Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editors: David Thomas and John Chesworth
Associate Editors: John Azumah, Clinton Bennett, Lejla Demiri, Martha Frederiks, Stanisław Grodź, Andrew Newman, Douglas Pratt

Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online is a general history of relations between the two faiths as this is represented in works written by Christians and Muslims about the other and against the other. It covers all parts of the world in the period 1500-1914. Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History Online comprises thousands of comprehensive entries on individual works and their authors, together with introductory essays to the periods and areas covered, making it the fullest available source in this field.


 Khabar wajadahu baʿḍ al-muʾminīn fī kutub kānat ʿindahu fī Bayt al-Maqdis

(714 words)

Author(s): Treiger, Alexander
‘A narrative that a certain believer found in the books he owned in Jerusalem’‘On the origin of the term “Melkite”’ A narrative about Sophronius of Jerusalem, ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb, and the term 'Melkite' Date: Before 1642 Original Language: Arabic Description The short text, conventionally called A narrative about Sophronius of Jerusalem, ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb, and the term ‘Melkite’ (or On the origin of the term ‘Melkite’), occupies three-and-a-half folios in the oldest known manuscript and four pages in the printed edition. The text argues that the term ‘Mel…

 Khozhdenie na vostok gosti͡a Vasili͡a Pozni͡akova

(2,892 words)

Author(s): Yermolenko, Galina
Khozhdenie na vostok gosti͡a Vasili͡a Pozni͡akova‘A journey to the Orient by Vasilii Pozniakov’ Vassily Poznyakov, Vasiliĭ Pozniakov Date: About 1561 Original Language: Old Russian Description It is not certain which member of the Poznyakov embassy took notes on the journey. In 1820, the historian Karamzin and others ascribed the account to Archdeacon Gennady (Loparev, ‘Khozhdeniie kuptsa Vasiliia Pozniakova’, p. vii;  Entsyklopedicheskii, vol. 47/xxiv, p. 234). While Poznyakov’s journey is referenced in Novgorod Chronicle II (late 16th century), his name remained larg…

 Khozhdenie v Ierusalim i Tsarʾgrad

(771 words)

Author(s): Sukina, Liudmila
-'Journey to Jerusalem and Constantinople'- Iona Malenʾkii Date: Uncertain; possibly 1652 Original Language: Russian Description The  Khozhdenie includes a fairly detailed description of the route of Iona’s pilgrimage to Jerusalem and back. In Jerusalem itself, Iona describes the lower city wall, the Church of the Resurrection and the various rituals performed there by the followers of ‘different faiths’, Christ’s tomb and the Jerusalem monasteries, including the  friazhskii (Catholic) and Armenian ones. He also mentions a Roman Catholic church and the tombs …

 Khozhdeniie (Khozheniie) Trifona Korobeinikova ko sviatym mestam Vostoka

(2,645 words)

Author(s): Yermolenko, Galina
Khozhdeniie (Khozheniie) Trifona KorobeinikovaTrifona Korobeinikova, moskovskogo kouptsa, s tovarishchi, puteshestviie vo Ierusalim, Iegipet i k Sinaiskoi gore v 1583 g.; , Puteshestviie moskovskikh kouptsov Trifona Korobeinikova i Iuriia Grekova ko sviatym mestam v 1582 g.‘Journey of Trifon Korobeinikov to the holy sites of the East’ Trifon Korobeĭnikov Date: Approximately 1584-1602 Original Language: Old Russian Description Korobeinikov’s embassies to the Middle East were recorded in two accounts ( Khozhdeniia), one detailing his 1583-4 journey to Constantino…

Kiedy Jezusa męczono

(25 words)

Author(s): Synkowa & Michail Tarelko, Iryna
Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Kiedy Jezusa męczono Iryna Synkowa & Michail Tarelko

 Kiedy Jezusa męczono

(507 words)

Author(s): Synkowa & Michail Tarelko, Iryna
Kiedy Jezusa męczono‘When Jesus was tortured…’ Kiedy Jezusa męczono Date: Late 16th or early 17th century Original Language: Polish (with Belarussian elements) written in Arabic script Description This text has survived in five Tatar manuscripts from the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania, all of them now in private collections. Three are dated (1847, 1898 and 1934); the other two have no colophons but come from the first part of the 19th century. The text is relatively short and fills three or four pages in the various manuscripts. The text begins with a commentary on Matthew 27:46:…

