Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editors: David Thomas and John Chesworth
Associate Editors: John Azumah, Clinton Bennett, Lejla Demiri, Martha Frederiks, Stanisław Grodź, Andrew Newman, Douglas Pratt

Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general history of relations between the two faiths as this is represented in works written by Christians and Muslims about the other and against the other. It covers all parts of the world in the period 1500-1914. Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online comprises thousands of comprehensive entries on individual works and their authors, together with introductory essays to the periods and areas covered, making it the fullest available source in this field.

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 Tabṣirat al-ḥaqq / Nuṣrat al-ḥaqq

(1,007 words)

Author(s): Alsulami, Mohammed
‘Enlightening the truth’ / ‘Victory of the truth’ Ẓahīr al-Dīn Tafrishī; Zahir al-Din Tafreshi Date: Arabic original, 1663-4; Persian translation, sometime between 1666 and 1694 Original Language: Arabic DescriptionIn modern scholarship, Tafrishī is known as the author of a work written in Arabic on Christian-Muslim polemics, which he then translated into Persian. Nuṣrat al-ḥaqq (‘Victory of the truth’) has generally been considered as the title of both the Arabic and the Persian versions, though this appears to be inaccurate. While Nuṣrat al-ḥaqq is the title of the Persian…

 Tafhīm al-jāhilīn dīn al-Yahūd al-maghḍūb ʿalayhim wa-l-Naṣārā al-ḍāllīn

(1,121 words)

Author(s): Said, Yazid
‘Enlightening the ignorant about the faith of the Jews with whom God is wrathful and of the Christians who are astray’ ‘Alī l-Munayyar al-Shāfi‘ī Date: 17th century Original Language: Arabic Description Tafhīm  al-jāhilīn dīn al-Yahūd al-maghḍūb ʿ alayhim wa- l-Naṣāra al-ḍāllīn is a long title for a relatively short treatise of 59 folios. Perlmann translates it as ‘Enlightening the ignorant about the faith of the Jews with whom God is wrathful and of the Christians who are astray’ (Perlmann, ‘ʿAlī al-Munayyar’). The title incorporates the last verses of  Sūrat al-fātiḥa, the firs…

 Tafsira

(917 words)

Author(s): & Luis F. Bernabé Pons, John Chesworth
Tafsira'Commentary' Mancebo de Arévalo Date: Possibly 1532-3 Original Language: Spanish in Arabic letters (Aljamiado) Description Although this work is entitled Tafsira, it is far from being a commentary on the Qur’an. Rather, it is an extensive commentary on various aspects of Islamic doctrine, particularly uṣūl al-fiqh, combined with autobiographical details. Tafsira has close parallels with the  Breve compendio, though it also has original elements, and the relationship between the two works has yet to be determined. It is a carefully copied manus…

 Tafsīr bi-smillāh al-raḥmān al-raḥīm

(462 words)

Author(s): Walbiner, Carsten
‘An explanation of “In the name of God, the most gracious, the most merciful”’ Makāriyūs ibn al-Zaʿīm al-Ḥalabī Date: 1664-5 Original Language: Arabic Description This brief tract, or rather note, covering one folio in the Rome manuscript, forms chapter 26 of an originally untitled collection of treatises composed by Macarius during his stay in Georgia in 1664-5. It contains a Christian (re-)interpretation of the Muslim basmala, the invocation formula that introduces all but one sūra of the Qur’an and plays an important role in the religious life of Muslims. Macarius argues that a r…

 Tafsīr al-Qurʾān al-karīm

(1,012 words)

Author(s): & Muharrem Kuzey, Lejla Demiri
Tafsīr al-Qurʾān al-karīm‘Commentary on the noble Qur’an’ Kemalpaşazâde, Şemseddin Ahmed ibn Süleyman ibn Kemal Paşa Date: 1524 Original Language: Arabic Description This is an incomplete commentary on the Qur’an. The extant manuscripts include Ibn Kemal’s comments on al-Fātiḥa up to the end of al-Ṣāffāt, thus covering only sūras 1-37. His commentaries on al-Mulk (sūra 67), al-Nabaʾ (sūra 78), al-Nāziʿāt (sūra 79), al-Ṭāriq (sūra 86) and al-ʿAṣr (sūra 103) are preserved as independent treatises. In his Qur’an exegesis, Ibn Kemal primarily relies on al-Zamakhsharī’s (d. 1144) Kas…

Tafsīr Sūrat al-Kahf

(220 words)

Author(s): Riddell, Peter
BiographyThe unnamed author of this work was almost certainly male, resident in Aceh, and a prominent member of the Muslim scholarly elite there in the second half of the 16th century. He would have received a solid educational formation in Islamic studies, covering Arabic language and the primary fields of Islamic learning, including Qur’an, Hadith, tafsīr, Sufism and so forth. He had a good understanding of classical Arab exegetical sources and hence he may well have spent a period of study in Arabia. He was almost certainly associated with a Sufi…

