Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editors: David Thomas and John Chesworth
Associate Editors: John Azumah, Clinton Bennett, Lejla Demiri, Martha Frederiks, Stanisław Grodź, Andrew Newman, Douglas Pratt

Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general history of relations between the two faiths as this is represented in works written by Christians and Muslims about the other and against the other. It covers all parts of the world in the period 1500-1914. Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online comprises thousands of comprehensive entries on individual works and their authors, together with introductory essays to the periods and areas covered, making it the fullest available source in this field.


 Bol’shaia chelobitnaia

(3,533 words)

Author(s): Gruber, Yeshayahu
Vtoraia chelobitnaia; , Pervaia chelobitnaia‘Greater petition’ Ivan Semenovich Peresvetov, Ivashko son of Semen Peresvietov, Iwan or John Pereswetoff Date: About 1549 Original Language: Old Russian Description Two petitions to Tsar Ivan IV of Muscovy (r. 1533-84) bearing the name ‘Ivashko son of Semen Peresvietov’ have survived. As one of them is significantly longer than the other, it is customary in historiography to refer to them as the ‘Big’ and ‘Small’, or ‘Greater’ and ‘Lesser’ petitions. (The alternatives, ‘First’…

Bonaventura Malvasia

(721 words)

Author(s): and Andrea Trentini, Giovanni Pizzorusso
Bonaventura Boselli da Sestola, Bonaventura Malvasia da Bologna, Bonaventura da Bologna Date of Birth: 1598 Place of Birth: Sestola, Duchy of Modena and Reggio Date of Death: 1 August 1666 Place of Death: Rome Biography Bonaventura Malvasia was born in the mountain village of Sestola in the Apennines near Modena, in 1598. His original family name was Boselli. His family were of modest means, and moved to Bologna when Bonaventura was still a boy, where they were the protégés of the Counts Malvasia, a prominent Bolognese family and…

 Breve compendio de nuestra santa ley y sunna

(854 words)

Author(s): & Luis F. Bernabé Pons, John Chesworth
Breve compendio'Brief summary of our holy law and sunna' Mancebo de Arévalo Date: Possibly 1532-3 Original Language: Spanish in Arabic letters (Aljamiado) Description The  Breve compendio de nuestra santa ley y sunna is a lengthy Aljamiado manuscript of 430 folios, well preserved and copied with great care by a single hand. The work is presented as a collaboration between the  faqīh Ibrāhīm de Reminjo and the  Mancebo de Arévalo, referred to by the  faqīh as a very wise man who is proficient in a number of languages. It is difficult to distinguish the parts written …

 Breve relación de la grande crueldad de Gentiles y Moros

(319 words)

Author(s): Donoso, Isaac
‘Brief account of the great cruelty of the Gentiles and Moors’ Breve relación de la grande crueldad de Gentiles y Moros Date: 1631 Original Language: Spanish DescriptionPublished in Barcelona in 1631, this short eight-page work (its title in full is  Breve relación de la grande crueldad de Gentiles y Moros, contra los Predicadores Euangélicos del Orden de Santo Domingo, y Cofrades del Santíssimo Rosario, en las Filipinas, Iapón, y en las Indias Orientales, desde el Año 1617 hasta 1627, ‘Brief account of the great cruelty of the Gentiles and Moors against the Christian mis…

Breve relación de la grande crueldad de Gentiles y Moros

(31 words)

Author(s): Donoso, Isaac
Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Breve relación de la grande crueldad de Gentiles y Moros Isaac Donoso

 Breve resumen y discurso

(805 words)

Author(s): Donoso, Isaac
‘Brief summary and discourse’ Pedro de la Santísima Trinidad Martínez de Arizala Date: 3 July 1753 Original Language: Spanish DescriptionThis unpublished manuscript, which is 23 pages long, recounts the perception of the most conservative party in the Philippines, which is that there has been historical deception in the relationship between Christians and Muslims from the time of James the Conqueror, King of Aragon in the 13th-century, up to de Arizala's own time and the Asian context. Its underlying goal is to advocate military action against the  Moros (the Muslims of the Phili…

 Brieven over den Islam uit de binnenlanden van Java

(754 words)

