Encyclopaedia Islamica

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: Farhad Daftary and Wilferd Madelung

Encyclopaedia Islamica Online is based on the abridged and edited translation of the Persian Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif-i Buzurg-i Islāmī, one of the most comprehensive sources on Islam and the Muslim world. A unique feature of the Encyclopaedia Islamica Online lies in the attention given to Shiʿi Islam and its rich and diverse heritage. In addition to providing entries on important themes, subjects and personages in Islam generally, Encyclopaedia Islamica Online offers the Western reader an opportunity to appreciate the various dimensions of Shiʿi Islam, the Persian contribution to Islamic civilization, and the spiritual dimensions of the Islamic tradition.

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ʿAbd Allāh b. Saʿd

(1,647 words)

Author(s): Fatehi-nezhad, Enayatollah | Qasemi, Jawad
ʿAbd Allāh b. Saʿd b. Abī Sarḥ al-ʿĀmirī, Abū Yaḥyā (d. 35 or 36/656), Companion of the Prophet, governor of Egypt, a commander in the army of the caliph ʿUthmān and the conqueror of Ifrīqiya. He belonged to the ʿĀmir b. Luʾayy, a clan of the Quraysh, from which his nisba al-ʿĀmirī derives (Ibn Saʿd, 7/496; al-Balādhurī, Ansāb, 11/19; see also Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, 3/918). ʿAbd Allāh embraced Islam and joined the Prophet in Medina before the conquest of Mecca (Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, 3/918). He was the first individual from the Quraysh to be appointed by the Pr…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Salām

(1,284 words)

Author(s): Manouchehri, Faramarz Haj | Lahouti, Hassan
ʿAbd Allāh b. Salām, Abū Yūsuf ʿAbd Allāh b. Salām b. al-Ḥārith al-Isrāʾīlī al-Khazrajī al-Anṣārī (d. 43/663), one of the Prophet's Companions. He came from a Jewish tribe, the Banū Qaynuqāʿ, in Medina, and was an ally of the Khazraj tribe (al-Kalābādhī, 1/390; Ibn Manjawayh, 1/344–345; al-Ṣanʿānī, 6/54). ʿAbd Allāh was a scholar of the Jewish religion and recognised as a rabbi ( ḥabr) (al-Ṭabarī, 19/113, 143; al-Ikhtiṣāṣ, 43; Taʾrīkh, 2/230; al-Qurṭubī, 6/13). He apparently lived in one of the Jewish settlements outside the city of Medina (al-Bayhaqī, 2/459). So…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Sinān

(888 words)

Author(s): Ghaffari, Mahdi | Negahban, Farzin
ʿAbd Allāh b. Sinān, was an Imāmī jurist ( faqīh) and traditionist ( muḥaddith), as well as a companion of Jaʿfar b. Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq. Imāmī sources of ḥadīth, law ( fiqh), ethics, and exegesis ( tafsīr) quote him widely. His family were among the clients ( mawālī) of the Banū Hāshim (al-Najāshī, 2/8–9). His father was a companion of Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Bāqir and Jaʿfar b. Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq, respectively the fifth and sixth Shiʿi imams (see al-Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, 137). Al-Najāshī (2/8), who names Ṭarīf as ʿAbd Allāh's grandfather, seems to have confused ʿAbd Allāh's father …

ʿAbd Allāh b. Ubayy

(1,281 words)

Author(s): Bahramian, Ali | Negahban, Farzin
ʿAbd Allāh b. Ubayy, Abū Ḥubāb (d. Dhū al-Qaʿda 9/February 631), was a leading member of the tribe of Khazraj, from the town of Medina (Yathrib), who attained notoriety as a hypocrite ( munāfiq) after the advent of Islam. He was from the Banū Awf branch of the tribe of Khazraj (Ibn al-Kalbī, 1/414, 417). The name of his paternal grandmother, Salūl, usually appears after that of his father's in his lineage (Ibn Hishām, 2/89; Ibn Saʿd, 3/540; al-Balādhurī, Futūḥ, 92). Some time before the Prophet's migration ( hijra) to Medina, ʿAbd Allāh b. Ubayy was regarded as one of the leaders o…

