Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(14 words)

, the Ottoman-Turkish pronunciation of Abū [q. v., i. 73b et seq.].


(390 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, the capital of a district in the eastern province of Seville in Spain with 25,000 inhabitants, is picturesquely situated on the left bank of the lower course of the Genil, which is navigable below it, in a torrid valley, — whence it is called el Sarten de España “the bakehouse of Spain”; its streets are narrow and its church towers (formerly minarets) covered with azulejos. It is the ancient Iberian Astigi of which the Arabs made Istid̲j̲a, Estid̲j̲a (rarely Essid̲j̲a in this period) whence is derived the Spanish Écija (st > c, z, as in Basti, Basṭa, Baza; Caesaraugusta, …


(296 words)

Author(s): Graefe, E.
(Ūdfū, Ūtfū), a town on the west bank of the Nile, the Apollonopolis Magna of the Greeks and Romans, about halfway between Thebes and Assuan, the capital of ¶ the district of Edfu in the province of Nubia. The name goes back to the Egyptian Tbōt, Coptic Atbō. The place is chiefly celebrated for its temple of Horus built in the Ptolemaic period but this, which in course of time became buried in ruins, is rarely mentioned in Muhammadan literature. An archaeological note is given by Maḳrīzī, who says that in the viiith century a female figure of stone was dug up there; she was represented…


(2,229 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
(Gr. ‘ΑδριανούπολιΣ, Engl. Adrianople, Fr. Andrinople, in Idrīsī, transl. Jaubert, ii. 383 ) was taken from the Byzantines in 763 = 1362 with the surrounding country by the Ottomans under Murād I. The Turkish sources give 761, 762 and 763 a. h. as the date of its capture and the statements of western writers on the point are equally divergent and indefinite; Jirecek in his Geschichte der Bulgaren, p. 328, decided on 1363 but Murād I’s letter on his victory of the beginning of Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 763 = end of August 1362 in Feridūn, Muns̲h̲iyāti Selāṭīn, i. 91 et seq., suggests 763 = 1362 as the dat…


(15 words)

, the Turkish pronunciation of the Arabic Ad̲j̲nabī, “stranger” [q. v., i. 141b].


(286 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, the capital of a Ḳaẓā of the Sand̲j̲aḳ of Karasi in the Wilāyet of Brusa, with a population of Turks and Greeks (c. 8000 souls in all of whom 2000 are Greeks, in 1883 houses), is situated 5-6 miles inland from the port of Aḳčai in the uppermost corner of the Gulf of Edremid. The ruins oi the ancient Adraniyttion (’Ατραμύτ(τ)ιον, ’Αδραμύντιον in the Byzantine authors, in Idrīsī) are at Ḳaratas̲h̲ on the sea near the Skala of Kemer-Edremid. Atramyttion was destroyed by the Turcoman ΤζαχᾶΣ who had established himself in Smyrna since 1090, and after it had been …


(179 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, an Ottoman-Turkish word borrowed from the Byzantine Greek ἀφέντηΣ (Du Cange), derived from the ancient Greek αὐθέντηΣ “sir, master”, a legal term (used by Phrynicus, Polybius and even Euripides with this meaning). This name is given to men who have had a liberal education; ordinary people and subordinate officers are called Ag̲h̲a (Aa by elision of the velar) they receive the title Efendi when they have completed their literary education. Efendim (abbreviated familiarly and jokingly to Efem), “Sir”, “madam”. The Ḳāḍī of Constantinople is also called Istambol Efendisi. The Raʾīs-Efe…


(300 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, the capital in a Ḳaẓā of the Sand̲j̲aḳ of Ḥamīdābād in the Wilāyet of Ḳōniya, situated on a tongue of land at the south end of the lake of Egerdir, with a few thousand inhabitants, all Muhammadans; on the adjacent island of Nisi (Νησί), Turkish Nisin, Nīs adasi with a monastery live about 1000 Turkish-speaking Greeks. The town presumably fell into the hands of the Sald̲j̲ūḳs at the same time as the district of Isparta, which Kilid̲j̲ Arslān III conquered (600-601 a. h.) (see Houtsma, Recueil etc., iii. 62); its citadel which is now destroyed is said to have been built by Kaiḳub…


(200 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R.
, the capital of a Ḳaẓā containing about 60,000 people in the Sand̲j̲aḳ of Ḵh̲arput in the Wilāyet of Maʿmūrat al-Azīz, occupies a picturesque site about 3000 feet above sea-level in a wooded hollow, where the river widens, on the right bank of the Ḳara Ṣu or western Euphrates, N. E. of ʿArab-kīr surrounded by a crescent of hills 1300 feet high, down whose sides fall numerous streams. The town is believed to have been founded in the xith century by Armenians from Waspurakān (see St. Martin, Mémoire sur l’Arménie, i. 189). So recent a writer as Von Moltke still describes it as a stro…


(134 words)

, German Erlau, archbishopric and the political centre of the Hevesian comitate in Hungary, was in Turkish hands from 1576 to 1687. It is particularly celebrated for its heroic and successful defence under Stephan Dobo from the 9th Sept. to the 18th Oct. 1552 against overwhelming forces under the Vizier Aḥmed (Von Hammar, Gesch. d. Osm. Reiches, iii. 307 et seq.; Jorga, Gesch. d. Osm. Reiehes, iii. 243). It was not till 1596 that the Turks, in the reign of Meḥemed III, succeeded in taking it (v. Hammer, op. cit. iv. 262 et seq.; Jorga, op. cit. iii. 321 et seq.). In 1687 the town surrendered t…


(6 words)

[See ararat i. 420b.]


(4 words)

[See Ḵh̲edīw.]


(21,202 words)

Author(s): Becker, C. H.
The name Egypt — the etymology is more correctly preserved in the German form Ägypten — is derived from the Greek ΑἴγυπτοΣ of which only the abbreviation Ḳibṭ survived into the Muhammadan period as the name of the inhabitants of the country. The land itself is known by the old Semitic name the Arabic form of which is Miṣr; from this the colloquial language has made Masr. The Muslim conquest began at the end of the year 18 = 639. From that year to the present day Egypt has been one of the centres of the political, cultural…