Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Fāʾ

(62 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, the twentieth letter of the Arabic alphabet (numerical value 80; cf. the article abd̲j̲ad i. 68b et seq.). On the evolution of the character see the article arabia, arabic language, i. 383b. Fāʾ is pronounced at the present day as it was, in old Arabic, viz. as a voiceless labiodental aspirate. Cf. A. Schaade, Sībawaihi’s Laullekre, Index. (A. Schaade)

Fadak

(240 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Demin. Fudaik), a town in Arabia not far from Ḵh̲aibar [q. v.] and like the latter inhabited by Jews. In the year 6 = 627 Muḥammed sent ʿAlī, afterwards Caliph, against Fadak as he had learned that the people of the latter town were going to support the Jews in Ḵh̲aibar. When Ḵh̲aibar was taken in the following year, the Jews of Fadak also submitted and agreed to give up half of their possessions. Muḥaiyiṣa b. Masʿūd conducted the negotiations between the Prophet and the people of Fadak and was …

al-Faḍālī

(164 words)

Author(s): Macdonald, D. B.
, Muḥammad b. S̲h̲āfiʿī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, a Cairene S̲h̲aik̲h̲ born at Munyat Faḍāla near Samannud in the Delta ( Ḵh̲iṭaṭ d̲j̲adīda, ix. p. 2; xvi. p. 80; Bād̲j̲ūrī, Taḥḳīḳ al-maḳām ʿalā kifāyat al-ʿawāmm, p. 9 of ed. of Cairo, 1315) who died in a. h. 1236 ( Cat. of Ḵh̲ediv. Library, ii. p. 39) = a. d. 1821. He appears to be known only as the author of the Kifāyat al-awāmm mitt ʿilm al-kalām and the teacher of the more fertile Bad̲j̲ūrī [q. v.] who added the gloss, mentioned above, to his master’s work. Text and ḥāshiya seem always to go together in the Mss. and editions. A translation of the…

Faddān

(266 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(a.), an Arabic word derived from the Aramaic (cf. Fränkel, Die Aram. Fremdwörter, p. 129), properly 3 yoke of oxen for ploughing a piece of ground, an Egyptian measure of area, varying in size with time and place. According to Lane the faddān a few years before his stay in Egypt (1833—1835) measured about 1.1 acres, while during his stay there it was less than an acre. It was divided into 24 ḳīrāṭ and contained 333 1/3 square ḳaṣaba, the ḳaṣaba (rood) being first reckoned at 24 and later at 22 ḳabḍa. In the time of the French expedition there were three different faddān in use: the f…

Fad̲h̲laka

(16 words)

(a.) “sum, total” from fad̲h̲ālika “and this makes”, at the end of an addition.

Fad̲j̲r

(9 words)

(a.) “Daybreak”, the title of Sūra LXXXIX.

al-Faḍl

(66 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Yaḥyā, a Barmakid, born in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 148 (February 766), governor of Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān, Ṭabarīstān, al-Raiy etc. 176—180(792— 796-797) and of Ḵh̲orāsān 178-179 (794-795— 795-796). On the fall of the Barmakids in 187 (803) he was thrown into prison. He died in confinement in al-Raḳḳa in Ramaḍān 192 or Muḥarram 193 (808). For further details see above i. 665a (article bakmakids). (K. V. Zetterstéen)

al-Faḍl

(200 words)

Author(s): Nazim, M.
b. Aḥmad al-Asfarāʾinī Abu ’l-ʿAbbās, the first wazīr of Sulṭān Maḥmūd of G̲h̲azna, was formerly the Ṣāḥib-i Barīd (Master of the Post) of Marw under the Sāmānids. At the request of Subuktigīn, Amīr Nūḥ b. Manṣūr the Sāmānid sent Faḍl to Nīs̲h̲āpūr in 385 (995) as the wazīr of Maḥmūd who had been appointed to the command of the troops of Ḵh̲urāsān, in the previous year. Faḍl managed the affairs of the expanding empire of Sulṭān Maḥmūd with great tact and ability till 404 (1013), when he was accused of extorting …

al-Faḍl

(521 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Sahl, al-Maʾmūn’s vizier. Al-Faḍl was a native of Persia and did not adopt Islām till 190 (805-806). His family had been strongly recommended to Hārūn by the Barmecides and al-Faḍl b. al-Rabī, their implacable opponent, therefore became a personal enemy of Ibn Sahl. As the former was of Arab origin, the latter was also opposed to him as the representative of the Iranian element, and just as Ibn al-Rabīʿ controlled the one brother, al-Amīn, the other, al-Maʾmūn, was simply a tool in the hands o…

al-Faḍl

(499 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. al-Rabīʿ, al-Amīn’s vizier. A descendant of a Syrian slave manumitted by the Caliph Ot̲h̲mān, al-Faḍl proved himself thoroughly Arab in his attitude and constantly championed the Arab spirit in opposition to the numerous Iranian elements in the ʿAbbāsid empire. His father al-Rabīʿ b. Yūnus had played a part in history as vizier to the two Caliphs al-Manṣūr and al-Mahdī. When Hārūn on his accession gave the Barmecides preferment, al-Faḍl felt himself slighted and became filled with hatred and j…

