Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(361 words)

Author(s): Heffening
(a., pl. of ʿibāda), the ordinances of divine worship. The term ʿibāda is already found in the Ḳorʾān in this sense (e.g. Sūrā x. 30; xviii. 110; xix. 66 and passim) but is only very rarely applied to the worship of idols (e.g. Sūra xix. 85; xlvi. 5).— Under this general head is comprised the first part of the works on law in Islām: ṭahāra, ṣalāt, zakāt, ṣawm, ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ and sometimes also d̲j̲ihād. According to al-ʿAbbādī ( al-Ḏj̲awhara al-naiyira, Constantinople 1323, i. 146) the mas̲h̲rūʿāt are divided into five groups: 1. the articles of the creed; 2. the ʿibādāt; 3. the muʿāmalāt which inc…


(565 words)

, usually called Abāḍīyā in North Africa, are the followers of ʿAbd Allāh b. Ibāḍ [q. v.]. A few additions may here be made to what has been written in i. p. 3, chiefly with reference to the North African Abāḍīs. The first rising of the Ibāḍīs took place in the last years of the reign of Marwān II, under ʿAbd Allāh b. Yaḥyā Ṭālib al-Ḥaḳḳ and Abū Ḥamza (129 = 747). ʿAbd Allāh had homage paid him in Hadramūt, then conquered Ṣanʿāʾ and sent Abū Ḥamza to Mecca; the latter defeated the Omayyad governor …


(179 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the capital of the ḳaḍā of the same name in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Taʾizz in the Yemen. Besides the pronunciation with i peculiar to the Yemen we also find Abb (in Niebuhr: Aebb). At an earlier period the walled town with a population estimated at 4,000 belonged to the territory of Ḏh̲ū Ḏj̲ibla. It stands on a hill on the pilgrims’ road which runs from Ḥaḍramawt to the Yemen Tihāma or from ʿAden to Ṣanʿāʾ, in a fertile region where cereals and fruit are grown, also coffee, ḳāt, indigo and wars. In the vicinity there was at one time a silver mine (photographs in the Islām-Stiftung in Leiden). (A. Grohmann) Bi…


(1,323 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, the personal name of the Devil. The word is probably a corruption of διάβλοΣ; the native philologists derive it from the root b-l-s “because Iblīs has nothing to expect ( ublisa) from the mercy of God”. He is also called al-S̲h̲aiṭān (Satan), ʿAduww Allāh (enemy of God) or al-ʿAduww. Al-S̲h̲aiṭān however is not a proper name. In the Ḳurʾān he appears mainly in the early history of the world (ii. 32: vii. 10; xv. 31 sq.; xvii. 63; xviii. 48; xx. 115; xxxviii. 74 sq.) as rebellious at the creation of Adam and as the tempter of Eve in Paradise. After Allāh had formed Adam [q. v.]…

Ibn ʿAbbād

(286 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Abī Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm b. Abī Bakr ʿAbd Allāh b. Mālik b. Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad b. Mālik b. Ibrāhīm b. Yaḥyā b. ʿAbbād al-Nafzī al-Ḥimyarī al-Rundī, generally known as Ibn ʿAbbād, a lawyer, mystic poet, and preacher, was born in 733 (1332-3) in Spain at Ronda, where he spent his youth, learned the Ḳurʾān by heart at the age of seven and began to study language and law. He then went to Fās and Tlemcen to complete his studies. He returned to Morocco, settled at Salā where he studied under Aḥmad b. ʿĀs̲h̲i…

Ibn ʿAbbād

(216 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Ismāʿīl b. ʿAbbād b. al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAbbād b. Aḥmad b. Idrīs al-Ṭālaḳānī, vizier of the two Būyids Muʾaiyid al-Dawla and Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla, born in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 326 (September 938). His father had been Rukn al-Dawla’s vizier; he himselff received the name ‘al-Ṣāḥib’ (the companion) on account of his relations with Abu ’l-Faḍl b. al-ʿAmīd [v. ibn al-ʿamīd] or Muʾaiyid al-Dawla, who appointed him his secretary. After the fall of Abu ’l-Fatḥ b. al-ʿAmīd [v. ibn al-ʿamīd] he was raised to the rank of vizier and when Muʾaiyid al-Dawla died in 373 (984) and the pow…

Ibn al-Abbār

(723 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Abī Bakr b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Aḥmad b. Abī Bakr al-Ḳuḍāʿī, an Arab historian, a scion of the Ḳūḍāʿī’s settled in Onda, their ancestral estate in Spain, born at Valencia in Rabī II, 595 (Febr. 1199), was a pupil of Abū ʿAbd Allāh b. Nūḥ, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Ḥaṣṣār, Abu ’l-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb b. Wād̲j̲ib, Abu ’l-Ḥasan b. Ḵh̲aira, Abū Sulaimān b. Ḥawṭ, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Azīz b. Saʿāda etc. For over twenty years he was on the closest terms of intercourse with the principal traditionist of Spain, Abu ’l-Rabīʿ b. Sālim, who…

Ibn al-Abbār

(92 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū Ḏj̲afar Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Ḵh̲awlānī, Arab poet, lived at Seville and died in 433 (1041-1042). Besides a Diwān, there should, according to Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, be ascribed to him four works usually attributed to the author of the Takmila and of the Ḥullat al-Siyarāʾ [see next art.]. (Moh. Ben Cheneb) Bibliography Ibn Ḵh̲allikān, Wafayāt, Cairo 1310, i. 44 al-Ḍabbī, Bug̲h̲yat al-multamis, p. 152, n°. 352 Codera al-Muʿd̲j̲am (Bibl. arab.-hisp., IV), Introduction, p. XIV Boigues, Ensayo bio-bibliografico, p. 409 Hād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, Lexicon bibliogr., ed. Flügel, N°. 9…

Ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakam

(590 words)

Author(s): Torrey, C. C.
, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Ḥakam b. Aʿyan, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim, the earliest Arab historian of Egypt whose work has survived, was a member of a notable Egyptian family. His father, ʿAbd Allāh (died 214 = 830), was very learned in tradition and jurisprudence, and the author of books in these fields; he was the head of the Mālikite school in Egypt, and was also associated with the Ḳāḍī as censor of witnesses. His four sons were all men of importance: Muḥammad, ¶ widely celebrated as a jurist and author, and his father’s successor as leader of the Mālikites of Egypt; ʿAbd …

Ibn ʿAbd Rabbihi

(258 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad Abū ʿOmar, a Spanish Arab author, born 10th Ramaḍān 246 = 29th Nov. 860 in Cordova, a freedman of the Umaiyads ruling there, died 18th Ḏj̲umādā I 328 = 3rd March 940. His principal work is the anthology al-ʿIḳd (the addition al-farīd ¶ was made by later copyists); it is divided into 25 books, which are called after jewels; the 13th book is called al-Wāsīṭa and the corresponding pairs on either side of it are called after the same jewels, in the second part with the addition of al-t̲h̲ānīya. The matter is taken from the usual adab books, the ʿUyūn al-Ak̲h̲bār of Ibn Ḳutaiba bein…

Ibn ʿAbdūn

(289 words)

, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd Ibn ʿAbdūn al-Fihrī, a Spanish Arab poet, born in Evora, whose poetical talent early attracted the attention of the governor of Evora, ʿOmar al-Mutawakkil Ibn al-Afṭas, and when the latter became ruler of Badajoz [see i. 178b sq.] he became his secretary in 473 (1080). The fall of the Afṭasid kingdom in 485 (1092) forced him to enter the service of Sīr b. Abī Bakr, leader of the Arab troops. We afterwards find him again as secretary at the court of the Almoravid ʿAlī b. Yūsuf in 500 (1106). He died in his…

Ibn ʿAbd al-Ẓāhir

(624 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, J.
, Muḥyi ’l-Dīn Abū ’l-Faḍl ʿAbd Allāh b. Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Ẓāhir b. Nis̲h̲wān al-Saʿdī al-Rawḥī, born in Cairo on the 9th Muḥarram 620 = 1223, and died there in 692 = 1292 ( Durrat al-Aslāk fī Dawlat al-Atrāk, Orientalia, ii. 1846, p. 285; Wüstenfeld, Geschichtschreiber, N°. 366). Not much is known about his life but he played an important part under the three Baḥrī Mamlūks al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Baibars, al-Manṣūr Ḳalāʾūn and al-As̲h̲raf Ḵh̲alīl as private secretary, Kātib al-Sirr or Ṣāḥib Dīwān al-Ins̲h̲āʾ (on this office see Maḳrīzī, Ḵh̲iṭaṭ, i. 402; ii. 225 sq.; Quatremè…

Ibn Abī Dīnār

(162 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Abi ’l-Ḳāsim al-Ruʿainī al-Ḳairawānī, an Arab historian, wrote a history called al-Mūnis fī Ak̲h̲bār Ifrīḳīya wa Tūnis in 1110 (1698) or according to a statement in a manuscript in 1092 (1681). As he mentions in the preface the work falls into eight divisions; the first contains the description of Tunis, the second of Ifrīḳīya, the third of the conquest of Ifrīḳīya by the Muslims, the fourth the history of the ʿUbaidīs, the fifth that of the Ṣinhād̲j̲a, the sixth that of the Banū Ḥafṣ, th…

Ibn Abī Ḥad̲j̲ala

(155 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā Abu ’l-ʿAbbās S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn al-Tilimsānī al-Ḥanbalī, an Arab poet, an imitator of ʿOmar b. al-Fāriḍ, born in 725 = 1325 in Tlemcen, settled in Cairo after making the pilgrimage and died of the plague as superior of the Ṣūfī monastery founded by Mand̲j̲ak, on the 20th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 776 = 2rd May 1375. Of his works that have survived (detailed in Brockelmann, Gesch. d. arab. Litt., ii. 13), the following are printed: 1. Dīwān al-Ṣabāba, a history of celebrated lovers with a selection of erotic poems, Cairo 1279, 1291, 1305 and on the margin of the Tazyīn al-Aswāḳ of Dāʾūd al-An…

Ibn Abi ’l-ʿAwd̲j̲āʾ

(203 words)

, ʿAbd al-Karīm, uncle on his mother’s side of the celebrated Maʿn b. Ṣāʿida, a crypto-Manichaean, who was taken prisoner by Muḥammad b. Sulaimān governor of Kūfa and afterwards put to death in 155 (772) by him without the Caliph’s authority, for which some sources say the governor was dismissed. When he was being led to death he is said to have boasted that he had invented 4000 traditions which were contradictory to the prescriptions and prohibitions of Muslim law. He is said, for example, to hav…