Ṭahmāsp ibn Ismāʿīl

(578 words)

Author(s): Newman, Andrew
Biography Ṭahmāsp was the eldest son of the founder of the Safavid dynasty, Ismāʿīl I (r. 1501-24). From his birth, he was heir apparent to his father. In 1516, when he was two years old, he was assigned an amīr of one of the prominent Qizilbāsh tribes, the Turkish tribes that formed the military backbone of the Safavid polity, as his lala (tutor, i.e. guardian), and sent to Herat as nominal governor of the rich province of Khurāsān. At the age of ten, he succeeded to the throne on his father’s death, but remained subservient to the Safavid political elite, the Turkish tr…

 Tāj al-salaṭīn

(906 words)

Author(s): Nurtawab, Ervan
‘The crown of kings’ Bukhari Jawhari, Bukhari Johori Date: 1603/4 Original Language: Jawi Malay Description Tāj al-salaṭīn, most probably composed in Aceh, contains guidelines for kings and common people living within an Islamic polity. The work was dedicated to the Acehnese Sultan ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Riʿāya Shāh (r. 1589-1604). The sultan was known as a great admirer of Sufism, for which he was given the title ‘Sayyid al-Mukammil’. Tāj al-salaṭīn contains 24 chapters, comprising 56 folios in the British Library MS 12378.  Chapter 21 considers the basis of relations be…

Täklä Śəllase

(605 words)

Author(s): Cohen, Leonardo
BiographyTäklä Śəllase was an Ethiopian priest and the royal chronicler during the reign of the Emperor Susənyos (1606-32). Of Oromo origin, he grew up among the monks of the Däbrä Libanos monastery. He was nicknamed ‘Ṭino’, a name that in the Oromo language refers to a person of short stature. Towards the end of the rule of the Emperor Śarśa Déngél, Täklä Śəllase led a group of priests who sang the q ə ne, a type of hymn expressing adoration, praise or thanksgiving, improvised by the d ä bt ä ra (lay ecclesiastics) during the celebration of the Divine Office.Under the influence of Jesuit mi…

 Talim-i ortudoksin Pavlus diker Apullus suvarır Allah bitirir

(1,331 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Hannah
Doctrina Christiana, Paulus plantat, Apollos rigat, Deus dat incrementum‘Christian doctrine: Paul plants, Apollos waters, God gives the growth’‘Anglican Catechism’ Wojciech Bobowski, Albertus Bobovius Leopolitanus, Ali Bey; Ali Ufkî, Ali Bey es-Santuri (‘the cymbalist’) Date: 1654 Original Language: Latin Description Talim-i  ortudoksin is Bobovius’ Ottoman Turkish translation of the traditional Anglican Catechism (which forms part of the Book of Common Prayer), containing the 23 ‘Questions and Answers’ (a fuller version of the title is Talim-i ortudoksin  ingilistan …

 Tał i veray srbuhwoy kusin or anun nora koč‘i Xanum

(1,247 words)

Author(s): Cowe, S. Peter
‘Tał poem on the Holy Virgin whose name is called Xanum’‘Martyrology of Xanum’ Verse martyrologies of Xanum Vkayuhi Date: 1755 Original Language: Armenian DescriptionThe poem consists of nine verses embodying a structure quite popular in 17th-18th century Armenian verse. Each stanza is composed of a set of four octosyllabic lines in monorhyme with caesura after the fourth, followed by a recurring refrain comprising a first line in eight syllables, a second in five, and third in six, with a rhyme scheme bcc. It is plausible that t…

 Tał i Vkayuhi surb Xanum Nahatak i T‘oprak‘ K‘alē

(813 words)

Author(s): Cowe, S. Peter
‘Tał poem on the Holy Martyr Xanum at Toprakkale‘ Verse martyrologies of Xanum Vkayuhi Date: Terminus post quem 1755 Original Language: Armenian DescriptionThe poem is composed of six verses of 11 syllables, with a caesura after the fifth or sixth syllable and a common rhyme scheme of aaaa, bbba, the rhyming word in the final line of each verse that contributes to the poem’s unity being an apostrophe to the martyr. Apart from its genre as a literary prayer, this work reveals a number of other indications of dependenc…

 Tał Paron Lus nahatakin asac‘eal i Vrdanēs vardapetē

(561 words)

Author(s): Cowe, Peter
Tał Paron Lusi‘Tał poem composed on Paron Lus by the vardapet Vrt‘anēs’, ‘Tał poem on Paron Lus’ Vt‘anēs Sṙnketsi Date: 1567 Original Language: Armenian Description Vrt‘anēs’s second tał poem is composed of 48 four-line stanzas of octosyllabic lines with monorhyme in -i, the standard Armenian metre for extended narrative works. It naturally reveals a significant degree of intertextuality with the prose narrative and earlier poem, adopting an intermediate position between them. Thus, the first 34 verses rehearse again the …

