Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Library Biblical Texts Related publications

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Subject: Biblical Studies and Early Christianity

Editors: Donald W. Parry and Andrew C. Skinner
In Consultation with Emanuel Tov and Eugene Ulrich
Quality control: Ariel Tov

The Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Library presents a complete Hebrew transcription and English translation of the Biblical texts, together with high-resolution images. The contents of this online publication is identical to that of the Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Library Biblical Texts CD-ROM, published by Brill and Brigham Young University but its interface is adapted to Brill's online platform for reference works.

For subscriptions:

1Q4Q26a = 4QLeve4Q84 = 4QPsb5Q
1Q1 = 1QGen4Q26b = 4QLevg4Q85 = 4QPsc5Q1 = 5QDeut
1Q2 = 1QExod4Q26c = 4QLevh4Q86 = 4QPsd5Q2 = 5QKgs
1Q3 = 1QpaleoLeva, 1QpaleoNuma, 1QpaleoLev-Numa, 1QpaleoNumb, 1QpaleoLevb4Q27 = 4QNumb4Q87 = 4QPse5Q3 = 5QIsa
1Q4 = 1QDeuta4Q28 = 4QDeuta4Q88 = 4QPsf5Q4 = 5QXII
1Q5 = 1QDeutb4Q29 = 4QDeutb4Q89 = 4QPsg5Q5 = 5QPs
1Q6 = 1QJudg4Q30 = 4QDeutc4Q90 = 4QPsh5Q6 = 5QLama
1Q7 = 1QSam4Q31 = 4QDeutd4Q91 = 4QPsj5Q7 = 5QLamb
1QIsa-a = 1QIsaa4Q32 = 4QDeute4Q92 = 4QPsk6Q
1Q8 = 1QIsab4Q33 = 4QDeutf4Q93 = 4QPsl6Q1 = 6QpaleoGen
1Q9 = 1QEzek4Q34 = 4QDeutg4Q94 = 4QPsm6Q2 = 6QpaleoLev
1Q10 = 1QPsa4Q35 = 4QDeuth4Q95 = 4QPsn6Q3 = 6QpapDeut
1Q11 = 1QPsb4Q36 = 4QDeuti4Q96 = 4QPso6Q4 = 6QpapKgs
1Q12 = 1QPsc4Q37 = 4QDeutj4Q97 = 4QPsp6Q5 = 6QpapPs
1Q13 = 1QPhyl4Q38 = 4QDeutk14Q98 = 4QPsq6Q6 = 6QCant
1Q71 = 1QDana4Q38a = 4QDeutk24Q98a = 4QPsr6Q7 = 6QpapDan
1Q72 = 1QDanb4Q38b = 4QDeutk34Q98b = 4QPss8Q
2Q4Q38c = 4QDeutt4Q98c = 4QPst8Q1 = 8QGen
2Q1 = 2QGen4Q38d = 4QDeutu4Q98d = 4QPsu8Q2 = 8QPs
2Q2 = 2QExoda4Q39 = 4QDeutl4Q98e = 4QPsv8Q3 = 8QPhyl
2Q3 = 2QExodb4Q40 = 4QDeutm4Q98f = 4QPsw8Q4 = 8QMez
2Q4 = 2QExodc4Q41 = 4QDeutn4Q98g = 4QPsx11Q
2Q5 = 2QpaleoLev4Q42 = 4QDeuto4Q99 = 4QJoba11Q1 = 11QpaleoLeva
