Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editors: David Thomas and John Chesworth
Associate Editors: John Azumah, Clinton Bennett, Lejla Demiri, Martha Frederiks, Stanisław Grodź, Andrew Newman, Douglas Pratt

Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general history of relations between the two faiths as this is represented in works written by Christians and Muslims about the other and against the other. It covers all parts of the world in the period 1500-1914. Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online comprises thousands of comprehensive entries on individual works and their authors, together with introductory essays to the periods and areas covered, making it the fullest available source in this field.


Václav Budovec z Budova

(790 words)

Author(s): Lisy-Wagner, Laura
Venceslaus Budovetz, Wenzeslaus Budovitz, Wenzel von Budovec Date of Birth: 28 August 1551 Place of Birth: Hradec Králové, Bohemia Date of Death: 21 June 1621 Place of Death: Prague, Bohemia Biography Václav Budovec z Budova was raised by his family to be a committed member of a Czech Protestant church called the Unity of the Brethren. He was educated at the University of Wittenberg, though long after Luther’s death, and also at Rostock with David Chytraeus. It was from Chytraeus that he gained both his interest in the Ottoma…

Václav Vratislav z Mitrovic

(506 words)

Author(s): Lisy-Wagner, Laura
Date of Birth: 1576 Place of Birth: Bohemia Date of Death: 22 November 1635 Place of Death: Bohemia Biography Václav Vratislav z Mitrovic, called ‘Tureček’ or the ‘Little Turk’, was the eldest son of a knightly family; he was educated at a Jesuit school in the southern Bohemian town of Jindřichův Hradec. In 1591, at the age of 15, he was sent to Istanbul in the service of Friedrich von Kreckwitz, the Emperor Rudolf II’s (d. 1612) ambassador to Sultan Murad III (r. 1574-95). When war broke out between the Ottomans …


(227 words)

Author(s): Kızılkaya, Necmettin
Ebû Muhammed Osman ibn Muhammed el-Üskübî el-Edirnevî el-Vahdetî Date of Birth: Unknown; presumably 17th century Place of Birth: Üsküp (Skopje, present-day Macedonia) Date of Death: 1723 Place of Death: Edirne, Turkey BiographyVahdetî was born in Üsküp (Skopje), sometime in the 17th century, and later settled in Edirne. He produced a number of scholarly works in diverse Islamic disciplines, particularly Islamic law. His expertise in the latter is reflected in his commentary on  Multaqā l-abḥur, which is entitled  Muhtadī l-anhur ilā multaqā l-abḥur, and his Turkish translati…

Vakhushti Bagrationi

(575 words)

Author(s): Letodiani, Ani
Date of Birth: 1696 Place of Birth: Tbilisi Date of Death: 1757 Place of Death: Moscow BiographyVakhushti Bagrationi (Batonishvili), was born in 1696 in Tbilisi, an illegitimate son of King Vakht‘ang VI of Kʻartʻli (r. 1716-24). He was raised by the royal family, and received a good education. He studied widely, and was dedicated to scientific research and literary translations. He was actively involved in the political life of Kʻartʻli and participated in military campaigns. In 1722, during Vakht‘ang’s visit to Ganja, Vakhushti was appointed interim go…

Valentim Fernandes

(572 words)

Author(s): Frederiks, Martha
Valentim de Morávia, Valentim Fernandes Alemão Date of Birth: Mid-15th century Place of Birth: Unknown; probably Moravia Date of Death: Between 1518 and May 1519 Place of Death: Unknown; probably in or near Lisbon Biography Valentim Fernandes was a printer and publisher of German descent who lived and worked in Portugal for most of his life. Few details of his early life, including his original name and date of birth, are known. He is thought to have been born to a German family living in Moravia (Schmeller, Ueber Valenti Fernandez Alema, pp. 8-12; Hendrich, Valentim Fernandes, p. 35). Yv…

Valentinus Eck

(492 words)

Author(s): Kiss Farkas, Gábor
Eckius, Ecchius, Philyropolitanus Date of Birth: 1494 Place of Birth: Lindau Date of Death: 1556 Place of Death: Bardejov (Bartfeld, Bártfa, in present-day Slovakia) Biography Born in Lindau, into a family of burghers, Valentinus Eck started his scholarly career at the University of Leipzig in 1508. After travels in Moravia and Poland, he enrolled at the University of Cracow (1511) and earned a bachelor’s degree there (1513). He had friendly ties with several young humanists in Cracow, including Paulus Crosnensis and Ru…