ʿAbd Allāh Bukhārī

(776 words)

Author(s): Yadollah Gholami
ʿAbd Allāh Bukhārī was a painter of the 10th/16th century. Due to the lack of information on his life, we are obliged to confine ourselves purely to a study of his works. Among ʿAbd Allāh Bukhārī's favourite subjects were portraits of couples seated in a garden. These paintings reflect the influence of the Herat school during the 9th/15th to 10th/16th centuries, which was especially popular in Bukhārā. It is said that some of his paintings follow the style of Bihzād and other artists of Herat (Sou…
Date: 2017-04-21

ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUmar

(3,017 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Lahouti, Hassan
ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUmar, Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (ca. 11 before hijra–73/611–692), was a son of ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb, and a famous Companion of the Prophet. He embraced Islam as a child and was 10 years old, or perhaps younger, when he accompanied his father on the hijra to Medina. He was 15 when he took part in the battle of Khandaq (‘the Trench’). From then on he was present at important events, such as the battle of Muʾta, the Bayʿat al-riḍwān (‘the oath of good pleasure’, see Q 48:18) and the conquest of Mecca (al-Wāqidī, 2/453, 488 et passim; Ibn Saʿd, 4/142–143; Ibn ʿAbd al-Bar…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Wahb al-Rāsibī

(1,678 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Negahban, Farzin
ʿAbd Allāh b. Wahb al-Rāsibī (d. 38/658) one of the leaders of the first ¶ Khārijīs who opposed arbitration of the battle of Ṣiffīn between ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib and Muʿāwiya. He was from the Banū Rāsib, a branch of the Azd tribe (al-Ṭabarī, 5/186; Ibn Ḥajar, 5/100). There are a few reports about his life prior to the period of the arbitration. According to Ibn Ḥajar, who includes him among those personages connected with the Companions of the Prophet, he actually met the Prophet (Ibn Ḥajar, 5/100); on the other h…

ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr

(4,082 words)

Author(s): Bahramian, Ali | Lahouti, Hassan
ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr, Abū Bakr or Abū Ḥabīb (2–73/624–692), a major figure in early Islamic history. He declared himself caliph, and for a while he was recognised as such by the opponents of the Umayyads in various parts of the Islamic territories. His father, al-Zubayr b. al-ʿAwwām, who is regarded as one of the most famous Companions of the Prophet, was from the Qurayshī clan of Banū Asad (see Ibn Qudāma, 255). ʿAbd Allāh was the first person to be born in Medina to the Emigrants from Mecca ( muhājirūn) (Khalīfa, 1/25; al-Ṭabarī, 2/389, 400, 401; Ibn ʿAsākir, 28/145 ff.). His mo…

ʿAbd Allāh Shīrāzī

(800 words)

Author(s): Gholami, Yadollah | Negahban, Farzin
ʿAbd Allāh Shīrāzī was a Ṣafawid painter. Extant sources suggest that ʿAbd Allāh was connected to Abū al-Fatḥ Ibrāhīm b. Bahrām, ḥākim (governor) of Mashhad and nāẓir (supervisor) of the Library of Imam Riḍā's shrine, from the time of the latter's appointment in 964/1557 until his assassination twenty years later on 6 Dhū al-Ḥijja 984/24 February 1577 at Qazwīn (Qummī, 148; Soucek, 205). ʿAbd Allāh, who was apparently an intimate companion of Sulṭān Ibrāhīm Mīrzā, joined the atelier of the Ṣafawid king Ismāʿīl II after ¶ Ibrāhīm Mīrzā's death. Ismāʿīl died on 15 Ramaḍān 985/26 No…

ʿAbdān

(1,241 words)