2Q6 = 2QNuma4Q43 = 4QDeutp4Q100 = 4QJobb11Q2 = 11QLevb
2Q7 = 2QNumb4Q44 = 4QDeutq4Q101 = 4QpaleoJobc11Q3 = 11QDeut
2Q8 = 2QNumc4Q45 = 4QpaleoDeutr4Q102 = 4QProva11Q4 = 11QEzek
2Q9 = 2QNumd4Q46 = 4QpaleoDeuts4Q103 = 4QProvb11Q5 = 11QPsa
2Q10 = 2QDeuta4Q47 = 4QJosha4Q103a = 4QProvc11Q6 = 11QPsb
2Q11 = 2QDeutb4Q48 = 4QJoshb4Q104 = 4QRutha11Q7 = 11QPsc
2Q12 = 2QDeutc4Q49 = 4QJudga4Q105 = 4QRuthb11Q8 = 11QPsd
2Q13 = 2QJer4Q50 = 4QJudgb4Q106 = 4QCanta11Q9 = 11QPse
2Q14 = 2QPs4Q51 = 4QSama4Q107 = 4QCantbXQ
2Q15 = 2QJobPAM431134Q108 = 4QCantcXQ1 = XQPhyl
2Q16 = 2QRuthaPAM431244Q109 = 4QQohaXQ2 = XQPhyl
2Q17 = 2QRuthb4Q52 = 4QSamb4Q110 = 4QQohbXQ3 = XQPhyl
2Q29 = 2QNumb4Q53 = 4QSamc4Q111 = 4QLamMur
3Q4Q54 = 4QKgs4Q112 = 4QDanaMur1 = MurGena, MurExod, MurNum
3Q1 = 3QEzek4Q55 = 4QIsaa4Q113 = 4QDanbMur1 = MurGena, MurExod, MurNum
3Q2 = 3QPs4Q56 = 4QIsab4Q114 = 4QDancMur1 = MurGena, MurExod, MurNum
3Q3 = 3QLam4Q57 = 4QIsac4Q115 = 4QDandMur2 = MurDeut
4Q4Q58 = 4QIsad4Q116 = 4QDaneMur3 = MurIsa
4Q1 = 4QGen–Exoda4Q59 = 4QIsae4Q117 = 4QEzraMur4 = MurMez
4Q2 = 4QGenb4Q60 = 4QIsaf4Q118 = 4QChrMur88 = MurXII
4Q3 = 4QGenc4Q61 = 4QIsag4Q128 = 4QPhyl AMurX = MurGenb
4Q4 = 4QGend4Q62 = 4QIsah4Q129 = 4QPhyl BSDeir
4Q5 = 4QGene4Q62a = 4QIsai4Q130 = 4QPhyl CSdeir1 = SdeirGen
4Q6 = 4QGenf4Q63 = 4QIsaj4Q131 = 4QPhyl D5/6Hev
4Q7 = 4QGeng4Q64 = 4QIsak4Q132 = 4QPhyl E5/6Hev1a = 5/6HevNuma
4Q8a = 4QGenh14Q65 = 4QIsal4Q133 = 4QPhyl F5/6Hev1b = 5/6HevPs
4Q8b = 4QGenh24Q66 = 4QIsam4Q134 = 4QPhyl GXHev/Se
4Q8c = 4QGenh–para4Q67 = 4QIsan4Q135 = 4QPhyl HXHev/Se2 = XHev/SeNumb
4Q8d = 4QGenh–title4Q68 = 4QIsao4Q136 = 4QPhyl IXHev/Se3 = XHev/SeDeut
4Q9 = 4QGenj4Q69 = 4QpapIsap4Q137 = 4QPhyl JXHev/Se5 = XHev/SePhyl
4Q10 = 4QGenk4Q69a = 4QIsaq4Q138 = 4QPhyl K34Se
4Q11 = 4QpaleoGen–Exodl4Q69b = 4QIsar4Q139 = 4QPhyl L34Se1 = 34SePhyl
4Q12 = 4QpaleoGenm4Q70 = 4QJera4Q140 = 4QPhyl M34Se2 = 34SeNum
4Q12a = 4QGenp4Q71 = 4QJerb4Q141 = 4QPhyl NMas
4Q13 = 4QExodb4Q72 = 4QJerc4Q142 = 4QPhyl OMas1 = MasGen
4Q14 = 4QExodc4Q72a = 4QJerd4Q143 = 4QPhyl PMas1a = MasLeva