Ibn Abi ’l-Dunyā

(486 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Abū Bakr ʿAbd Allāh (ʿUbaid Allāh) b. Muḥammad al-Ḳurashī, Arab author, born 208 = 823, tutor of the ʿAbbāsid Caliph al-Muḳtafī, died 14th Ḏj̲umādā II 281 = 21st Aug. 894. Of his numerous works which were all devoted to Adab the following have survived: 1) al-Farad̲j̲ baʿd al-S̲h̲idda, modelled on al-Madāʾinī’s work of the same title, in Berlin (see Ahlwardt, Verzeichnis der ar. Hdss. der Kgl. Bibl., N°. 8731), Damascus Ẓāhirīya s. Ḥabīb al-Zaiyāt, Ḵh̲azāʾin al-Kutub fī Dimas̲h̲ḳ wa-Ḍawāḥīhā (Cairo 1902), p. 30, N°. 20, 2, printed in India 1323, reprinted Cairo n. d.; al…

Ibn Abi ’l-Rid̲j̲āl

(327 words)

Author(s): Suter, [H.
, whose full name was Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Abi ’l-Rid̲j̲āl is the Arab astrologer often quoted in mediaeval Europe under the names Albohazen (also Alboacen) or Abenragel. Whether he belonged to Spain (Cordova) or North Africa is uncertain; we only know ¶ that he spent a portion of his life at the court of the Zīrid Muʿizz b. Bādīs b. al-Manṣūr (406—454 = 1016—1062) in Tunis. It is also probable that he is identical with the Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Mag̲h̲ribī, who attended the astronomical observations made in 378 (988) in Bag̲h̲dād by order of …

Ibn Abi ’l-Rid̲j̲āl

(883 words)

Author(s): Griffini, E.
, Aḥmad b. Ṣāliḥ, Arab historian, jurist and poet, belonging to the S̲h̲īʿī sect of the Zaidīs in Yemen, born in S̲h̲aʿbān 1029 (July 1620) at al-S̲h̲abaṭ, a place in the Bilād Ḏh̲urā in the district of al-Ahnūm, died in the night of Wednesday the 6th Rabīʿ I 1092 (25th-26th March 1681) aged 62 years and 7 months and was buried at al-Rōḍa (an hour’s journey N. of Ṣanʿāʾ) near a house which belonged to him. He spent his whole life in Yemen. He studied the Ḳurʾān, tradition, and law at S̲h̲ehāra, Ṣaʿda, Taʿizz, Ibb, al-Ḥard̲j̲a and Ṣanʿāʾ and st…

Ibn Abī Randaḳa

(523 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
al-Ṭurṭūs̲h̲ī, Abū Bekr Muḥammad b. al-Walīd b. Muḥammad b. Ḵh̲alaf b. Sulaimān b. Aiyūb al-Fihrī, known by the names of al-Turṭūs̲h̲ī and Ibn Abī Randaḳa (Ibn Farḥūn vocalises it Rundaḳa), an Arab authority on law and tradition, born about 451 (1059-1060) at Tortosa, died in S̲h̲aʿbān 520 ¶ (22th Aug.—19th Sept. 1126) or, according to another account, in Ḏj̲umādā I 525 (April 1131) at the age of 75. After studying law and belles-lettres in his native town and afterwards in Saragossa with the Ḳāḍī Abu ’l-Walīd Sulaimān b. Ḵh̲alaf al-Bād̲j̲ī, h…

Ibn Abī Ṭāhir Ṭaifūr

(289 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl Aḥmad, Arab man of letters and historian, born 204 (819) at Bag̲h̲dād, died there in 280 (893), a descendant of an Irānian family from Ḵh̲urāsān (Marw al-Rūd̲h̲), which was among the devoted adherents ( Abnāʾ al-Dawla) of the ʿAbbāsids, was first of all a teacher, then a private tutor in wealthy families and finally followed the trade of a copyist of manuscripts, for which he opened a shop in the Sūḳ al-Warrāḳīn. A work by him on plagiarism ( Kitāb Sariḳāt al-S̲h̲uʿāraʾ), now lost, made him several enemies who charged him with superficiality and the lack of a thor…

Ibn Abī Uṣaibiʿa

(173 words)

, Muwaffaḳ al-Dīn Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. al-Ḳāsim al-Saʿdī al-Ḵh̲azkad̲j̲ī, physician and biographer, born in Damascus in 600 (1203), studied medicine there and afterwards in Cairo at the al-Nāṣirī hospital. Among his teachers special mention may be made of the botanist Ibn al-Baiṭār [q. v.]. In 634 (1236) he received a position in a hospital in Cairo, which he exchanged in the following year for the office of physician to the Emīr ʿIzz al-Dīn Aidemir in Ṣark̲h̲ad. There he died in 668 (1270). Ibn Abī Uṣ…

Ibn Abī Zaid

(350 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
al-Ḳairawānī, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Abī Zaid ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, a Mālikī jurist, belonged to a family which ¶ came from Nafza whence the ethnic al-Nafzī, but he was born in 310 (922-3) at Ḳairawān, where he died on Monday 30th S̲h̲aʿbān 386 = 14 September 996 and was buried in his house. He vigorously defended his school both in prose and verse and was perhaps the first who clearly expounded the principles of law. He was called Mālik the younger and was and still is regarded as an authority. His teachers were numerous not only in Africa but also…

Ibn Abī Zarʿ

(327 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan (var. abū ʿabd ʿallāh ʿalī) al-Fāsī, historian of the Mag̲h̲rib, author of two works, one entitled Zuhrat al-Bustān fī Ak̲h̲bār al-Zamān, which seems lost, the other al-Anīs al-muṭrib bi-Rawḍ al-Ḳirtās fī Ak̲h̲bār Mulūk al-Mag̲h̲rīb wa Taʾrīk̲h̲ Madīnat Fās. Nothing is known of the life of the author, who is also called Abū Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ b. ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm al-G̲h̲arnāṭī. His work, which begins with the Idrīsid dynasty, is very important for the history of Morocco to 724 (1324), a date which cannot be much before the year…

Ibn ʿAd̲h̲ārī

(6 words)

[See ibn al-ʿid̲h̲ārī.]

