Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editors: David Thomas and John Chesworth
Associate Editors: John Azumah, Clinton Bennett, Lejla Demiri, Martha Frederiks, Stanisław Grodź, Andrew Newman, Douglas Pratt

Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general history of relations between the two faiths as this is represented in works written by Christians and Muslims about the other and against the other. It covers all parts of the world in the period 1500-1914. Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online comprises thousands of comprehensive entries on individual works and their authors, together with introductory essays to the periods and areas covered, making it the fullest available source in this field.


 Sacre metamorfosi, ouero conuersioni segnalate d'idolatri, turchi, ebrei, & eretici, conuertiti alla fede cattolica

(1,652 words)

Author(s): Dini, Elena
‘Sacred metamorphoses, or already known conversions of idolaters, Turks, Jews, and heretics who converted to the Catholic faith’ Hieronymus a Basilica Petri; Geronimo Basilica Petri; Geronimo Bascapè Date: 1684 Original Language: Italian DescriptionGirolamo Bascapè compiled four volumes of  Sacre metamorfosi between 1680 and 1684. They all received authorisation for publication from his ecclesiastical superiors and were printed at the archbishop’s printing press. His work could thus be considered an example of an expression of the of…

Ṣafī, Shah of Persia

(1,148 words)

Author(s): Matthee, Rudolph
Date of Birth: 1610 or 1611 Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: 12 May 1642 Place of Death: Qazvin Biography Shah Ṣafī, whose given name was Sām Mīrzā, was born in 1610 or 1611, the son of Muḥammad Bāqir Mīrzā, Shah ʿAbbās I’s eldest son, and Dilārām Khānum, his Georgian wife. Since his father had been killed in 1615 on the orders of Shah ʿAbbās, Sām Mīrzā grew up in the secluded environment of the royal harem. He learned to read and write in this period, yet does not seem to have been a quick student, and throughout his reign he showed little interest in learning. Ṣafī was enthroned on 28 January…

 Safrat al-baṭriyark Makāriyūs al-thālith al-Anṭākī

(5,012 words)

Author(s): Feodorov, Ioana
‘Journey of Macarius III of Antioch’ Būluṣ ibn al-Zaʿīm al-Ḥalabī, Būluṣ al-Ḥalabī, al-Shammās Būluṣ, Archdeacon Paul of Aleppo Date: 1652-68 Original Language: Arabic Description In his untitled journal, referred to in Arabic as  Safrat or  Riḥlat  al-baṭriyark Makāriyūs, Paul wrote a detailed first-hand account of events, people and places he encountered during his long journey in foreign lands. The journal, which covers fols 1r-311r in MS Paris, BNF – Arabe 6016, the longest, richest and most reliable version, is made up of sec…


(753 words)

Author(s): Baindurashvili, Khatuna
‘A poem on the life of King Šahnavaz’ P‘ešangi P‘ašvibertqaże, P‘ešangi Pashvibertqaże Date: 1664-5 Original Language: Georgian Description Šahnavaziani is the earliest surviving example of a documentary poem in Georgian literature. There is only one extant manuscript, and this has several pages missing, including the last part of the epilogue. The poem comprises a prologue, a main section and an epilogue, in 60 chapters and 1151 stanzas of 16-syllable lines. Šahnavaziani  describes a seven-year period (1658-65) during the reign of King Vaxtang V of Kartli, who…

 Sairan igen

(1,554 words)

Author(s): Morris, James Harry
‘Varying words observed’‘Strange stories acquired’;, ‘Collection of strange things’;, ‘Listening to other languages’ Kinmi, Kimiyoshi, Kageyu, Yogorō, Denzō Date: Written 1713, published 1802 Original Language: Japanese Description Sairan igen is a five-volume geography based to some extent on Hakuseki’s conversations with Sidotti and the Dutch, and his interaction with Dutch maps and Matteo Ricci’s Kunyu Wanguo Quantu. Its connection to European, and more specifically, Jesuit knowledge should therefore be evident. Each volume covers a different cont…

Salomea Regina Pilsztynowa

(1,075 words)

Author(s): Nalborczyk, Agata S.
Salomea Regina z Rusieckich Pilsztynowa; Regina Pichelsteinowa; Regina von Pichelstein; Regina Makowska; Regina Salomea Makowska; Regina Halpirowa; Regina Salomea Rusiecka; Regina S. Rusiecka; Salomée Halpir; Solomanida Yefimova Date of Birth: 1718 Place of Birth: Nowogródek (today, Navahrudak, Belarus) Date of Death: After 1763 Place of Death: Probably Bakhchisarai, Crimea BiographySalomea Regina Rusiecka was born in Nowogródek in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1718. Her father’s name was Joachim (this proved vital in identifying her i…

Salomon Schweigger

(879 words)

