Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(117 words)

, properly Gabnopert (cf. Abu ’l-Farad̲j̲, Chron. Syr,, ed. Bruns, p. 329 and Καπνίσκερτι Фρουρίον, Cinnamus, i. 8), an Armenian mountain stronghold on the Tekir-Su, a tributary of the Ḏj̲aiḥān, now called Geben and belonging to the ḳazā of Anderīn in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Marʿas̲h̲. Here the kings of Armenia kept their treasures and retired hither in case of need; the last king Leon VI. of Lusignan entrenched himself here in 1374, for example, but had to surrender after a siege of nine months to the Mamlak Sulṭān al-Malik al-As̲h̲raf S̲h̲aʿbān. Bibliography Ritter, Erdkunde, ix. 2, p. 36, 157 Def…


(1,684 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Ḳābis), a town in Southern Tunisia, in 33° 52′ 58″ N. Lat., 10° 4′ 6″ E. Long. (Greenw.), 80 miles south of Sfax and 250 south of Tunis, on the west coast of the Gulf of Gabes or Lesser Syrtis, on the side of a rocky isthmus, which separates the sea from S̲h̲oṭṭ al-Fed̲j̲ed̲j̲. It is the capital of the district of Arad. Gabes includes three settlements; the town of Gabes, a European suburb with 1200 inhabitants of whom 500 are French, and the native villages of Ḏj̲ara (4000 inh.), Chenini (1000) and Menzel (3500). The European town lies on the right bank o…


(1,063 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
(Ḳafṣa), a town in Tunisia, 146 miles S. of Ḳairawān, 26 miles from Tunis and 130 from Sfax, with which it is connected by a railroad built to serve the phosphate deposits of Metlawī, 26 miles E. of Gafsa; it lies in 36° 24′ 32″ N. Lat. and 8° 40′ E. Long (Greenw.). It has a population of about 5000 including 360 Europeans and 379 Jews. Gafsa occupies a remarkable geographical and strategic position. The town, built on a rounded eminence 1150 feet high, commands the ravine of the Wādī Bāʾis̲h̲, between the mountainous massif of the Ḏj̲ebel Orbata in the S. E.,…


(1,409 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, a people of Turkish origin speaking a pure Turkish language but professing the orthodox faith; their numbers are small. They live in isolated colonies and at the present day are found chiefly scattered over Bessarabia (mainly within the triangle formed by lines joining Ismail-Bolgrad-Kagul, in the district of Trajan’s wall and also at Bender and Akkerman), on the west coast of the Black Sea from the mouth of the Danube and Silistria to Cape Emine, in the Dobrudja in Roumania (Niiolitel and Tai…


(456 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Mongol prince ( īlk̲h̲ān) of Persia (690—694 = 1291—1295), brother and successor of Arg̲h̲ūn (q.v., i. 430b et seq.); he received the name Īrand̲j̲īn Dūrd̲j̲ī (in Waṣṣāf Tūrd̲j̲ī) “most precious jewel”, which he bears on his coins, after his accession from his Buddhist priests (according to Waṣṣāf from Chinese); the same name was, according to Waṣṣāf, also placed on the currency notes issued in Gaik̲h̲ātū’s reign. Before his accession he was governor of Asia Minor. Muslims were particularly favoured in his reig…


(781 words)

Author(s): Dames, M. Longworth
The Gakhar tribe occupies parts of the districts of Rāwalpindi, Aṭak and Ḏj̲ehlam in the Pand̲j̲āb and of Hazāra in the North-west Frontier Province of India, also in Ḏj̲ammū Territory, West of the Čināb. They are all Muḥammadans and have a high social position among the agricultural tribes of North-west India in the mountainous and sub-montane tract, and are generally considered to stand apart from the tribes of Rād̲j̲pūt descent. Some of them call themselves Mug̲h̲als but the late Rād̲j̲ā Ḏj̲…


(13 words)

, a suburb of Constantinople [q. v., i. 874b et seq.].