Ibn ʿAd̲j̲arrad

(256 words)

, ʿAbd al-Karīm, a Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ī sectarian, after whom his adherents are called ʿAd̲j̲ārida. We possess no data for his biography; from al-S̲h̲ahrastānī’s account it can only be deduced that he was one of the followers of ʿAṭīya b. al-Aswad al-Ḥanafi. This ʿAtīya however was at first a follower of Nad̲j̲da b. ʿĀmir [q. v.] but afterwards separated from him and became chief of the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲īs of Sid̲j̲istān, Ḵh̲orāsān, Kirmān and Kūhistān. His date is thus the first half of the viiith century and although he, like ʿAṭīya, had separated himself politically from Nad̲j̲da, both …

Ibn Ādjurrūm

(1,081 words)

Author(s): ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Dāwūd al-Ṣanhād̲j̲ī, known as Ibn Ād̲j̲urrūm, a Berber word which means, according to the commentators, religious man and ṣūfī (ascetic, S̲h̲ilḥa: agurram). His grandfather Dāwūd is said to have been the first to bear this name. His relatives belonged to the neighbourhood of the little town of Ṣafrū but he was born at Fās in 672 (1273-4) and died there on Sunday 20th Ṣafar 723 (1st March 1323). He was buried the next day within the town in the Andalusian quarter near the Bāb al-Ḏj̲īzyin (wrongly Bāb al-Ḥadīd) which now bears t…

Ibn al-Aḥmar

(7 words)

[See muḥammad b. yūsuf.]

Ibn al-Aḥnaf

(185 words)

Author(s): Weir, T. H.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl al-ʿAbbās, one of the court poets of Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd. His forefathers were Arabs of the tribe of Ḥanīfa in al-Yamāma who had settled in Ḵh̲urāsān, but much Persian blood flowed in his veins. He was maternal uncle of Ibrāhīm al-Ṣūlī. He accompanied Hārūn on his expeditions to Ḵh̲urāsān and Armenia, and when he died about 192 a. h. (808) al-Maʾmūn was ordered to perform his funeral rites, but al-Masʿūdī gives a different account of his end. Some say he survived al-Ras̲h̲īd. All his poetry is romantic or erotic in character, and rather affec…

Ibn (al-)ʿArabī

(1,030 words)

Author(s): Weir, T. H.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. ʿAlī, Muḥyi ’l-Dīn, al-Ḥātimī al-Ṭāʾī (as a descendant of Ḥātim al-Ṭāʾī [q. v.] ) al-Andalusī, a celebrated mystic of pantheistic doctrine, styled by his followers al-S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Akbar; in Spain he was also called Ibn Surāḳa but in the East generally Ibn ʿArabī, without the article, to distinguish him from the Ḳāḍī Abū Bakr Ibn al-ʿArabī [see next art.]. He was born 17th Ramaḍān 560 (28th July 1165) at Murcia. In 568 (1172-3) he removed to Seville which he made his home for nearly thirty years. There and also at Ceula he studied Ḥadīt̲h̲.…

Ibn al-ʿAlḳamī

(137 words)

Author(s): Weir, T. H.
, Muʾaiyad al-Dīn Abū Ṭālib Muḥammad b. Aḥmad, was the last ʿAbbāsid wazīr. His grandfather is said to have been named al-ʿAlḳamī on account of having dug the canal of that name [q. v.]. Ibn al-ʿAlḳamī was distinguished for his learning and integrity and for penmanship. He was a great collector of books and a patron of learning. Some authorities say that it was he who invited Hūlāgū to come to Bag̲h̲dād. After the capture of the city Ibn al-ʿAlḳamī was put in charge of it. He died a few months later in Ḏj̲umādā I 655 (1257). He had been wazīr to al-Mustaʿṣim [q. v.] for fourteen years. (T. H. Weir) Bibli…

Ibn al-ʿAmīd

(520 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, the name of two viziers: 1. Abu ’l-Faḍl Muḥammad b. Abī ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥusain b. Muḥammad al-Kātib, called Ibn al-Amīd after his father who was known as al-ʿAmīd and had been Mardāwīd̲j̲’s vizier. In 388 (939-940) Ibn al-ʿAmīd was appointed vizier by the Būyid Rukn al-Dawla. He was held in great esteem by the latter and his influence continued to increase. In 344 (955-6) the Ḵh̲orāsānians under Muḥammad b. Mākān advanced against al-Raiy and Iṣfahān, which fell into their hands. Ibn al-ʿAmīd was defeated; while …

Ibn ʿAmmār

(574 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
, a) Abū Ṭālib Amīn al-Dawla, al-Ḥasan, the S̲h̲iʿī Ḳāḍī of Tripolis, who seized the reins of government towards the middle of the fifth century a. h. after the death of the Fāṭimid governor Muk̲h̲tār al-Dawla b. Bazzāl and made himself independent of the Egyptian caliph. The town flourished under his rule and became the centre of the intellectual life of Syria. He founded a celebrated school and a library said to have contained over 100,000 volumes. After his death his nephew Ḏj̲alal al-Mulk Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥamma…

Ibn ʿAmmār

(393 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad, an Arab poet of Spain, of obscure origin but a cultivated man, lived in the vth (xith) century and at first led a wandering life, singing the praises of any one who cared to reward him. He met the governor al-Muʿtamid, son of al-Muʿtaḍid, Emīr of Seville, in Silves. This young prince took a liking to the wandering poet and made him his favourite. The latter, as ambitious and talented as he was poor, knew how to flatter his patron’s wishes, took part in his amusements and abetted him in them. Wh…

Ibn al-Anbārī

(27 words)

, s. al-Anbārī, i. 349b. The work mentioned there was completely edited by G. Weil in 1913, Die grammatischen Streitfragen der Basrer und Kufer.