Author(s): Schreiner, Stefan
Salomon Schweiger, Schweicker, Schweigker, Schweikard, Schweucker, Schweyger, Schweygger, Sweicker, Swigger, Salomo Schweigker, Solomo Schweicker, Solomon Schweigkerus Sultzensis, Salomon Sveigger Allamagno Date of Birth: 30 January 1551 Place of Birth: Haigerloch (Hohenzollern) Date of Death: 21 June 1622 Place of Death: Nürnberg Biography Born the son of a Protestant public notary, Salomon Schweigger began to study theology in Tübingen in 1572. He abandoned his studies before obtaining his diploma, and looked for employment that would…


(328 words)

Author(s): Baindurashvili, Khatuna
‘An enquiry’ Iase Tʻuši Date: 1620s Original Language: Georgian Description The polemical poem Sa mec ʻ niero (‘An enquiry’; literally ‘scientific’) appears to have been written some time before 1629 as it refers to Shah ʿAbbās I (r. 1588-1629) as still living. It consists of 15 chapters and 280 verses, with an appendix containing one of the first Georgian-Persian dictionaries. It is the earliest Georgian manuscript so far discovered in Iran. The unique manuscript comprises 40 pages of beautifully illuminated text. The end is missing because of damage. In  Samec ʻ niero, Iase Tʻuši …

Samuēl Anets‘i and his continuators

(942 words)

Author(s): Dadoyan, Seta B.
Date of Birth: Samuēl Anets‘i: around 1110; Continuators: mid-12th - early 18th centuries Place of Birth: Samuēl Anets‘i: Ani, Armenia; Continuators: various locations Date of Death: Samuēl Anets‘i: early 1180s; Continuators: late 12th - late 18th centuries Place of Death: Samuēl Anets‘i: Ani, Armenia; Continuators: various locations BiographyThe  Zhamanakagrut‘iwn Samuēl Anets‘i ew sharunakoghner (‘Chronicle of Samuēl Anets‘i and continuators’) was started by Samuēl Anets‘i. Also known as Samuēl Erēts‘, he was a married priest and native of Ani who lived in the 12th centur…

 Samuēl Anets‘i ew sharunakoghner - Zhamanakagrut‘iwn Adamits‘ minch‘ew 1776

(6,728 words)

Author(s): Dadoyan, Seta B.
Zhamanakagrut‘iwn Samuēl Anets‘i ew sharunakoghner‘Samuēl Anets‘i and continuators - Chronicle from Adam to 1776’, ‘Chronicle of Samuēl Anets‘i and continuators’ Samuēl Anets‘i and his continuators Date: Initial Chronicle by Samuēl Anets‘i ended in 1163; continued to 1776 Original Language: Armenian DescriptionThe  Zhamanakagrut‘iwn Samuēl Anets‘i ew sharunakoghner (‘Chronicle of Samuēl Anets‘i and continuators’) is one of the most copied texts in medieval and early modern Armenian literature. The initial book by Samuēl Anets‘i, a native o…

Samuel Henry Kellogg

(682 words)

Author(s): Grafton, David D.
Date of Birth: 6 September 1839 Place of Birth: Long Island, New York Date of Death: 3 May 1899 Place of Death: Uttarakhand, India BiographySamuel Henry Kellogg was the son of Samuel Kellogg, a Presbyterian pastor, and Mary P. Henry of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. He was a sickly child and was home schooled by his parents, primarily his mother. In 1856, he attended Williams College but had to return home due to illness. After two years, he enrolled in Princeton College, and ultimately graduated in 1861 at the top of his class. He continued at Princeton Seminary, graduating in 1864. Kellogg was or…

Samuel Lorenzo Knapp

(382 words)

Author(s): Larson, Ian
Ali Bey ibn Othman Bey el Abassi Date of Birth: 19 January 1783 Place of Birth: Newburyport, Massachusetts Date of Death: 8 July 1838 Place of Death: Hopkinton, Massachusetts BiographyBorn into a Massachusetts sailing family in 1783 at the close of the American Revolution, Samuel Lorenzo Knapp was a prolific biographer and miscellaneous writer who commented extensively on American national culture. He trained as a lawyer after graduating from Dartmouth College, and in 1809 he established a legal practice in Newburyport, Mas…

Samuel M. Zwemer

(1,179 words)

Author(s): Grafton, David D.
Date of Birth: 12 April 1867 Place of Birth: Vriesland, Michigan Date of Death: 2 April 1952 Place of Death: New York City BiographyDubbed the ‘Apostle to Islam’, Samuel Zwemer founded the American Reformed Church’s Arabian Mission in the Arabian Peninsula. He was one of the central figures in the organisation of early international ecumenical conferences among Protestant mission agencies to evangelise Muslims around the world. He was also the founder of the jourmal  The Moslem World (later renamed The Muslim World) . Zwemer was born into a large Huguenot-Dutch immigrant famil…