4Q15 = 4QExodd4Q72b = 4QJere4Q144 = 4QPhyl QMas1b = MasLevb
4Q16 = 4QExode4Q73 = 4QEzeka4Q145 = 4QPhyl RMas1c = MasDeut
4Q17 = 4QExod–Levf4Q74 = 4QEzekb4Q146 = 4QPhyl SMas1d = MasEzek
4Q18 = 4QExodg4Q75 = 4QEzekc4Q149 = 4QMez AMas1e = MasPsa
4Q19 = 4QExodh4Q76 = 4QXIIa4Q150 = 4QMez BMas1f = MasPsb
4Q20 = 4QExodj4Q77 = 4QXIIb4Q151 = 4QMez CArug
4Q21 = 4QExodk4Q78 = 4QXIIc4Q152 = 4QMez DArugLev = Leviticus
4Q22 = 4QpaleoExodm4Q79 = 4QXIId4Q153 = 4QMez EX
4Q23 = 4QLev–Numa4Q80 = 4QXIIe4Q154 = 4QMez FXJoshua = XJosh
4Q24 = 4QLevb4Q81 = 4QXIIf4Q155 = 4QMez GXJudges = XJudg
4Q25 = 4QLevc4Q82 = 4QXIIg4Q249j = 4Qpap crA Levh?X4
4Q26 = 4QLevd4Q83 = 4QPsa4Q483 = 4QpapGeno or papJubj?
4Q576 = 4QGenn
GenesisJudgesEzekielPs 116
Gen 1Judg 1Ezek 1Ps 118
Gen 2Judg 3Ezek 4Ps 119
Gen 3Judg 4Ezek 5Ps 120
Gen 4Judg 6Ezek 7Ps 121
Gen 5Judg 8Ezek 10Ps 122
Gen 6Judg 9Ezek 11Ps 123
Gen 12Judg 19Ezek 16Ps 124
Gen 13Judg 21Ezek 23Ps 125
Gen 171 SamuelEzek 24Ps 126
Gen 181Sam 1Ezek 35Ps 127
Gen 191Sam 2Ezek 36Ps 128
Gen 221Sam 3Ezek 37Ps 129
Gen 231Sam 4Ezek 38Ps 130
Gen 241Sam 5Ezek 41Ps 131
Gen 261Sam 6HoseaPs 132
Gen 271Sam 7Hos 1Ps 133
Gen 321Sam 8Hos 2Ps 134
Gen 331Sam 9Hos 3Ps 135
Gen 341Sam 10Hos 4Ps 136
Gen 351Sam 11Hos 5Ps 137
Gen 361Sam 12Hos 6Ps 138
Gen 371Sam 14Hos 7Ps 139
Gen 391Sam 15Hos 8Ps 140
Gen 401Sam 16Hos 9Ps 141
Gen 411Sam 17Hos 10Ps 142
Gen 421Sam 18Hos 11Ps 143
Gen 431Sam 19Hos 12Ps 144
Gen 451Sam 20Hos 13Ps 145
Gen 461Sam 21Hos 14Ps 146
Gen 471Sam 22JoelPs 147
Gen 481Sam 23Joel 1Ps 148
Gen 491Sam 24Joel 2Ps 149
Gen 501Sam 25Joel 3Ps 150
Exodus1Sam 26Joel 4Job
Ex 11Sam 27AmosJob 8
Ex 21Sam 28Amos 1Job 9
Ex 31Sam 29Amos 2Job 13
Ex 41Sam 30Amos 3Job 14
Ex 51Sam 31Amos 4Job 31
Ex 62 SamuelAmos 5Job 32
Ex 72Sam 1Amos 6Job 33
Ex 82Sam 2Amos 7Job 35
Ex 92Sam 3Amos 8Job 36
Ex 102Sam 4Amos 9Job 37
Ex 112Sam 5ObadiahProverbs
Ex 122Sam 6Obad 1Prov 1
Ex 132Sam 7JonahProv 2
Ex 142Sam 8Jonah 1Prov 9
Ex 152Sam 9Jonah 2Prov 10
Ex 162Sam 10Jonah 3Prov 13
Ex 172Sam 11Jonah 4Prov 14
Ex 182Sam 12MicahProv 15