Ibn al-ʿArabī

(160 words)

, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh, a Spanish traditionist, born at Seville 468 (1076), travelled in the east while still a boy with his father and studied under the most famous jurists of the day in Syria, Bag̲h̲dād, Mecca and Egypt, for example, al-Ṭurṭūs̲h̲ī and al-G̲h̲azālī [q. v.]. When his father died in 493 (1099) at Alexandria, he returned to Seville and there filled the office of chief Ḳāḍī. He was afterwards forced to migrate to Fās and continued his studies there till his death in 543 (1148)…

Ibn ʿArabs̲h̲āh

(600 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, J.
, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Ibrāhīm S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī al-Ḥanafī al-ʿAd̲j̲amī, born in 791 = 1392 in Damascus, was taken with his family to Samarḳand in 803, when Tīmūr conquered Damascus and carried off many of its inhabitants (cf. Vita Timuri, ed. Manger, Leovardiae, 1767—1772, ii. 143 sqq.); there he studied with al-Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ānī, al-Ḏj̲azarī and others, and learnedi Persian, Turkish, and Mongol. In 811 he went to Ḵh̲atā in Mongolia where he studied Ḥadīt̲h̲ with al-S̲h̲irāmī, later to Ḵh̲wārizm and Das̲h̲t (in Serāi and Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Tark̲h̲ā…

Ibn ʿAsākir

(391 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, the name of several Arab authors, of whom the following are the best known. 1. The historian of Damascus, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan b. Hibat Allāh Abu ’l-Ḳāsim T̲h̲iḳat al-Dīn al-S̲h̲āfīʿī born in Muḥarram 499 = Sept. 1105 in Damascus, studied in Bag̲h̲dād and the principal cities of Persia, became professor at the Madrasa al-Nūriya in his native city and died on the 11th Rad̲j̲ab = 25th January 1176. In his principal work, the Taʾrīk̲h̲ Madīnat Dimas̲h̲ḳ, he collected, after the fashion of the Taʾrīk̲h̲ Bag̲h̲dād of al-Ḵh̲aṭīb al-Bag̲h̲dādī, the biographies of all the men who had ever…

Ibn ʿĀṣim

(298 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Āṣim, a Mālikī jurist, author, and grammarian, born on the 12th Ḏj̲umādā I 760 (11th April 1359) at Granada, where he died on the 11th S̲h̲awwāl 829 (15th Aug. 1426). During his studies he continued to tollow the trade of a bookbinder and latter filled the delicate duties of chief ḳāḍī of Granada. His teachers were Abū Saʿīd Farad̲j̲ b. Ḳāsim b. Aḥmad b. Lubb al-T̲h̲aʿlabī, chief muftī of Granada, the author Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Ḳaid̲j̲aṭī, the celebra…

Ibn ʿAskar

(200 words)

Author(s): Weir, T. H.
, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. ʿOmar b. Ḥusain b. Mīṣbāḥ, was born at al-Hibṭ in the district of Ḳaṣr al-Ṣag̲h̲īr in north Morocco. He is known to fame as the author of the Dawḥat al-Nās̲h̲ir li-Maḥāsin man kāna min al-Mag̲h̲ribmin Ahl al-Ḳarn al-ʿās̲h̲ir, a collection of biographies of learned men and saints whom he had known personally or at second hand, composed about the year 1575. The Ḥasanī S̲h̲arīf ʿAbd Allāh al-G̲h̲ālib was, contrary to custom, succeeded by his son Muḥammad in 1573. War broke out between Muḥammad and his uncle ʿAbd al-M…

Ibn al-ʿAssāl

(556 words)

Author(s): Macdonald, D. B.
During the first half of the xiiith century a. d. there took place among the Copts a pronounced religious and intellectual renaissance, assuming, by the necessity of the case, an Arabic form. In it three brothers, known as the Awlād al-ʿAssāl, were prominent. Al-ʿAssāl, the father, to judge from the titles given to him in the MSS., was of high rank and good family, and there is mention also of a dār, or great house, in Cairo as belonging to an Ibn al-ʿAssāl. Unfortunately this name is given in the MSS. to all the three brothers, and the resultant confusion was first fairly disentangled by Rieu ( Supp…

Ibn ʿAṭāʾ Allāh

(233 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad abu ’l-Faḍl Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn al-Iskandarī al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲īlī, an Arab mystic and one of the most vigorous opponents of Ibn Taimīya [q. v.], died on the 16 Ḏj̲umādā II 709 = 21 Nov. 1309 in the Madrasa al-Manṣūrīya in Cairo. Of his works detailed by Brockelmann, Gesch. d. ar. Litt., II, 117-118, there have been printed 1) al-Ḥikam al-ʿAṭāʾīya with the commentary of Muḥammad b. Ibrāhim b. ʿAbbād al-Nafzī al-Rondī, died 796 = 1394, Būlāḳ 1285, Cairo 1303, 1306 (with the commentary of ʿAbd Allāh al-S̲h̲arḳāwī on the margins). On it there is a Turkish commentary al-Muḥkam fī S̲h̲arḥ…