Author(s): Kruithof, Maryse
‘Letters on Islam from the interior of Java’ Carel Poensen Date: 1886 (1883) Original Language: Dutch Description Brieven over den Islam is a collection of 17 letters originally published anonymously in the Javanese Dutch-language newspaper Soerabajasche Handelsblad in 1883 under the title Brieven van een desaman (Letters from a villager). They were published together in 1886, in an edition consisting of 174 pages plus a 12-page preface by Pieter J. Veth, professor of the ethnology of the Dutch Indies at Leiden University. In these letters, Carel Poensen writes about Islam on…

British travellers to South Asia

(451 words)

Author(s): Nicholls, Ruth J.
Thomas Cordyte, Ralph Fitch, William Finch, William Hawkins, and Peter Mundy Date of Birth: Cordyte, about 1577; Fitch, about 1550; Finch, unknown; Hawkins, unknown; Mundy, 1596 Place of Birth: Cordyte, Crewkerne, Fitch, possibly Derby; Finch, possibly London; Hawkins, unknown; Mundy, Penryn, Cornwall Date of Death: Cordyte, 1617; Fitch, 1611; Finch, 1613; Hawkins, 1633; Mundy, 1667 Place of Death: Cordyte, Surat, India; Fitch, England; Finch, Babylon; Hawkins, unknown; Mundy, England BiographyAt the end of the 16th century and during the 17th century, a number of British …

Brne Karnarutić

(161 words)

Author(s): Plejić Poje, Lahorka
Charnarutich Date of Birth: Possibly 1515 Place of Birth: Zadar Date of Death: 1573 Place of Death: Zadar Biography Brne Karnarutić was a Croatian Renaissance poet, born into an ancient aristocratic family. After school in Zadar, he studied law, probably in Padua, and then served as a captain in the army of the Republic of Venice. He led a Croatian cavalry squad in the Ottoman-Venetian war (1537-40). Later, he became a lawyer in Zadar. He wrote the epic poem  Vazetje Sigeta grada (Venice, 1584), and also Izvarsita ljubav i napokom nemila i nesrićna smart Pirama i Tizbe, an adaptation of t…

Bryan Edwards

(642 words)

Author(s): Shea McElroy, Kambiz GhaneaBassiri and
Date of Birth: 21 May 1743 Place of Birth: Westbury, Wiltshire Date of Death: 16 July 1800 Place of Death: The Polygon, Southampton BiographyBryan Edwards was born on 21 May 1743 in Westbury, Wiltshire, England, to Elizabeth Bayly and Bryan Edwards. After his father’s death in 1756, he, his mother, and five siblings came under the protection of his uncle, Zachary Bayly. Edwards lived with his uncle in Jamaica from 1759 until Bayly’s death in 1769. He had started his studies in Bristol and continued them in Jamaica, where he developed an interest in literature, history and botany.   Almost up…

 Bu de yi

(1,134 words)

Author(s): Morris, James Harry
‘I cannot do otherwise’‘I could not do otherwise’; , ‘I no longer support it’; , ‘I can no longer stand it’ Yang Kuang-hsien, Yangquangsenius Date: 1665 Original Language: Chinese DescriptionFollowing Li Zubai’s publication of Tian xue chuan gai (1664), Yang quickly issued a response. Throughout 1664 and 1665 he published a string of works, which were collected in Bu de yi (1665). This is in two volumes and was printed by the publisher Siqueshanfang. It contains works of a number of genres, including letters, treatises, petitions and rebuttals. The firs…

 Bu de yi bian

(824 words)

Author(s): Morris, James Harry
'A refutation of "I cannot do otherwise"''"I cannot do otherwise" refuted' Lodovico Buglio, Li Leisi, Louis Buglio Date: 1665 Original Language: Chinese Description Bu de yi bian (sometimes referred to as Bu de yi bian (1) in order to distinguish it from Ferdinand Verbiest’s work of the same name) is a direct refutation of the Chinese Muslim Yang Guangxian’s  Pi xie lun (as published in  Bu de yi), in which Buglio contests 33 statements against Christianity and the missionaries that are made in Yang’s text. The work usually consists of 54 folios in one binding…

Bukhari Jawhari or Johori

(60 words)

Author(s): Nurtawab, Ervan
Bukhari Jawhari, Bukhari Johori Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown Place of Death: Unknown BiographyNothing is known about this author apart from his name, which in Jawi script can be read as either ‘Bukhari Jawhari’ or ‘Bukhari Johori’. Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Tāj al-salaṭīn Ervan Nurtawab