(45 words)

, also written Gomron etc., see above i. 694a infra seq., a seaport on the Persian Gulf, called Bender ʿAbbās since the reign of ʿAbbās I. To the Bibliography given above i. 695a may be added, Yule and Burnell, Hobson-Jobson, s. v. Gombroon.


(217 words)

Author(s): Dames, M. Longworth
, the name of an Afg̲h̲ān tribe living in the Dāmān of the Dēra Ismāʿīl Ḵh̲ān District [see Art. dāmān]. The tribe is said to be of Saiyid descent, and like the Bak̲h̲tyārī who also claim the same origin, was originally attached to the Ustarāna tribe. In the time of the Durrānī kings they descended into the plains and settled in the Dāmān. Their country extends from Drāban in the south to Pahāṛpur in the north. Kulāčī is the principal town, and the residence of the Chief. The country is barren but receives some ir…


(1,114 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Arab. Ḏj̲anza, Russian Jelisawetpol since 1804, (the old name alone is still used by the native population), a town in the Caucasus. The town was first founded under Arab rule, according to the Armenian Moses Kalankatuači (transl. by Patkanian, p. 270; cf. J. Marquart, Osteuropäische und ostasiatische Streifzüge, p. 462) about 845, according to Ḥamd Allāh Ḳazwīnī (in Schefer, Siasset Namèh, supplément, p. 227) in the year 39 (probably for 239 = 853-854). It is not mentioned by the oldest Arab geographers like Ibn Ḵh̲ordād̲h̲bih and Yaʿḳūbī; it seems to …


(16 words)

, the kingdom of the Fulbe in the Western Sūdān (cf. the article pul).


(474 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, Abū Saʿīd ʿAbd al-Ḥayy b. al-Ḍaḥḥāk b. Maḥmūd, a Persian historian. Nothing is known of his life. As his nisba shows he was born in Gardīz (usually written Kardīz in Arabic, e. g. Yāḳūt, iv. 258, but sometimes also Ḏj̲ardīz as throughout al-ʿUtbī’s Taʾrīk̲h̲ Yamīnī which confirms the spelling with g), a day’s journey from G̲h̲azna on the road to India (Muḳaddasī, ed. de Goeje, p. 349). His work ( Zain al-Ak̲h̲bār) was written in the reign of ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd the G̲h̲aznawid (440—444 = 1049—105 3). It contains a history of the kings of Persia, of Muḥammad and the C…


(34 words)

, a Javanese name for the Muslim festivals: garĕbĕg besar = ʿĪd al-Aḍḥāʾ [q. v.], garĕbĕg puwasa or ṣiyam = ʿĪd al-Fiṭr [q. v.] and garĕbĕg mawlud on the 12th Rabīʿ I.


(423 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
The old capital of Bengal, situated in the district of Mālda, Eastern Bengal and Assam, Lat. 24° 54′ N. Long. 88° 8′ E. It lies east of the Ganges, on a narrow and deserted channel of that river, and is twelve miles from the town of Mālda. The name Gaur is old, and according to Firis̲h̲ta it was founded many centuries ago by a Hindu named S̲h̲ankal. In later times it was known by the name of Lakhnawtī, an abridgement of Laks̲h̲maṇavatī, a name derived from the Hindu king of Bengal. It was captu…


(10 words)

, a tribe in Atjeh [q.v., i. 506a].


(4 words)

[See g̲h̲azza.]


(4 words)

[See d̲j̲azūlī.]


(44 words)

(p.), the name of the Persian Zoroastrians, the origin of which is not quite certain. The word is usually considered to be the Arabic kāfir (unbeliever; Turk, giaur). For other etymologies see the Grundr. d. Iran. Phil., ii. 697. Cf. art. pārsis.


(9 words)

[See d̲j̲ābir , i. 987b et seq..]
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