Ibn Aʿt̲h̲am al-Kūfī

(177 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī, Arab historian, of whom we only know that he died about 314 = 926 (s. Frähn, Indications bibliographiques, p. 16), whom Wüstenfeld ( Geschichtschr., N°. 541) erroneously places in the year 1003 a. h. He wrote from the S̲h̲īʿī point of view a romantic history of the early caliphs and their conquests, Pertsch, Verzeichnis der arab. Hdss. der Herzogl. Bibl. zu Gotha, N°. 1592, which Muḥammad b. Muḥammad Mustawfī al-Harawī translated into Persian in 596 = 1199, s. Rieu, Catalogue of the Persian Mss. in the British Museum, i. 150 (where other Mss. are detailed), from wh…

Ibn al-At̲h̲īr

(690 words)

This name was born by three brothers, natives of Ḏj̲azīrat Ibn ʿOmar [q. v.] who are among the most celebrated and important Arab scholars and authors. 1. The oldest brother was 1. Mad̲j̲d al-Dīn Abū ’l-Ṣaʿādāt al-Mubārak b. Muḥammad, born in 544 (1149), died at Mōṣul in 606 (1310) cf. Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Kāmil, xii. 190. He devoted himself mainly to the study of the Ḳurʾān, tradition and Arabic grammar. The titles of the works composed by him are given by Ibn Ḵh̲allikān, Wafayāt, ed. Wüstenfeld, N°. 524, Yāḳūt, Irs̲h̲ād, ed. Margoliouth, vi. 238 sqq,, and by Brockelmann, Gesch., i. 357. As to …

Ibn al-ʿAwwām

(237 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, whose full name was Abū Zakarīyā Yaḥyā b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. al-ʿAwwām al-Is̲h̲bīlī, the author of a large work on agriculture, Kitāb al-Falāḥa. Practically nothing is known of the life of this author; we only know that he flourished towards to end of the xiith century and that he lived in Seville. Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn mentions him although not being acquainted with his book which he considers a recension of al-Falāḥa al-Nabaṭīya [see ibn al-waḥs̲h̲īya]; neither Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa non Ibn Ḵh̲allikān quote him. Casiri in his Catalogue was the first to call attention to the complete m…

Ibn Bābūya

(270 words)

Author(s): Hosain, M. Hidayet
, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Ḥusain b. Mūsā al-Ḳummī al-Ṣadūḳ, was one of the four greatest of the collectors of the S̲h̲īʿa Traditions. In the prime of life, 355 (966), he went from Ḵh̲urāsān to Bag̲h̲dād and many learned men of the place became his pupils. He died in Rai 381 (991) and is also known as al-Ṣadūḳ. Of his writings the following may be mentioned: 1. Kitāb man lā yaḥḍuruhu ’l-Faḳīh, a work on the S̲h̲īʿa Traditions. It is one of the four books of S̲h̲īʿa Traditions, called al-Kutub al-Arbaʿa. [The other three are a. al-Kāfī by Abu Ḏj̲aʿfar Muḥammad b. Yaʿḳūb al-Kulīnī, d. …

Ibn Bad̲j̲d̲j̲ā

(338 words)

i. e. Avenpace (according to Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn bād̲j̲d̲j̲a is a Frankish word, meaning silver) or to give him his proper name Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Yaḥyā, also known by the name of Ibn al-Ṣaʿig̲h̲, i. e. filius Aurificis, a celebrated Arab philosopher. Ibn Bād̲j̲d̲j̲a was born in Saragossa towards the end of the vth (xith) century and was for about 20 years vizier to Abū Bakr b. Ibrāḥīm, a brother-in-law of the Almoravid ʿAlī b. Yūsuf, who acted as the latter’s governor in Granada and afterwards in Saragossa. He afterwards went to Fās and there fell a vi…

Ibn al-Baiṭār

(445 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmad Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn Ibn al-Baiṭar al-Mālaḳī, the celebrated botanist and herbalist. He probably belonged to the Ibn al-Baiṭār family of Malaga (cf. Ibn al-Abbār, al-Muʿd̲j̲am, N°. 35, 165, 241) and was born in the last quarter of the vith (xiith) century. As his teacher of botanical subjects, special mention should be made ¶ of Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Nabātī, with whom he used to collect plants in the vicinity of Seville. When about 20 he set out to travel through North Africa, Morocco, Algiers and Tunis to study botany. Reaching E…

Ibn Baḳīya

(240 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Naṣīr al-Dawla Abu ’l-Ṭāhir Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Baḳīya, Bak̲h̲tiyār’s vizier. Ibn Baḳīya was born in Awānā and was of humble origin. He was first employed at Muʿizz al-Dawla’s court as master of the kitchen and in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 362 (Sept. 973) Bak̲h̲tiyār gave him the office of vizier. After the conquest of Bag̲h̲dād and the imprisonment of Bak̲h̲tiyār in 364 (975) by ʿAḍud al-Dawla, Ibn Baḳīya went over to the latter and was granted Wāsiṭ and the surrounding country. As soon as he entered th…

