoning of the royal arms Antonio García de Villalpando Date: Approximately 1487 Original Language: Castilian Description Razonaiento de las reales armas de los Reyes Católicos is an extensive treatise written in Castilian by the chaplain Antonio de Villalpando it is dedicated to Queen Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon (the Catholic Monarchs). Although written on an unknown date, references to the War of Gr…

 Razsuzhdenie na deistvitel’no kritichestkot sostoianie Ottomanskoi Porty

(1,256 words)

Author(s): Scarborough, Daniel
‘Reflections on the current critical condition of the Ottoman Empire’ Eugenios Voulgaris Date: 1780 Original Language: Russian Description This 79-page treatise was dedicated to Count Mikhail Rumiantsev, but was intended to influence the foreign policy of the Russian state, and of Christian Europe in general, towards the Ottoman Empire. Originally written in French, it was translated into Russian by Aleksandr Krulikov and published in 1780. Voulgaris used his influence at the Russian court to advocate the liberation of the Greek-speaking Christian subjects of…

 Real cédula en respuesta a Miguel López de Legazpi

(463 words)

Author(s): Donoso, Isaac
Real cédula en respuesta a Miguel López de Legazpi‘Royal decree in response to Miguel Lopez de Legazpi’ King Felipe II of Spain Date: 16 November 1568 Original Language: Spanish Description This document contains the reply sent by King Philip II to Miguel López de Legazpi’s Memoria de lo que se envió a pedir a su Majestad de merced, franquezas e libertades por los capitanes conquistadores oficiales que al presente en esta jornada e nuevo descubrimiento le sirven en las Yslas Filipinas, which is dated 1567. After the initial settlement in the Philippine Archipelago, Miguel …

 Recherches historiques sur les Maures et histoire de l’empire du Maroc

(697 words)

Author(s): Thomson, Ann
'Historical investigations concerning the Moors and history of the Moroccan Empire' Louis de Chénier Date: 1787 Original Language: French DescriptionThis work consists of three volumes of 424, 476, and 564 pages, respectively, all published in 1787. The first volume, after a Preliminary Discourse of 58 pages, contains three parts: on the ancient history of Numidia; on the Arabs, their wars and their expansion into Africa; and on their conquest of Spain. Vol. 2 is totally devoted to Arab rule in the Spanish Peninsu…

 Records of the Church Council of the Reformed Church in Batavia

(681 words)

Author(s): Soleiman, Yusak
- The Church Council of the (Dutch) Reformed Church in Batavia Date: 1620 - c. 1796 Original Language: Dutch DescriptionThe presence and influence of Islam on the VOC during its first century in Batavia was probably insignificant. Batavia was a highly cosmopolitan new town with a population of people from all over the Indonesian archipelago as well as from Asia and Europe. Communication between the VOC government and the Church Council in Batavia with regard to Muslims suggests that the Muslim presence in the town was a relatively minor concern from the pe…

 References to Islam and Muslims in the works of Kanzō Uchimura

(6,952 words)

Author(s): Morris, James Harry
- Kanzō Uchimura Date: 1885-1914 Original Language: Various DescriptionReferences to Islam and Muslims are scattered throughout much of Uchimura’s massive corpus of work. His complete original published and unpublished material are entitled Uchimura Kanzō zenshū published by Iwanami Shoten (Tokyo), first printed between 1932 and 1933, reprinted between 1980 and 1984, and with a final reprinting in 2001. The 2001 edition is used in this entry.  ‘Propagandistic nuisance’ There appears to be only one text resulting from direct Christian-Muslim interactions, a comb…

 Reflections on Mohammedanism and the conduct of Mohammed

(2,182 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
- Reflections on Mohammedanism and the conduct of Mohammed Date: 1735 Original Language: English Description Reflections on Mohammedanism and the conduct of Mohammed. Occasioned by a late learned translation and exposition of the Koran or Al Koran is a 54-page work published in 1735 by J. Roberts of Warwick Street, London. The author is unknown, and there is nothing in it that points to a possible identity. It draws heavily on George Sale’s  Koran (1734), and was obviously inspired by Sale’s approach to Islam. Like Sale, the author is critical of the view of Muḥamm…

Reflections on Mohammedanism and the conduct of Mohammed

(38 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Date of Birth: Place of Birth: Date of Death: Place of Death: Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim RelationsReflections on Mohammedanism and the conduct of MohammedClinton Bennett

 Réflexions historiques et critiques sur le mahométisme et sur le socinianisme

(730 words)

Author(s): Thomson, Ann
‘Reflections on Mahometanism and Socinianism’ Mathurin Veyssière de la Croze Date: 1707 Original Language: French DescriptionThis text occupies the first 163 pages of a volume entitled Dissertations historiques sur divers sujets (‘Historical dissertations on various subjects’), and is followed by an approving letter from Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, to whom la Croze had sent the essay. It is essentially a polemical work directed against Socinians, demonstrating that their doctrines agree essentially with those of Islam, and th…

 Reformação da milícia e governo do Estado da Índia oriental

(712 words)

Author(s): Castro, Tiago
‘Reformation of the military and government of the Estado da Índia’ Francisco Rodrigues Silveira Date: Approximately 1621-2 Original Language: Portuguese DescriptionThe text of the Reformação, according to what Silveira himself says, is the sixth version of his manuscript, and would have been completed in the years 1622-3. Silveira also mentions that he had begun composing the work in 1590. In 1877, Costa Lobo published some sections of it under the title Memórias de um soldado da Índia. Lobo created his own thematic organisation and, in G.D. Winius’ words, ‘shattered …
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