Author(s): Mazaheri, Mas‘ud Habibi | Lahout, Hassan
ʿAbdān (d. 286/899), one of the most celebrated early Ismaili dāʿīs (summoner), author, and the chief assistant of Ḥamdān b. al-Ashʿath, known as Qarmaṭ, who led the Ismaili daʿwa (mission) in Iraq and southern parts of Persia. In some sources (Ibn Ḥawqal, 258), ʿAbdān is referred to by the laqab ‘al-Kātib’ (the scribe), and he is known to have been Ḥamdān Qarmaṭ's brother-in-law (see Ibn Ḥawqal, 258; Ibn al-Nadīm, 239; Ibn al-Dawādārī, 6/46). Nothing is known of ʿAbdān's life, nor of how or when he formally entered the Ismaili daʿwa. In his Zubdat al-tawārīkh (p. 19) Abū al-Qāsim Kāshā…

Al-ʿAbdarī, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad

(776 words)

Author(s): Saheb, Nooshin | Poor, Daryoush Mohammad
Al-ʿAbdarī, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Muḥammad, was a man of letters, poet and traditionist of the Mālikī school. Despite his fame as the author of a travelogue entitled al-Riḥla al-Maghribiyya, a classic of Maghribi literature, there is no accurate information on the date of his birth, death or other details of his life (al-Fāsī, ?; Krachkovskiì, 366). According to some Orientalists, he came from Valencia, a city on the eastern coast of al-Andalus, while others regard him as a native of Mogador (Mughādīr, nowadays al-Ṣuwayra, Essaouira) in the western Maghrib (see al-Fāsī, ?-?; Ziyāda…

ʿAbd al-ʿAẓīm al-Ḥasanī

(7,191 words)

Author(s): Mesgar, Sara Haji Husseini | Lahouti, Hassan | Sajjadi, Sadeq
ʿAbd al-ʿAẓīm al-Ḥasanī, Abū al-Qāsim b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAlī, a mid-3rd/9th century Shiʿi traditionist. All the genealogists give his name and nisba (lineage) as ʿAbd al-ʿAẓīm b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAlī al-Sadīd b. al-Ḥasan b. Zayd b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib (al-Bukhārī, 24; Ibn ʿInaba, 93; al-Najāshī, 248). There is very little information on his life, but the date of his birth may be reckoned to be sometime around 170–175/787–791, given that he related traditions from some of Mūsā al-Kāẓim's companions, all of whom had died before 190/806 (Ibn Bābawayh, al-Amālī, 85; idem, al-Khiṣāl, 414…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Abī Rawwād

(1,556 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Gholami, Rahim
ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Abī Rawwād, Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (d. 159/776), a famous Meccan scholar in the fields of ḥadīth and ethics ( akhlāq). His father's name is recorded as ‘Maymūn’ or ‘Ayman’. He was a client ( mawlā) of Mughīra b. al-Muhallab, one of the Azdī notables of the Umayyad period. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz grew up in a family of traditionists and in addition to his father, other members of his clan were eager to acquire knowledge (Ibn Saʿd, 5/493; Ibn Zabr, 159; Ibn Mākūlā, 4/105). Taking into consideration what is said about his lifespan …

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ʿUthmānī

(1,516 words)

Author(s): Dianat, Ali Akbar | Negahban, Farzin
ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ʿUthmānī (1245–1293/1830–1876) was the thirty-second Ottoman sultan and the son of sultan Maḥ- mūd (Meḥmet) II. He was born in Istanbul's Ayyūb district on 15 Shaʿbān 1245/9 ¶ February 1830 (Karal, 7/1). He was nine when his father died in 1254/1839, and his brother ʿAbd al-Majīd, the new sultan, undertook the task of educating ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, his crown prince. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz did not receive an adequate education for his time; his one teacher was Shaykh al-Islām Ḥasan Fahmī who taught him only lexicography and a …

ʿAbd al-Dār, Banū

(2,057 words)