Ibn al-Baladī

(101 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, S̲h̲araf al-Dīn Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Saʿīd, al-Mustand̲j̲id’s vizier. In 563 (1166-8) Ibn al-Baladī, who at that time was Nāẓir in Wāsiṭ, was appointed vizier. There was an old feud between him and the Ustād-dar ʿAḍud al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh. After the murder of the caliph in Rabīʿ II 566 (December 1170) by ʿAḍud al-Dīn and the Emīr Ḳuṭb al-Dīn, they forced his successor al-Mustaḍīʾ to appoint ʿAḍud al-Dīn vizier, whereupon Ibn al-Baladī was executed. (K. V. Zetterstéen) Bibliography Ibn al-Ṭiḳṭaḳā, al-Fak̲h̲rī (ed. Derenbourg), p. 426—9 Ibn al-At̲h̲īr (ed. Tornb…

Ibn al-Bannāʾ

(521 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.—Suter, H.
(“son of the architect”), whose full name was Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. ʿOt̲h̲mān al-Azdī, a versatile Moroccan scholar, especially distinguished in mathematics, astronomy, astrology and other secret sciences, and also in medecine. He was born in Marrākus̲h̲ on the 9th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 654 = 38th Dec. 1256 (according to others 639, 649 or even 656). After studying grammar, Ḥadīt̲h̲, Fiḳh, and mathematics in his native town, he went to Fās where he studied under the physician al-Mirrīk̲h̲, the mathematician Ibn Ḥad̲j̲la, and the …

Ibn Barrī

(256 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad ¶ b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥusain al-Ribāṭī, an Arab philologist, born about 660 (1261-2) at Tāza, where he died in 730 or 731 or 733 (1329—1333) and was buried, although some place his tomb in Fās, wrongly. Widely acquainted with Islāmic sciences he was particularly esteemed as an authoritative critic of the different recensions of the Ḳurʾān and his al-Durar al-Lawāmiʿ is as popular in North Africa as the Ād̲j̲urrūmīya. After being ʿadl (professional witness) for a period he was appointed to conduct the official correspondence of the gove…

Ibn Barrī

(338 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Barrī b. ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲abbār b. Barrī al-Maḳdisī al-Miṣrī, Arab grammarian and philologist, born at Damascus 5th Rad̲j̲ab 499 (13th March 1106), died at Cairo in the night of Friday/Saturday 27th S̲h̲awwāl 582 (9th-10th Jan. 1187), a scholar of extraordinary repute, who is considered a philological authority and is called by many “king of the grammarians”. The author of the Lisān al-ʿArab has borrowed a great deal from him. His teachers were the grammarians Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Malik al-S̲h̲antarīnī, Abū Ṭālib ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲abbār…

Ibn Bas̲h̲kuwāl

(339 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Ḵh̲alaf b. ʿAbd al-Malik b. Masʿūd b. Mūsā b. Bas̲h̲kuwāl b. Yūsuf b. Dāḥa b. Dāḳa b. Naṣr b. ʿAbd al-Karīm b. Wāḳid al-Anṣārī, Arabic biographer, a descendant of a family belonging to S̲h̲orroyon (Xorroyón, Sorrión) near Valencia, born on the 3d Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 494 = 29th Sept. 1101 at Cordova, acquired here and in Seville a great knowledge of Tradition and the history of his native land and was for a period representative of the Ḳāḍī Abū Bakr Ibn al-ʿArabī in a quarter of Seville. He died at Cordova on the night of Tuesday/Wednesday the 8th Ramaḍān 578 = 4th/5th Jan. 1183. Hi…

Ibn Baṭṭūṭa

(458 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
(Baṭūṭa), Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm, Abū ʿAbd Allāh, al-Lawāṭī al-Ṭand̲j̲ī, Arab traveller and author, born on the 14th Rad̲j̲ab 703 = 24th Febr. 1304 at Tangier, began the pilgrimage to Mecca 725 = 1325. He went via North Africa through Upper Egypt to the Red Sea. As he could not find a safe crossing here he turned back and reached his destination via Syria and Palestine. From Mecca he went through the ʿIrāḳ and thence visited Persia as well as Mōṣul and Diyār Bakr. He next paid a second visit to Me…

Ibn al-Bawwāb

(162 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, “the porter’s son” a name of Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Hilāl, a celebrated Arab calligrapher, son of a porter of the audience hall of Bag̲h̲dād. He was also called Ibn al-Sitrī. He died in 413 = 1022 or 423 = 1032 and was buried beside the tomb of Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal. He had a wide knowledge of law, knew the Ḳurʾān by heart, and wrote ¶ out 64 copies of it. One of these written in Rīḥānī-script is in the Lāleli mosque in Constantinople, to which it was given by Sulṭān Selīm I. The Dīwān of the pre-Islāmic poet Salāma b. Ḏj̲andal, copied by him, is in the library of the Aya Ṣōfya. He invented the Rīḥāni and M…

Ibn Bībī

(232 words)

, Nāṣir al-Dīn Yaḥyā b. Mad̲j̲d al-Dīn Muḥammad Tard̲j̲umān (the “interpreter”), Persian historian. His father was muns̲h̲ī and interpreter at the court of the Sald̲j̲ūḳs of Asia Minor and more than once a member of diplomatic missions to foreign princes. He died in 670 = 1272. He received the name Ibn Bībī from his mother, who had a great reputation as a fortuneteller and was therefore held in great esteem by Sulṭān Kaiḳubād I (616—634=: 1220—1237); we know nothing of the life of Ibn Bībī himself, but he appears to have been well acquainted with the famous Mongol vizier ʿAtā3 Malik Ḏj̲uwainī…

Ibn Buṭlān

(260 words)