Ex 192Sam 13Mic 1Ruth
Ex 202Sam 14Mic 2Ruth 1
Ex 212Sam 15Mic 3Ruth 2
Ex 222Sam 16Mic 4Ruth 3
Ex 232Sam 17Mic 5Ruth 4
Ex 242Sam 18Mic 6Song of Songs
Ex 252Sam 19Mic 7Song 1
Ex 262Sam 20NahumSong 2
Ex 272Sam 21Nah 1Song 3
Ex 282Sam 22Nah 2Song 4
Ex 292Sam 23Nah 3Song 5
Ex 302Sam 24HabakkukSong 6
Ex 311 KingsHab 1Song 7
Ex 321Kgs 1Hab 2Ecclesiastes
Ex 331Kgs 3Hab 3Eccl 1
Ex 341Kgs 7ZephaniaEccl 5
Ex 351Kgs 8Zeph 1Eccl 6
Ex 361Kgs 12Zeph 2Eccl 7
Ex 371Kgs 22Zeph 3Lamentations
Ex 382 KingsHaggaiLam 1
Ex 392Kgs 5Hag 1Lam 2
Ex 402Kgs 6Hag 2Lam 3
Leviticus2Kgs 7ZechariahLam 4
Lev 12Kgs 8Zech 1Lam 5
Lev 22Kgs 9Zech 2Daniel
Lev 32Kgs 10Zech 3Dan 1
Lev 4IsaiahZech 4Dan 2
Lev 5Is 1Zech 5Dan 3
Lev 7Is 2Zech 6Dan 4
Lev 8Is 3Zech 8Dan 5
Lev 9Is 4Zech 10Dan 6
Lev 10Is 5Zech 11Dan 7
Lev 11Is 6Zech 12Dan 8
Lev 13Is 7Zech 14Dan 9
Lev 14Is 8MalachiDan 10
Lev 15Is 9Mal 2Dan 11
Lev 16Is 10Mal 3Ezra
Lev 17Is 11PsalmsEzra 4
Lev 18Is 12Ps 2Ezra 5
Lev 19Is 13Ps 5Ezra 6
Lev 20Is 14Ps 62 Chronicles
Lev 21Is 15Ps 72Chr 28
Lev 22Is 16Ps 82Chr 29
Lev 23Is 17Ps 9Unidentified
Lev 24Is 18Ps 10Unidentified 1Q1
Lev 25Is 19Ps 11Unidentified 1Q2
Lev 26Is 20Ps 12Unidentified 1Q3 (1QpaleoLev-Num)
Lev 27Is 21Ps 13Unidentified 1Q4
NumbersIs 22Ps 14Unidentified 1Q5
Num 1Is 23Ps 15Unidentified 1Q6
Num 2Is 24Ps 16Unidentified 1Q8
Num 3Is 25Ps 17Unidentified 1Q9
Num 4Is 26Ps 18Unidentified 1Q10
Num 5Is 27Ps 19Unidentified 1Q12
Num 7Is 28Ps 22Unidentified 1Q13
Num 8Is 29Ps 23Unidentified 2Q2
Num 9Is 30Ps 24Unidentified 2Q3
Num 10Is 31Ps 25Unidentified 2Q13
Num 11Is 32Ps 26Unidentified 2Q17
Num 12Is 33Ps 27Unidentified 4Q1
Num 13Is 34Ps 28Unidentified 4Q2
Num 15Is 35Ps 29Unidentified 4Q5
Num 16Is 36Ps 30Unidentified 4Q9
Num 17Is 37Ps 31Unidentified 4Q11
Num 18Is 38Ps 33Unidentified 4Q14
Num 19Is 39Ps 34Unidentified 4Q17
Num 20Is 40Ps 35Unidentified 4Q20
Num 21Is 41Ps 36Unidentified 4Q23
Num 22Is 42Ps 37Unidentified 4Q24
Num 23Is 43Ps 38Unidentified 4Q25
Num 24Is 44Ps 39Unidentified 4Q27
Num 25Is 45Ps 40Unidentified 4Q30
