Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(107 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p. — z. āp-em), water; metaphorically, eclat, splendor, freshness. — River. The word is often used either at the beginning or at the end, in the composition of geographical names. — [Comp. māʾ.] Āb-i ḥayāt, fount of immortality (Barbier de Meynard, Boustan, p. 172, note 2). — Āb-anbār, a supply of water, a reservoir in which water is always kept fresh (J. Dieulafoy, Perse, p. 100). — Āb-dār, a servant whose business it is to prepare drinks (J. Dieulafoy, loc. cit., p. 169); an official who gives the prince water to drink or to wash with (Ch. Schefer, Siasset-Nameh, p. 142, note 1). (Cl. Huart)


(62 words)

Author(s): Mahler, E.
, or Ab, the name of the fifth or eleventh month respectively in the calendars of the Jews, Syrians, &c. In its Syro-Roman use the month Āb corresponds to the sixth month ( Ag̲h̲ostos) of the Turkish Mālīye (i. e. the financial and civil) year, that is to say the month of August in the Julian calendar. [See taʾrīk̲h̲.] (E. Mahler)


(5 words)

(a.). [See Abū.]


(537 words)

Author(s): Marçais, W.
( ʿabāʾa, ʿabāya), the name of a kind of dress used by the Arabs. Native lexicographers generally give to ʿabāʾ the value of a collective name, of which ʿabāʾa, or ʿabāya (both forms are old) would be the form of unity. ʿAbāʾ, however, has already been used by classic writers with the meaning of unity, and the word has thus subsisted in the dialects of Mesopotamia) of Arabia and even of Egypt. It is also in the form of ʿabāʾ that the Turks have borrowed it, though they discard the initial guttural ( ābā). On the other hand, ʿabāya is the word now generally employed when speaking of the extre…


(1,757 words)

Author(s): Vollers, K.
( ʿAbābida), a highland people chiefly nomadic in their habits, dispersed between the Nile and the Red Sea, who extend north as far as the latitude of Asiūṭ and south to the tropics and even further in the valley of the Nile. An inveterate antipathy separates the ʿAbābde from their northern neighbors, the Maʿʿāza, and from their southern neighbors, the Bis̲h̲ārīye. To this antipathy is added, with regard to the former their descent and, to the latter, their language. Their name appears to be deri…


(66 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p. — pehl. āpātān, from a hypothetical * ā- pāta), a Persian adjective signifying “flourishing“, speaking of a tract of land, and, subsequently, „inhabited, cultivated“ as opposed to „desert“; after that it is used as a substantive and appears in the composition of the names of a great number of places, such as Ruknābād, and of towns, especially in India: Aḥmedābād, Ḥaidarābād (Hyderabad), etc. (Cl. Huart)


(182 words)

Author(s): Boer, Tj. de
(a.) is that which has no end, azal, that which has no beginning. The forms abadīya and azalīya are commonly used in theological and philosophical writings. According to orthodox teaching, only God has neither beginning nor end; this world ( dunyā) has both, the next world ( āk̲h̲ira) has a beginning but no end; there is no fourth possibility, that a thing without beginning should have an end. Ḳidam seems to be preferred by the theologians while the philosophers and mystics use azalīya. Ibn Rus̲h̲d even used azalīya also for the endlessness of the world ( Tahāfut al-Tahāfut; see ed. by Bouy…


(19 words)

(a.), a theological term signifying an eternity which is without end, but not without beginning. [Comp. azal.] ¶


(155 words)

Author(s): Streck, M.
, or Abād̲h̲ah, a town in Persia situated on the road from Iṣṭak̲h̲r to Iṣpahān. Mention of it is found in oriental writings of the Middle Ages; see G. le Strange, The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate (Cambridge, 1905) pp. 282, 284, 297. At the present time it contains about 5000 inhabitants; comp. Reclus, Nouv. géogr. univ., ix. 270. Celebrated for the Persian wood carvings produced there; see Brugsch, Reise der Kgl. Preuss. Gesandtsch. nach Persien (Leipsic, 1862—1863), ii. 126, 222. — Arab geographers mention another Persian town of the same name situated in the distr…


(786 words)

Author(s): de Motylinski, A.
In Northern Africa this name [see ibāḍites] is used to designate a branch of the Ḵh̲awārid̲j̲ which separated from ʿAlī when he accepted arbitration with Muʿāwiya. In the first half of the second century of the Hegira, Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ism in an Abāḍite and Ṣofrite form was introduced in the Mag̲h̲rib, it developed rapidly amongst the Berbers and became the national doctrine, which served as a pretext for the struggle between the African and the orthodox Arabs. The Abāḍites of Tripoli and of Ifrīḳīya under the guidance ot their principal Imāms, Abu ’I-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb and Abū Ḥātim […


(582 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, second Mongol (Ilk̲h̲ān) prince of Persia (1265—1282), born in Mongolia in March 1234. He came to Persia with his father Hūlāgū [q. v.] in 1256, and, after the death of the latter, was elected as prince by the representatives of this dynasty; five years later, the great k̲h̲ān Ḵh̲ubilai confirmed his election. The struggle with the Mamlūks of Egypt, begun by Hūlāgū, was continued by Abāḳā, but unsuccessfully, although the Mongols of Kipčāk, who had formerly been allied with the Mamlūks, had at…