 Tał Xətəršay mankan or i Marzəuan k‘ałak‘n ē nahatakeal

(1,470 words)

Author(s): Cowe, Peter
Tał Xətəršay mankan or i Marzəuan k‘ałak‘n ē nahatakeal‘Poem on the youth Xətəršay who was martyred in the town of Marsovan’ Mec Paron Date: 1541 Original Language: Armenian Description In the earliest extant manuscript, dated 1647, the poem consists of folios 101r-109r; it is seven pages long in the critical edition. After a long exordium on the current parlous state of the Armenian people as a result of their corporate sin, the author introduces the protagonist Xətəršay as a godsend to open to them the closed door to divine mercy and compassio…

 Tamburlaine the Great

(1,545 words)

Author(s): Hutchings , Mark
Tamburlaine the Great- Christopher Marlo, Marley, Marlin, Merling, Morley Date: Approximately 1587-88 Original Language: English Description Christopher Marlowe composed Tamburlaine the Great in about 1587, drawing on the career of the famous warlord Timur-i-Leng, though not concluding with the hero’s death. It is unlikely, however, that this was because Marlowe had a sequel in mind. He had exhausted his historical material, and when he came to write a second part, almost certainly in response to the success of the first play, he had to draw on 15th-century history that in fact p…

 Taregrakan patmut‘iwn

(317 words)

Author(s): Cowe, Peter
‘Historical chronicle’ Eremia Č‘ēlēpi K‘ēōmiwrčean Date: 1693 Original Language: Armenian Description Based in part on Eremia’s diary, this largely unpublished verse chronicle composed in 1692-3, and covering fols 1r-94v in the Venice manuscript, provides a tripartite account of the years 1648-90. Building on the author’s interest in documenting fires, which finds expression in several other works, the first part of the poem treats this subject together with accounts of other natural disasters such as floo…

 Tārīkh-i Firishta

(2,173 words)

Author(s): Guenther, Alan
Gulshān-i Ibrāhīmī, Tāʾrīkh-i Nawras-nāma‘History’ of Firishta‘History of the rise of the Mahomedan power in India’ Muḥammad Qāsim Hindū Shāh Astarābādī Date: 1606 Original Language: Persian DescriptionThe  Gulshān-i Ibrāhīmī, commonly referred to as the  Tārīkh-i Firishta, is a general history of Muslim rulers with a focus on the spread and rule of Islam in India. It consists of 12  maqālas (chapters), preceded by an introduction summarising the history of Hindu rule in India and the arrival of Muslim rule. Each  maqāla focuses on the history of Muslim rule in a particul…

 Tārīkh al-Muslimīn

(1,554 words)

Author(s): Moukarzel, Joseph
‘History of the Muslims’ Isṭifānus al-Duwayhī, Stephanus Edenensis Date: 1699-1700 Original Language: Arabic DescriptionAl-Duwayhī’s magnum opus as a historian is a chronicle of which he produced two versions. Neither was given a title by the author himself; the various titles were all added later by copyists, researchers and editors. The first version, commonly entitled Tārīkh al-Muslimīn (‘History of the Muslims’), covers the history of the Middle East from the birth of Muḥammad up to al-Duwayhī’s own time (1686, 1699 or 1703, in the various manus…

 Al-ṭarīqa l-Muḥammadiyya wa-l-sīra l-aḥmadiyya

(1,176 words)

Author(s): Allen, Jonathan
Al-ṭarīqa l-Muḥammadiyya‘The Muhammadan way and the praiseworthy path’, ‘The Muhammadan way’ Birgivî Mehmed Efendi Date: 1572 Original Language: Arabic Description The longest of Birgivî’s ethical-doctrinal works – about 200 pages in printed editions – Al-ṭarīqa l-Muḥammadiyya wa-l-sīra l-aḥmadiyya is a compelling, yet rhetorically unembellished, guide to proper Islamic belief and practice as envisioned by its author. Its intended audience was probably made up of middling Ottoman ʿ ulamāʾ such as mosque preachers, provincial muftis, provincial madrasa teachers…

 Tarjama-yi Anājīl-i arbaʿa

(1,534 words)

Author(s): Jaʿfariyān, Rasūl
‘Translation of the four Gospels’ Mīr Muḥammad Bāqir Khātūnābādī Date: 1697 Original Language: Persian DescriptionThe  Kitāb-i Anājīl-i arbaʿa is a translation of the four canonical Gospels by Khātūnābādī, completed on 12 May 1697. By this time, several Arabic translations of the Gospels printed in Aleppo had found their way to Iran, probably via Christian missionaries. Three manuscript copies are known to be extant: one held in the personal collection of Sayyid Muḥammad ʿAlī Rawḍātī (d. 1389 HSh), one in the Ma…
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