Num 26Is 46Ps 42Unidentified 4Q32
Num 27Is 47Ps 43Unidentified 4Q33
Num 28Is 48Ps 44Unidentified 4Q36
Num 29Is 49Ps 45Unidentified 4Q37
Num 30Is 50Ps 47Unidentified 4Q38a
Num 31Is 51Ps 48Unidentified 4Q38c
Num 32Is 52Ps 49Unidentified 4Q39
Num 33Is 53Ps 50Unidentified 4Q43
Num 34Is 54Ps 51Unidentified 4Q45
Num 35Is 55Ps 52Unidentified 4Q48
Num 36Is 56Ps 53Unidentified PAM43113
DeuteronomyIs 57Ps 54Unidentified PAM43124
Deut 1Is 58Ps 56Unidentified 4Q53
Deut 2Is 59Ps 59Unidentified 4Q54
Deut 3Is 60Ps 62Unidentified 4Q55
Deut 4Is 61Ps 63Unidentified 4Q56
Deut 5Is 62Ps 66Unidentified 4Q57
Deut 6Is 63Ps 67Unidentified 4Q58
Deut 7Is 64Ps 68Unidentified 4Q59
Deut 8Is 65Ps 69Unidentified 4Q60
Deut 9Is 66Ps 71Unidentified 4Q68
Deut 10JeremiahPs 76Unidentified 4Q70
Deut 11Jer 4Ps 77Unidentified 4Q72
Deut 12Jer 6Ps 78Unidentified 4Q76
Deut 13Jer 7Ps 81Unidentified 4Q77
Deut 14Jer 8Ps 82Unidentified 4Q78
Deut 15Jer 9Ps 83Unidentified 4Q80
Deut 16Jer 10Ps 84Unidentified 4Q83
Deut 17Jer 11Ps 85Unidentified 4Q84
Deut 18Jer 12Ps 86Unidentified 4Q85
Deut 19Jer 13Ps 88Unidentified 4Q88
Deut 20Jer 14Ps 89Unidentified 4Q91
Deut 21Jer 15Ps 91Unidentified 4Q99
Deut 22Jer 17Ps 92Unidentified 4Q106
Deut 23Jer 18Ps 93Unidentified 4Q112
Deut 24Jer 19Ps 94Unidentified 4Q113
Deut 25Jer 20Ps 95Unidentified 4Q115
Deut 26Jer 21Ps 96Unidentified 4Q118
Deut 27Jer 22Ps 97Unidentified 5Q3
Deut 28Jer 24Ps 98Unidentified 5Q4
Deut 29Jer 25Ps 99Unidentified 5Q6
Deut 30Jer 26Ps 100Unidentified 6Q4
Deut 31Jer 27Ps 101Unidentified 6Q7
Deut 32Jer 30Ps 102Unidentified 8Q2
Deut 33Jer 31Ps 103Unidentified 8Q3
Deut 34Jer 33Ps 104Unidentified 11Q1
JoshuaJer 42Ps 105Unidentified 11Q2
Josh 1Jer 43Ps 106Unidentified 11Q3
Josh 2Jer 44Ps 107Unidentified 11Q4
Josh 3Jer 46Ps 109Unidentified 11Q5
Josh 4Jer 47Ps 112Unidentified 11Q6
Josh 5Jer 48Ps 113Unidentified 11Q8
Josh 6Jer 49Ps 114Unidentified Mur1
Josh 7Jer 50Ps 115Unidentified Mur88
Josh 8Unidentified 5/6Hev1a
Josh 10Unidentified 5/6Hev1b
Josh 17Unidentified XHev/Se2
Unidentified XJudges
Unidentified X4