(197 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. ʿOt̲h̲mān b. ʿAffan, governor, son of the third caliph. His mother was called Umm ʿAmr bint Ḏj̲undab b. ʿAmr al-Dawsīya. Abān accompanied ʿĀʾis̲h̲a at the battle of the Camel in Ḏj̲umādā I 36 (November 656); on the battle terminating otherwise than was expected, he was one of the first to run away. On the whole, he does not seem to have been of any political importance. The caliph ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān appointed him as governor of Medina. He occupied this position for seven years; he was then …


(52 words)

b. ʿOt̲h̲mān b. ʿAffān. According to Yāḳūt ( Irs̲h̲ād al-Arīb, ed. Margoliouth, i. 36) and al-Ṭūsī ( Fihris, ed. Sprenger, in Bibliotheca Indica, N°. 60, p. 7), it was not this Abān but Abān b. ʿOt̲h̲mān b. Yaḥyā who composed the Kitāb al-Mag̲h̲āzī; see Horovitz, in O. L. Z., 1914, p. 183.


(247 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M. Th.
b. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd ( Fihr.: Ḥumaid) al-Lāḥiḳī (i. e. son of Lāḥiḳ b. ʿUfair), also known as al-Raḳās̲h̲ī, because his family was under the patronage of the Banū Raḳās̲h̲, Arab poet, died in the year 200 (815-816). He was a friend of the Barmakides, for whom he put into verse the Kalīla wa-Dimna [q. v.]. He applied ¶ himself also to the same kind of work with other writings, particularly Persian and Hindoo: e. g. Sīrat Ards̲h̲īr, Sīrat Anūs̲h̲irwān, Kitāb Bilawhar wa-Būdāsif, Kitāb Sindbād, and Kitāb Mazdak. Besides this he wrote a cosmogonical poem entitled Ḏh̲āt al-Ḥulal, a work on the wisdom ( ḥi…


(54 words)

Author(s): Mahler, E.
(p.), name of the eighth month of the moveable solar year of the Persians, as well as, in the same calendar, of the tenth day of each month. To prevent confusion the month is called „Ābān- Māh“ (the month of Ābān) and the day „Ābān- Rūz“ (the day of Ābān). [See taʾrīk̲h̲.] (E. Mahler)


(422 words)

Author(s): Hell, J.
(variants: ābinūs, ābunūs, abnūs and ābnus), ebony. This word is derived from the Greek ʾἔβενοΣ (comp. also the Hebrew hoben, the old Egyptian haben) which passed to the Aramean ( abnūsā) and from there to the Persian, Arabic, Turkish and other languages. Although ebony had been already well known in the old days by the Semites, who imported it from India and Ethiopia, it was very liitle used at the early times of Islām, on account of its rarity and the scanty requirements of artistic goods. Absolute faith must not be given …


(157 words)

Author(s): Streck, M.
, or Barḳobād̲h̲, a district of the Babylonian department of the Tigris, a tract of land along the western frontier of Ahwāz (Ḵh̲ūzistān), between Wāsiṭ on the north and Baṣra on the south; see Streck, Babylonien nach dem Arab. Geogr. (Leyden, 1906), i. 15, 19. The name of this country is derived from that of the Sāsānide king Kawād̲h̲ I (Ḳobād̲h̲; reigned from 488 to 531 A. D.); at any rate the first part of the name is Abar and not Abaz (nor Abād̲h̲), as the Arab geographers give it; comp. Nöldeke, Gesch. der Perser u. Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden (Leyden, 1879), p. 146, note 2. The Persian abar, or a…


(124 words)

Author(s): Streck, M.
, a town in Persia, north of Iṣṭak̲h̲r, about halfway between that town and Yezd. Another form of the name is Abarḳūya; the abbreviation Barḳūh (also Warḳūh) is often met with. In the Middle Ages the population of Abarḳūh was about the third of that of Iṣṭak̲h̲r; comp. P. Schwarz, Iran im Mittelalter nach den arab, Geogr. (Leipsic, 1896), i. 17 et seq., and G. le Strange, The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate (Cambridge, 1905), pp. 284 et seq., 294, 297. It still exists under the name of Abargūh; see A. de Bode in the Journ. of the Roy. Geogr. Soc. (London), 1843, p. 78, and H. L. Wells, in Proceed, of the …


(232 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
ʿAmīd al-Dīn Asʿad b. Naṣr al-Anṣārī, poet and minister to Saʿd b. Zengī, the atābeg of Fārs, a native of Abarz, a canton of this province (Luṭf ʿAlī Beg, Ātes̲h̲-Kede, p. 8), now Abard̲j̲, north of S̲h̲īrāz (Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Mīrzā Ḥasan ¶ Fesāī, Fārs-Name-i Nāṣirī, S̲h̲īrāz, 1313 = 1895-1896, ii. 170). He was sent by his master the atābeg as an ambassador to the sultan Muḥammed Ḵh̲wārizm-S̲h̲āh, refused the offers which were made to him, succeeded Rukn al-Dīn Ṣalāḥ Kirmānī as minister and held his position until the death of the atābeg Saʿd. The son and successor…
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