Vasco Diaz de Tanco de Fregenal

(843 words)

Author(s): Ángel Auladell, Miguel
Biography Vasco Díaz Tanco was a humanist from Extremadura who pursued various professions as an actor and director, author of tragedies and poet. By the year 1528, he had been ordained priest. He wandered the roads of Spain and Portugal with a portable printing press that he himself had made, settling in at least three cities, Valencia, Porto and Orense. An indefatigable traveller, he probably spent some time in captivity in Turkish prisons. He travelled in France, Italy, Portugal and Greece, and acknowledged that in each pla…

Vasilii Aleksandrovich Daudov

(370 words)

Author(s): Soldat, Cornelia
Biography Vasilii Aleksandrovich Daudov was a servant at the Muscovite Ambassadorial Chancellery. He was Persian and Muslim by birth, and his original name was Alimartsan Bababaev. He came to Muscovy in 1654 in the entourage of I.I. Loganov-Rostovskii, who was the ambassador to the Shah. In his autobiographical notes, Daudov justifies his change of allegiance by saying that he was interested in Christianity and had heard that Tsar Aleksei Mikhailovich offered well-paid jobs to people from other countries. In that same year, 1654, Daudov converted from Islam to Orthodox Ch…

Vasily Poznyakov

(449 words)

Author(s): Yermolenko, Galina
Vassily Poznyakov, Vasiliĭ Pozniakov Date of Birth: Unknown; before 1550 Place of Birth: Smolensk, Russia Date of Death: Unknown Place of Death: Unknown Biography Little is known about Vasily (Vassily) Poznyakov’s life apart from his 1558-61 journey to the East, which was recorded in Khozhdenie na vostok gosti͡a Vasili͡a Pozni͡akova . Originally a merchant from Smolensk who traded in Moscow, he was sent on a diplomatic mission to the Holy Land by Tsar Ivan IV, after the Patriarch of Alexandria and the Archbishop of Sinai asked the tsar for fina…

Vasily Yakovlev ‘Gagara’

(896 words)

Author(s): Yermolenko, Galina
Biography Vasily Yakovlev (or possibly, son of Yakov), nicknamed ‘Gagara’, was born in the town of Plesa on the Volga, in the Kostroma province of the Russian Empire. He worked as a merchant in Kazan, trading mostly in the East. At around the age of 40, he experienced a great reversal of fortune, when one of his ships sank en route to Persia, and his wife suddenly passed away. He vowed to go to the Holy Land to repent for the sins of his youth, and soon after he was able to recover from financial ruin. In 1634, accompanied by his servant Garanka, Gagara embarked on his journey. Sailing fir…


(1,356 words)

Author(s): Allen, Jonathan
VasiyetnâmeRisâle-i Birgivî 'The last will and testament' Birgivî Mehmed Efendi Date: Around 1570 Original Language: Ottoman Turkish Description Considerably shorter than Al-ṭarīqa l-muḥammadiyya, numbering around 50 pages in printed editions, Birgivî’s  Vasiyetnâme (also known as  Risâle-i Birgivî) appears to have been intended for a wider audience. This is indicated by both its language – relatively simple Ottoman Turkish – and its concern for explicating the basic principles and obligations of Islam. In this, it is typical of a large body of Ottoman texts known as  ilmihâl, …

 Vazetje Sigeta grada

(832 words)

Author(s): Plejić Poje, Lahorka
Vazetje Sigeta grada‘The capture of the town of Sziget’ Charnarutich Date: 1568-72 Original Language: Chakavian [Croatian dialect] Description Vazetje  Sigeta  grada is the first Croatian historical epic, and the first poem in Croatian literature about the Battle of Sziget. It was written soon after the battle, between 1568 and 1572, and was printed in Venice in 1584. It consists of 1056 12-syllable verses in rhyming couplets, in four cantos. It is about the Ottoman siege and capture of Sziget, and the heroic death of Nikola Šubić Zrinski (it is dedicated to Nik…

 Verbondt ende vast accoordt (and similar titles)

(1,070 words)

Author(s): Steenbrink, Karel
VOC treaties with Muslim rulers of Indonesia Frederick de Houtman Date: 1605-20 Original Language: Dutch DescriptionFrederick de Houtman attracted most attention for his second trip to Indonesia, while his two periods as colonial administrator, in Ambon and the Moluccas, are only documented in his own official reports. These are stored in the National Archives of the Netherlands in The Hague and published partly in the collected works of Jan Pietersz. Coen ( Bescheiden omtrent zijn bedrijf in Indië, ed. H.T. Colenbrander, The Hague, 1919-34, 6 vols).One report of 1607 gives a s…