How to use this publication?


The contents of this online publication is identical to that of the Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Library Biblical Texts CD-ROM, published by Brill and Brigham Young University in 1999. Its interface is different.

The contents consists of

  1. the Hebrew Biblical texts in the Dead Sea Scrolls
  2. an English translation, based not on individual fragments but on all extant fragments that form a particular Masoretic book (or part thereof); it is equally based on the Masoretic text for those parts that are missing in the Dead Sea Scrolls
  3. the Hebrew text from the oldest extant manuscript of the Masorah, the Codex Leningradensis
In addition, there are
  1. a general introduction to the Dead Sea Scrolls Biblical Texts
  2. an introduction to the translation, followed by further explanations and a bibliography
  3. a large inventory of pertinent information, such as photographs and provenance, for each fragment
  4. an index of manuscripts and an index of images


The interface of Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Library Biblical Texts Online is different from the CD-ROM because it is adapted to Brill's online platform for reference works, BrillOnline Reference Works.

The publication is divided into entries.


One type of entry gives, for each Dead Sea Scrolls text, the Hebrew (and sometimes Aramaic), an English translation, and the corresponding passage from the Codex Leningrad. These three texts are placed beside each other for easy comparison.

The entry is ordered by fragment (or sometimes column), and each fragment has a photograph, mostly from the collection of the then Palestine Antiquities Museum (now known as the Rockefeller Museum).The photograph allows comparison with the diplomatic edition of the Hebrew text. Click on a photograph to expand it in a window on the current page; right-click and select "Open link in new window" (or similar wordings) to open the photograph at maximum size in a new window. That window can be positioned next to the transcription and translation of the text in your current window, enabling side-by-side comparison.

Note that the numbers preceding the Hebrew text are the lines numbers; Hebrew bible books and verses may be found in superscript.

Philologically certain text is rendered in black; uncertain text is an orange/brown colour. Reconstructed text is placed between square brackets.

The other type of entry gives, for each verse of a book of the Hebrew Bible, all extant fragments. In many cases, only one example of a Biblical passage can be found in the Dead Sea Scrolls, but in numerous other instances, there are several copies, sometime more than a dozen. These copies are presented below each other.

Note that the numbers preceding the translation are verse numbers. The same applies to the text of the Codex Leningrad.


Users of Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Library Biblical Texts Online can navigate from one entry to the next (or the previous) by clicking on the navigation arrows at the top and bottom of every entry. The upward arrow leads to the list of entries. This is either the list of Dead Sea Scrolls Biblical Texts ordered by cave and text number, in the case of the entries with the diplomatic editon, translation and Codex Leningrad text, or the list of Dead Sea Scrolls Biblical Texts ordered by the books of the Hebrew Bible.

Both lists can also be found under the tabs Cave Order and Masoretic Text Order on the homepage of the publication, which is where you are now.

Besides a short description of the publication, there are two other tabs on the homepage, one links to the scholarly introduction to Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Library Biblical Texts as a whole and to the explanations pertaining to the translation, the other is the how-to you are reading right now.


At the top of every page on BrillOnline Reference Works, there is a search field. This searches both content (full text) and metadata.

The search results are ordered by relevance (as determined by the search algorithms). Re-ordering from old to new or vice-versa is possible. Click on a search result to open the entry. Use back space to return to your search results, or navigate to the next (or previous) result using the arrows at the very top of the entry.

Advanced Search is not a useful option for this publication.

Blue Text

All entries contain hyperlinks (blue text). Such links can be found in the entry table of contents, for navigation to other parts of the entry. There are also hyperlinks to other entries. Entries with text and translation will often refer to entries with text copies, and vice-versa.

Sometimes a blue text will not be a hyperlink; instead, clicking on such a blue term brings up a list of search results, all entries contains that terms. This is useful, for example, to get a complete overview of all Dead Sea Scrolls texts that contain a certain Hebrew Bible passage, or an overview of all PAM photographs of a certain fragment.


Please refer to the platform's help section for more detailed information about Search and other features. There are also dedicated Help sections for Scholars and Librarians.

Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Library Biblical Texts: Alternative Format

Note that Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Library Biblical Texts is also available from Brigham Young University. Not in the form of a CD-ROM, but as a set of electronic books which can be read and linguistically analysed through the WordCruncher software. Please contact Brigham Young to download the software and the books.