Samuel Purchas

(645 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography Samuel Purchas was born in Thaxted, Essex, probably in November 1577, since he was baptised on 20 November. He matriculated at St John’s College, Cambridge, in 1594, graduating BA in 1597 and MA in 1600. He was ordained deacon in the Church of England in 1598, and priest in 1601. Later, he received the Lambeth BD (1615), which was incorporated at Oxford the same year. Stubbe cites this as one of only a few Lambeth degrees granted before the Restoration (W. Stubbe, ‘Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban: Lambeth degrees’, Gentleman’s Magazine 216 (1864) 633-5, p. 635). After a cu…

Samuel Twardowski

(747 words)

Author(s): Kuran, Michał
Biography Although Samuel Twardowski’s family name was in fact ‘Skrzypiński’, from the village of Skrzypna, he is known as ‘Twardowski’, a name his grandfather Marcin adopted from his wife Urszula Twardowska. He was educated at the Jesuit College in Kalisz, where his first poems and translations of Horace’s odes must have been written. He took part in the battle of Khotin/Chocim 1621, fighting against the Ottomans and Tatars. He was one of the secretaries to the mission of Prince Krzysztof Zbaras…

Samuel Wells Williams

(561 words)

Author(s): Vogel, Stuart
Date of Birth: 1812 Place of Birth: Utica, New York Date of Death: 1884 Place of Death: New Haven, Connecticut BiographySamuel Wells Williams was born in Utica, New York. His father was a publisher and an elder of the local Presbyterian Church. Samuel was nurtured in a Christian family and took an interest in the printing and publishing business. In June 1833, the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions sent him, at the age of 21, to China to oversee their printing press operations in Whampoa (Huangpu)…

Sarah Ridley

(629 words)

Author(s): Dawes, Emily
Sarah Querry Ridley Date of Birth: Uncertain; possibly 1865-70 Place of Birth: Essex Date of Death: 23 August 1913 Place of Death: Xining, Qinghai, China BiographySarah Querry was born in Essex. She joined the China Inland Mission (CIM) in 1890, departing for China on 4 September 1890 and arriving in 1891. Together with Annie Taylor, who spearheaded CIM work with Tibetans, she was assigned to Tsin-Chau (modern Tianshui), Gansu province. Sarah met her husband, Harry French Ridley, while she was visiting his station in Ni…

Sarkīs of Smār Jbayl

(493 words)

Author(s): Moukarzel, Joseph
Date of Birth: Mid-16th century Place of Birth: Smār Jbayl, Lebanon Date of Death: 8 July 1627 Place of Death: Unknown Biography Sarkīs ibn Ḥannā ibn al-qass Tādrus was born into the Jilwān family in the village of Smār Jbayl in Mount Lebanon at an unknown date in the middle of the 16th century. Nothing is known about him, except that he was a monk who spent most of his life at the monastery of St Anthony of Quzḥayyā in northern Lebanon and that he was a zealous and prolific copyist. At some point he was consecrated a bishop. The first record of …

 Ṣavāʿiq al-Yahūd

(607 words)

Author(s): Moreen, Vera B.
'Lightning bolts against the Jews' Muḥammad-Bāqir al-Majlisī Date: Unknown; before about 1700 Original Language: Persian Description Ṣavāʿiq al-Yahūd, one of Muḥammad-Bāqir al-Majlisī’s short Persian treatises, details the duties incumbent upon the  ahl-i kitāb (‘People of the Book’) living in a Muslim, in this case, Shīʿī, environment. It may have been inspired by his father Muḥammad Taqī al-Majlisī’s possibly less well-known treatise,  Rawḍat al-muttaqīn (‘The garden of the pious’), later known as  Lawāmeʿ -e ṣāḥeb-qerānī (‘The censure of the lord of the happy co…


(772 words)

Author(s): Tskhadaia, Zoia
Sayatnova; Saatlama; Sayatnama Date of Birth: Between 1711 and 1722 Place of Birth: Tbilisi Date of Death: Unknown; possibly 1795 or around 1800 Place of Death: Tbilisi BiographySayatnova is a pseudonym, derived from the word ‘Seidnova’ meaning ‘patron of a poem’. The poet’s real name is Arutina (which in Armenian means ‘resurrection’): ‘Sayatnova is my name, I am Arutina,’ he writes in one of his poems (Baramiże,  Saiat‘nova-K‘art‘uli, p. 30). Sayatnova was born between 1711 and 1722 in Sanahian or Tbilisi (Baramiże,  Saiat‘nova-K‘art‘uli, p. 93; Bardakjian,  Reference guide, p.…
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