Būlus Yūyāqīm

(184 words)

Author(s): Walbiner, Carsten
Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown; active in 1778 Place of Death: Unknown BiographyThe only information we have on the person of the author is what Paul Sbath states in his brief description of the manuscript: Būlus was a Melkite ( malikī) priest ( khūrī) who was living in Aleppo in 1778. In the context of the late 18th century, ‘Melkite’ has most likely to be understood as Greek Catholic. Besides the two polemical works mentioned here, Būlus authored an edifying text on the miracles and festivities that took place in Aleppo at the Feast of the Assumption. Prima…

 Al-burhān al-ṣarīḥ fī ḥaqīqat sirray al-Masīḥ, wa-humā sirr al-tathlīth wa-sirr al-tajassud al-ilāhī

(1,813 words)

Author(s): el Gemayel, Ronney
'The evident proof for the truth of the two mysteries of Christ, which are the mystery of the Trinity and the mystery of the divine Incarnation' ʿAbd Allāh Zākhir Date: 1721 Original Language: Arabic DescriptionʿAbd Allāh Zākhir’s book Al-burhān al-ṣarīḥ fī ḥaqīqat sirray al-Masīḥ, wa-humā sirr al-tathlīth wa-sirr al-tajassud al-ilāhī is, as its title indicates, a defence of the two great Christian mysteries, the Trinity and the Incarnation. On the first page of the edition published in Shuwayr in 1764, 16 years after the author’s death, there…

 Bushrā al-ʿābis fī ḥukm al-biyaʾ wa-l-diyur wa-l-kanāʾis

(227 words)

Author(s): Burge, Stephen
‘Glad tidings for the stern on the ruling of synagogues, monasteries and churches’ Abū l-Faḍl ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Abī Bakr ibn ʿUthmān ibn Muḥammad ibn Khiḍr ibn Ayyūb ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Humām al-Khuḍayrī al-Suyūṭī Date: Unknown; before 1505 Original Language: Arabic Description Ismāʿīl Bāshā al-Baghdādī refers to this work in his  Hidāyat al-ʿārifīn (Beirut, 1951, p. 536), although it does not appear in any catalogues of manuscripts and it has not appeared in print. The title suggests that it is likely to have been a religious tract or a fatwa i…

Buṭrus Ḍūmīṭ Makhlūf

(527 words)

Author(s): Moukarzel, Joseph
Buṭrus Ḍūmīṭ Makhlūf; Petrus Domitius Date of Birth: Probably mid 1620s Place of Birth: Probably Ghusṭā Date of Death: After 1707 Place of Death: Unknown BiographyBuṭrus Ḍūmīṭ Makhlūf was probably born in Ghusṭā, in the region of Kisruwān, into a Maronit family in the mid-1620s (1627 according to Gemayel). He arrived at the Maronite College in Rome on 25 December 1638, with a group led by the Jesuit Jean-Baptiste Corti. In 1650 he was appointed a teacher of Syriac at the college, as well as overseer of the edition-in-the-making of the Fenqith (Collection of liturgical feasts). He subm…

Buṭrus ibn Ghubraʾīl

(142 words)

Author(s): Walbiner, Carsten
Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown Place of Death: Unknown Biography We know no more about this author than what is mentioned in Paul Sbath’s Al-fihris, namely that Ibn Ghubraʾīl (which Sbath spells Ghibrīl) was ‘an Orthodox Copt of Cairo who lived [there] in 1627’. The epithet al-muʿallim that precedes the author’s name should be understood as ‘the learned man’ and not as ‘the teacher’. Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information J. Nasrallah, Histoire du mouvement littéraire dans l’Eglise Melchite du Ve au XXe siècle, Louvain, 19…

Buṭrus al-Lādhiqī

(234 words)

Author(s): Walbiner, Carsten
Buṭrus al-Mārūnī al-Lādhiqī Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown; active in 1742 Place of Death: Unknown BiographyThe only information about this author derives from Paul Sbath’s entry in his catalogue of Arabic manuscripts and most probably comes from the manuscript itself, namely that the Maronite priest ( qass) Buṭrus al-Lādhiqī lived in Aleppo in 1742. The surname indicates that he or his family came originally from the city of Latakia ( al-Lādhiqiyya) on the Syrian coast. Georg Graf mentions 1742 as the year of the author’s death but…