 K‘ilila da Damana

(602 words)

Author(s): Mrevlishvili, Nana
Kilila and Damana King Vakhtʻang VI Date: 1710-14 Original Language: Georgian DescriptionThe 18th-century K‘ilila da Damana is a translation of a well-known collection of fables about two jackals, which were first developed in India ( Panchatantra) and then soon disseminated in Iran and the Arab world. Among the Persian versions of the text, the most popular was written in the second half of the 15th century by Vaiz Kashifi, entitled Anwar-e-Sohaili, a version famed for its eloquence and complexity of style. Georgian translations of the manuscript were developed from this edition. Un…

Kilwa Chronicle

(24 words)

Author(s): Martins, João Furtado
Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Kitāb al-sulwa fī akhbār Kulwa João Furtado Martins

King Archʻil

(528 words)

Author(s): Kharebava, Nana
Archʻil II Bagrationi Date of Birth: 1647 Place of Birth: Georgia Date of Death: 16 April 1713 Place of Death: Moscow BiographyArchʻil II, Bagrationi of Imeret‘i (r. 1661-3, 1678-9, 1690-1, 1695-6, 1698) and of Kaxetʻi (1664-75), was the son of Vakht‘ang V of Kʻartʻli (r. 1658-75) alias Shahnavāz. Following the peace treaty of Amasya, Imeret‘i became a vassal kingdom of the Ottoman Empire and Kaxetʻi fell under Safavid suzerainty. In 1663, Archʻil was sent to Iran on the instruction of the court in Isfahan, and he w…

King Manuel I of Portugal

(377 words)

Author(s): de Jesus, Roger Lee
Biography Manuel was the son of Prince Fernando (1433-70) and grandson of King Duarte of Portugal (1391-1438). He succeeded to the throne on the death of his cousin, King João II, in 1495. During his reign, he initiated a number of reforms, among them the Leitura nova (updating of central and local administration), and the Ordenações Manuelinas (a new code of laws), published between 1512 and 1521. His marriage in 1497 to Isabella of Aragón, daughter of Ferdinand II of Aragón and Isabella I of Castile, led to his ordering the entire non-Christian p…

King Tʻeimuraz I

(871 words)

Author(s): Kharebava, Nana
Date of Birth: 1589 Place of Birth: Kaxeti Date of Death: 1663 Place of Death: Astarabad Biography Tʻeimuraz I was king of the eastern Georgian kingdoms of Kartli (1625-32) and Kaxetʻi (1606-48) at the time of the hegemony of the Shīʿī Safavid dynasty in the region (1501-1722). Little is known about his childhood. As the result of a feud among the potential heirs to the throne, he was sent to the Safavid court by his mother, Queen Kʻetʻevan, to guarantee his safety. There, he grew up under the personal protectio…

King Vakhtʻang VI

(472 words)

Author(s): Mrevlishvili, Nana
Date of Birth: 15 September 1675 Place of Birth: Kʻartʻli, Georgia Date of Death: 26 March 1737 Place of Death: Astrakhan, Russia BiographyVakhtʻang VI Bagration-Mukhraneli was king of Kʻartʻli from 1716 to 1724, having served as Iranian governor of the country from 1703 to 1714. His reign was characterised by a proliferation of Georgian literature, which facilitated intellectual growth. He himself was a distinguished poet, scientist, translator, editor and critic, and he regularly organised educational events. During his time as governor, Vakhtʻang tried to strengthen…

 Kitāb al-amthāl, seu Proverbiorum Arabicorum centuriae duae

(1,243 words)

Author(s): van Ommen, Kasper
Proverbiorvm arabicorvm centuriæ duæ ‘The book of proverbs, Arabic proverbs of two centuries’ Josephus Justus Scaliger Date: 1614 Original Language: Arabic Description Kitāb al-amthāl (its full title is Kitāb al-amthāl, seu Proverbiorum Arabicorum centuriae duae / ab anonymo quodam Arabe collectae & explicatae; cum interpretatione Latina & scholiis Iosephi Scaligeri I. Caes. F. et Thomae Erpenii. Leidae: in officina Raphelengiana) is a collection of 200 Arabic proverbs by the Islamic scholar Abū ʿUbayd al-Qāsim ibn Sallām from Herat (c. 768/70-838),…

 Kitāb-i Avānūs khalīfa-yi masīḥī

(536 words)