Author(s): Pezeshk, Manouchehr | Umar, Suheyl
ʿAbd al-Dār, Banū, Meccan clan, named after ʿAbd al-Dār, son of Quṣayy b. Kilāb, which was one of the most important clans of the tribe of Quraysh. Its foremost members were in charge of the affairs of Mecca for a considerable period ¶ of time, and were influential in shaping events of social and political significance in the period immediately preceding the advent of Islam. During this period, the function of sadāna (overseeing the Kaʿba, and the opening and locking of its door) was held by the Banū ʿAbd al-Dār (al-Masʿūdī, 8). ʿAbd al-Dār, who was the eldest son of Quṣayy b. Kilāb, i…

ʿAbd al-Ghanī al-Azdī

(1,151 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Qasemi, Jawad
ʿAbd al-Ghanī al-Azdī, Abū Muḥammad b. Saʿīd b. ʿAlī (332–409/944–1018), an Egyptian muḥaddith (traditionist). He was born in Egypt where he spent important periods of his life. When he was six years old he lost his father, who was a man of learning (al-Ḥabbāl, 54, 89; Ibn Mākūlā, 3/85). He began learning ḥadīths early in life, and one of his first masters was ʿUthmān b. Muḥammad al-Samarqandī (d. 345/956) (for further information on the latter, see al-Dhahabī, 15/422). Amongst his masters and teachers one can also name the following: Abū al-Ḥasa…

ʿAbd al-Ghanī al-Maqdisī

(2,018 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Gholami, Rahim
ʿAbd al-Ghanī al-Maqdisī, Taqī al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Wāḥid b. ʿAlī (c. 541–600/1146–1204), was a Ḥanbalī muḥaddith (traditionist) and faqīh (jurist). He was born in Jammāʿīl near Nablus (al-Dhahabī, Siyar, 21/444), but moved with his family to Damascus when very young, where he was brought up and where he spent the rest of his life. As was the custom with muḥaddithūn, after starting his study of ḥadīths in Damascus, ʿAbd al-Ghanī undertook a series of journeys to expand his learning, and left Damascus on many occasions in order to hear ḥadīths. His first trip to Baghdad was i…

ʿAbd al-Ḥakam

(3,754 words)

Author(s): Kasa'i, Nurollah | Umar, Suheyl
ʿAbd al-Ḥakam, a famous and influential family of historians, jurists (sing. faqīh), traditionists (sing. muḥaddith) and scholars during the 2nd and 3rd/8th and 9th centuries, who were the leaders of the Mālikīs in ¶ Egypt. Their forebear, Aʿyan b. al-Layth, migrated from Ḥaql, one of the small townships of Ayla (Eilat) on the Red Sea coast, and settled in Alexandria. There he had a son, Abū ʿUthmān ʿAbd al-Ḥakam, who subsequently amassed a large fortune and became a man of wealth and prestige. All the members of the ʿAbd al-Ḥak…

ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd b. Yaḥyā (al-Kātib)

(2,582 words)

Author(s): Azarnoosh, Azartash | Poor, Daryoush Mohammad
ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd b. Yaḥyā (al-Kātib) the freed slave of al-ʿAlāʾ b. Wahb al-ʿĀmirī (al-ʿĀmir b. Luʾayy) (d. 132/750), was the first great scribe ( kātib, dabīr) of Islam. The information here about him is based on the following sources: some reports concerning his origin and birthplace; various accounts of his aphorisms; minor epistolary writings of some literary merit, most of which were ¶ sent from the domain governed by the caliph Marwān; a number of contradictory accounts that contain historical errors concerning his death; and a plethora of reports which quote the texts of his letters. T…

ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd I (Abdülhamid)

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Dianat, Ali Akbar | Negahban, Farzin
ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd I (Abdülhamid) (1137–1203/1725–1789) was the twenty-seventh Ottoman sultan and son of Sultan Aḥmad (Ahmet) III. He was born in Istanbul, and was just five years of age when his father, Sultan Aḥmad III, was deposed in a popular rebellion led by Khalīl Pātrūnā (Patrona Halil) (Hammer-Purgstall, 8/430–433). Most of his life was therefore spent, in accordance with Ottoman custom, under supervision and in a special residence for deposed monarchs (Shaw, 1/251; Aktepe, 213). When Sultan Muṣ…
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