Faḍl Allāh

(265 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, surnamed Ḥurūfī, founder of the Ḥurūfī sect, born in Astarābād in 740 (1339), was a dervish who shared the religious opinions of the Ḳarmaṭians. He actually seems to ¶ have borrowed the system, which develops a whole theology out of the calculation of the numerical value of the Arabic letters, to which he added the four additional letters of the Persian alphabet [cf. bektās̲h̲, i. 691 et seq.] from the Ismāʿīlis. He was executed in S̲h̲īrwān in 796 (1393) by Mīrāns̲h̲āh, son of Tīmūr. One of his pupils, ʿAlī al-Aʿlā, went to Asia Minor, was received into a Bek…

Faḍl Allāh

(232 words)

, a family of officials in Cairo under the Mamlūks who traced their descent from the Caliph ʿOmār I. so that the individual members are also known by the nisba al-ʿOmarī. The founder of the family was Faḍl Allāh Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn Abu ’l-Maʾāt̲h̲ir b. ʿIzz al-Dīn; one of his sons, S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAbd āl-Wahhāb (died 717 = 1317), was private secretary under Ḳalāwūn, another son, Muḥyi ’l-Dīn Yaḥyā (died 738 = 1337), was likewise private secretary under al-Nāṣir in Damascus, but moved to Cairo in 733(1332-1333). The latter had a…

Faḍl Allāh

(6 words)

[See ras̲h̲īd al-dīn.]

Faḍlī

(769 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
(Foḍlī, Futhalī), the dynastie name of a group of tribes in South Arabia. Besides this name we also find ʿOt̲h̲mānī (ʿUt̲h̲mānī), as the founder of the dynasty, Faḍl, is said to have been of Turkish origin. They are a branch of the Yāfiʿ and formerly bore their name also. The land of the Faḍlī lies between 45° 10′ and 46° 30′ E. Lat. (Greenw.) and has an breadth of 20—30 miles. It is bounded on the south by the Arabian Sea, in the west by Laḥed̲j̲, in the north by Yāfiʿ and in the east by the land of the ʿAwd̲h̲illa and Dat̲h̲īna. In the west …

Fāfīr

(4 words)

[See Ḳirṭās.]

Fag̲h̲fūr

(204 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(avestan bagha-puthra “son of God”) an expression brought to Persia through Farg̲h̲Sna (P. Horn, Asadî’s Lug̲h̲at-i Furs, p. 56) is the designation of the Emperor of China and the translation of the Chinese tien-tsö “Son of heaven” (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, vii. 221, ult.). The Arabs have preserved the form bag̲h̲būr, which is more a western form, but fag̲h̲fūr is also found notably in the Arabic inscription in the cemetery at Zaitnn (Ts’iuan-chou), of the year 723 (1323) which has been discussed by M. van Berchem; in Marco Polo (ed. Yule and Cordier, ii. 145…

Faḥl

(275 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
or Fiḥl, among the Jews Pḥl, called Pella by the Greeks in allusion to the name of the Macedonian town, at the present day the ruins of Faḥil on the western slopes of the land east of Jordan. It belonged to the Decapolis and is particularly celebrated because the Christians went thither on leaving Jerusalem before its destruction; it afterwards belonged to Falaestina Secunda and was the see of a bishop. About six months after the battle of Ad̲j̲nādain in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda of the year 13 (January 635) the…

Faiʾ

(934 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, Th. W.
By this word Muslim scholars in general understand all things which may be taken from the unbelievers “without fighting” and further very often the lands in conquered territories. The name faiʾ is explained from the peculiar expression in the Ḳorʾān, lix, verses 6 and 7. “What God has allowed to return to his apostle” ( mā afāʾa ’llāhu ʿalā rasūlihi). The possessions of the unbelievers which are “returned” to the Muslims form the faiʾ. Verses lix, 6, 8 and 10 of the Ḳorʾān were revealed, according to Muslim tradition, when Muḥammad had resolved not to divide the field…

Faiḍ

(1,969 words)

Author(s): de Boer, Tj.
(a.), effusion, emanation, is much used in the Arabic tradition of neo-Platonism, as a name for the gradual but steadily descending creative development of the world out of God and its maintenance through his providence. No definition ( ḥadd) can be given of God’s being and of his creative activity, but it is possible to describe it in other words ( rasm), e. g. to say: He is the existent one from whom all else emanates ( yafīḍ). For this the philosophers primarily use the expressions of the Ḳurʾān and Tradition ( k̲h̲alḳ, ibdāʿ etc.) interpreted in a spiritual sense ( taʾwīl). At the same time…
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