Author(s): Halft, Dennis
‘The book of the Christian Hovhannēs khalīfa’ Hovhannes M’rkuz Jułayeci, Hovhannēs Mrk‘uz Jughayets‘i, Jean Mrk‘uz Nor Julayeci, Hovhannēs vardapet, Hovannàs khalifeh, Avānūs khalīfa, Khalīfa Āvānūs Date: Between 1688 and 91 Original Language: Armenian DescriptionThis untitled work, which has occasionally circulated under the title Kitāb-i Avānūs khalīfa-yi masīḥī (‘The book of the Christian Hovhannēs khalīfa’) in several monolingual Persian manuscripts and a bilingual Armenian-Persian manuscript, is a vindication of Christian doctrines, especiall…

 Kitāb nāṣir al-dīn ʿalā l-qawm al-kafīrīn wa-huwa al-sayf al-ashhar ʿalā kulli man kafara

(2,387 words)

Author(s): Wiegers, Gerard
‘The book of the supporter of religion against the infidels or The unsheathed sword against all who disbelieve’‘The victory of religion over the unbelieving people’ Aḥmad ibn Qāsim al-Ḥajarī Date: 1637 Original Language: Arabic Description The first version of  Kitāb nāṣir al-dīn is found in MS Azhar 30714, which al-Ḥajarī compiled in Cairo in 1637 on the order of the Malikite scholar al-Ujhūrī (1559-1656) as an extract from his more extensive travelogue (also compiled at the request of al-Ujhūrī),  Riḥlat al-shihāb ilā liqāʾ  al-aḥbāb, of which no manuscript copy is known. A…

 Kitāb al-ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm

(164 words)

Author(s): Walbiner, Carsten
‘The book of the straight way’ Buṭrus al-Mārūnī al-Lādhiqī Date: Possibly 1742 Original Language: Arabic DescriptionAccording to Paul Sbath, the work contains a ‘demonstration of Christianity and refutation of Islam’, and consists of two parts. Sbath found the only known copy of the work in the possession of the heirs of the Greek Catholic merchant Rizqallāh Bāsīl in Aleppo. The manuscript must now be regarded as lost. SignificanceThe title alone does not allow any evaluation, except that the reference to Q 1:8,  ihdinā l-ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm (‘show us the straight path’), announc…

 Kitāb al-sulwa fī akhbār Kulwa

(1,055 words)

Author(s): Martins, João Furtado
Kitāb al-sulwa fī akhbār Kulwa‘Book of consolation on the history of Kilwa’ Kilwa Chronicle Date: Approximately 1520-50 Original Language: Arabic Description In 1872, a copy of an Arabic manuscript entitled Kitāb al-sulwa fī akhbār Kulwa (‘Book of consolation on the history of Kilwa’), about the island of Kilwa Kisiwani off the East African coast, was presented by Barghash Saʿīd, the Sultan of Zanzibar, to Sir John Kirk, the British Administrator. The manuscript from which this copy was made had been found among the papers of Shaykh Muḥyī al-Dīn, qadi for the Shāfiʿī madhhab in Zanziba…

 Kitâb tesviyetü t-teveccüh ila l-Hakk

(1,547 words)

Author(s): Krstić, Tijana
Kitâb tesviyetü t-teveccüh ila l-Hakk‘Guide for turning [or orienting] oneself towards God [Truth]’ Murad ibn Abdullah Date: 1556-67 Original Language: Ottoman Turkish Description As its title suggests,  Kitâb tesviyetü t-teveccüh ila l-Hakk (‘Guide for turning [or orienting] oneself towards God [or truth]’) is intended to be a catechetical work that introduces tenets of the true faith; for the author this is, of course, Islam. At the same time, it is a polemical treatise arguing for Islam’s superiority over previous revelati…

 Kitaby Tatarów Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego

(1,626 words)

Author(s): Łapicz and Artur Konopacki, Czesław
‘Kitabs of the Tatars of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania’ Kitaby Tatarów Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego Date: 17th century Original Language: Arabic Description Tatar Muslims were already settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by the end of the 14th century. They lost their original Turkic dialects as time went on, and were progressively unable to use religious literature in these dialects, so translations into the local Slavonic languages, Belorussian and Polish, took the place of the originals. These were usually compilations of sev…

Kitaby Tatarów Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego

(29 words)

Author(s): Łapicz and Artur Konopacki, Czesław
Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Kitaby Tatarów Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego Czesław Łapicz and Artur Konopacki
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