Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible Online

Get access Subject: Biblical Studies and Early Christianity
Edited by: Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking and Pieter W. van der Horst

The Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible Online contains academic articles on the named gods, angels, and demons in the books of the Hebrew Bible, Septuagint and Apocrypha, as well as the New Testament and patristic literature. This online version contains the second extensively revised edition.

More information: Brill.com

Vampire עלוקה

(363 words)

Author(s): R. S. Hendel
I. Name The noun ʿălûqâ occurs once in MT, in a proverbial expression in Prov.

Vanities הבלים

(568 words)

Author(s): B. Becking
I. Name In Deuteronomistic religious polemics and related texts, ‘vanities’ ( hebelîm) indicate images of non-Yahwistic deities. It is impossible to establish the identity of the deities involved (Preuss 1971:160–164). Etymologically, hebel is related to words for ‘breath; vapour and nullity’. II. Identity Since it is not clear to which deities the term hebelîm refers, their character cannot be described. It is characteristic of the orthodox form of the Yahwistic religion in ancient Israel to designate ‘other deities’ in a disparaging way. This has no counterpart in other ancient Near Eastern cultures. The Assyrians depict the deities of the people conquered as ‘their deities’ or ‘the gods in which they trusted’ (Sargon II; …


(572 words)

Author(s): B. Becking
I. Name The name of the Jebusite Araunah, Heb. ʾărawnāʾ ( 2 Sam.

Vashti ושׁתי

(466 words)

Author(s): F. van Koppen | K. van der Toorn
I. Name Jensen 1892:62 suggested that the name of Queen Vashti, the spouse of Ahasuerus in Est. 1.9 (cf. Est. 1.11, Est. 12, Est. 15, Est. 16, Est. 17, Est. 19; Est. 2.1, Est. 4, Est. 17), is related to the presumed Elamite goddess *Wašti (or Mašti). Since there are more plausible explanations to the name Vashti, there is no need to make a link with a goddess whose name was in fact pronounced as Mašti. II. Identity Mašti is an Elamite mother goddess, attested in Middle and New Elamite royal inscriptions and in personal names. The correct reading of the signs dmaš-ti, once read Barti, is pro…