 Verdadera información de la Tierra Sancta según la disposición en que en este año de Mil y Quinientos y Treinta el autor la vio y passeo

(1,128 words)

Author(s): Ángel Auladell, Miguel
Verdadera información de la Tierra Sancta'True information about the Holy Land' Antonio de Aranda Date: 1533 Original Language: Spanish Description Verdadera información de la Tierra Sancta (in full, Verdadera información de la Tierra Sancta según la disposición en que en este año de Mil y Quinientos y Treinta el autor la vio y passeo, ‘True information about the Holy Land according to the account in the year 1530 of the author’s travels and journey’) is a travelogue covering a rich variety of topics. It consists of two treatises, the first contai…

 Verdadera relacion de todo lo que este año de M.D. LXV ha sucedido en la isla de Malta

(841 words)

Author(s): Cassar, Carmel
Verdadera relacion de todo lo que este año de M.D. LXV ha sucedido en la isla de MaltaDiario del gran asedio de Malta;'Diary of the siege of Malta' Francesco Balbi di Correggio Date: 1567 Original Language: Spanish Description Balbi di Correggio’s diary, based on his experiences in the garrison of Senglea throughout the four months of the Ottoman Siege of Malta,  La verdadera relacion de todo lo que el anno de 1565 ha sucedido en la isla de Malta, de antes que llegase l'armada sobre ella de Soliman el Gran Turco. Hasta que llego el socorro postrero del Re…

 Verità della fede

(648 words)

Author(s): Padovan, Gianluca
‘The truth of the faith’ Alfonso Maria de’ Liguori Date: 1767 Original Language: Italian DescriptionIn this work, de’ Liguori collects and expands two treatises he had written earlier: Breve dissertazione contro gli errori de' moderni increduli (‘A brief dissertation on the mistakes of modern unbelievers’, 1756) and  Verità della fede fatta evidente (‘The truth of faith made clear’, 1762), both reactions against ideas such as deism and rationalism. In his introduction to  Verità della fede, de’ Liguori states that he wishes to rescue the youth of his time from these …

 Verlegung des Alcoran Bruder Richardi

(375 words)

Author(s): Francisco, Adam S.
Verlegung des Alcoran‘Brother Riccoldo’s refutation of the Qur’an’ Martin Luther Date: 1542 Original Language: German Description Running to 124 pages, the modern critical edition of Luther’s works contains the Latin text Luther used to translate Riccoldo da Monte di Croce’s  Contra legem Saracenorum, with the German text on the facing page . In his preface, Luther makes it clear that he believed it was the best polemic against Islam available (there were others available to him, such as Nicholas of Cusa’s  Cribratio Alcorani ), and he wanted to make it accessible to a gene…

 Vermahnung zum Gebet wider den Türcken

(324 words)

Author(s): Francisco, Adam S.
Vermahnung zum Gebet wider den Türcken‘Appeal for prayer against the Turks’ Martin Luther Date: 1541 Original Language: German Description This 40-page appeal was written at the request of the Saxon princes. The Ottomans had recently occupied Hungary and war was inevitable. The princes wanted Luther not only to appeal to Germans to pray for the imminent conflict but also to build the morale of the people and encourage those to whom the responsibility fell to take up arms for the defence of Germany. Luther believed…

 Vermehrte Newe Beschreibung Der Muscowitischen und Persischen Reyse

(2,423 words)

Author(s): Brancaforte, Elio C.
‘The expanded, new description of the journey to Muscovy and Persia’ Adam Olearius Date: 1647 Original Language: German Description The first edition of Adam Olearius’s 1647 travel account, Offt begehrte Beschreibung, contains 546 pages and 70 engravings, including three maps. However, it is the second edition, the  Vermehrte Newe Beschreibung (1656) that will be considered here since, as its title implies, it truly is a greatly expanded version of the earlier work, with 802 pages, 103 engravings and five maps. Its full title is Vermehrte Newe Beschreibung Der Muscowitischen …

Verse martyrologies of Xanum Vkayuhi

(46 words)

Author(s): Cowe, S. Peter
Date of Birth: Place of Birth: Date of Death: Place of Death: Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim RelationsTał i veray srbuhwoy kusin or anun nora koč‘i XanumTał i Vkayuhi surb Xanum Nahatak i T‘oprak‘ K‘alēS. Peter Cowe