, Joannes or Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Muk̲h̲tār b. Ḥasan, a Christian physician in Bag̲h̲dād. From there he set out in 440 (1049) via al-Raḥba and al-Ruṣāfa to Halab and thence to Anṭākiya and Lād̲h̲iḳiya, finally reaching al-Fusṭāṭ in Egypt, where he met his colleague ʿAlī b Riḍwān. Their intercourse led to sharp polemics and produced several controversial pamphlets. Extracts from Ibn Buṭlān’s epistle are given in Ibn al-Ḳifṭī Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Ḥukamāʾ, ed. Lippert, p. 298 sqq. Relations finally became so strained that Ibn Buṭlān left Egypt and went to Constantinople, where the p…

Ibn al-Daibaʿ

(609 words)

Author(s): van Arendonk, C.
was called after his ancestor ʿAlī b. Yūsuf ( Daibaʿ is said to mean “white” in Nubian, according to al-Muḥibbī, Ḵh̲ulāṣat al-At̲h̲ar, iii. 192, and Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs, v. 325), the South Arabian Historian and Tradition is t Abū ʿAbd Allāh ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. ʿUmar… b. Alī b. Yūsuf, Wad̲j̲īh al-Dīn al-S̲h̲aibānī al-Zabīdī, who was born on the 4th Muḥarram 866 (9th Oct. 1461) at Zabīd. From his tenth year he had the benefit of the tuition of his uncle, Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl, Muftī of Zabīd, under whose guidance, after learning the …

Ibn Daiṣān

(450 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Syrian philosopher of Parthian origin, known by his graecised Syriac name Bardesanes. His father was called Nuhama, his mother Nahsiram; both migrated from Persia to Edessa after 139 a. d. Their son was born in 154 and received his name from the river Daisān which waters Edessa. Brought up at the court of king Maʿnū along with the latter’s son Abgar he learned astronomy and astrology; in 179 he was converted to Christianity by Bishop Hystaspes. Although an opponent of Valentine, Marcion and the other gnostics, he created …

Ibn Dāwūd

(1,213 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
, whose full name was Abū Bakr Muḥammad Ibn (Abī Sulaimān) Dāwūd al-Iṣfahānī, a Ẓāhirī jurist and celebrated Bag̲h̲dād anthologist and poet (868-909). He was the son and successor of the founder of the Ẓāhirī school of law, Dāwūd b. ʿAlī (815— 883) whose family came from Iṣfahān. While quite a youth he showed a great bent for literature and fondness for the society of men of letters; he was, for example, friendly with the poet al-Buḥturī, was considerably influenced by his literary mentor Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā al-Sh.aibānī (cf. Margoliouth, Irs̲h̲ād, i. 4), and when barely 20 (about 890) wrote his Kit…

Ibn Ḏj̲ahīr

(748 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, the name of four viziers: 1. Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Ḏj̲ahīr, born in Mōṣul in 398 (1007-8). He first entered the service of the ¶ Banū ʿUḳail, who had been ruling in his native city since 386 (996); but when the ʿUḳailid Ḳurais̲h̲ b. Badrān wished to throw him into prison he fled to Aleppo where the Mirdāsid Muʿizz al-Dawla b. Ṣāliḥ appointed him his vizier. He next left Aleppo and was appointed vizier to Naṣr al-Dawla Aḥmad b. Marwān, lord of Diyār Bakr. After the latter’s death in 453 (1061-2)…

Ibn Ḏj̲amāʿa

(409 words)

, the name of family of scholars belonging to Ḥamāt, whose members are therefore quoted by this name only and not infrequently confused with one another. Here may be mentioned: 1. Badr al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm al-Kinānī al-Ḥamawī an Arab. jurist, bom 639 (1241) and died 733 (1333). He studied at Damascus and was afterwards mudarris there; in 687 (1288) he became ḳāḍī of Jerusalem, in 690 (1291) chief ḳāḍī of Cairo, in 693 (1294) chief ḳāḍī of Damascus. From 702 he again held the office of chief ḳāḍī of Cairo, with one…

Ibn al-Ḏj̲arrāḥ

(666 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, the name of two viziers: 1. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿĪsā b. Dāʾūd. After the dismissal of Ibn Muḳla in 324 (936) the Caliph al-Rāḍī offered the vacant office to the former vizier ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā; but as he declined the offer, on the grounds of old age and feeble health, the office was given to his brother ʿAbd al-Raḥmān. But the latter was not fit for the onerous duties and only held office for three months; he was then thrown into prison with his brother and condemned to pay a heavy fine. In 329 (941) he again ap…

Ibn al-Ḏj̲awzī

(150 words)

, Sibṭ, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Abu ’l-Muhẓaffar Yūsuf b. Ḳizog̲h̲lū, grandson of the preceding on his mother’s side. His father Ḳizog̲h̲lū was a Turkish slave of the vizier Ibn Hubaira [q. v.] and afterwards manumitted by him. Yūsuf was born in 582 (1186) in Bag̲h̲dād and brought up by his grandfather; he studied in his native city, set out to travel in 600 and finally became professor and preacher in Damascus, where he died in 684 (1257). He is the author of a universal history (not yet printed) in several volumes, entitled Mirʾāt al-Zamān fī Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Aʿyān. The latter part of it covering th…

Ibn al-Ḏj̲awzī

(412 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad Abu ’l-Farad̲j̲ (Abu ’l-Faḍāʾil) Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn, an Arab author, Ḥanbalī faḳīh, preacher and universal historian, born in 510 = 1116 at Bag̲h̲dād, settled there after the usual journeys of study, and died in 597 = 1200. His ardent devotion to his mad̲h̲hab led to the strictest criticism of Tradition; he even prepared an edition of al-G̲h̲azālī’s Iḥyāʾ purified of all weak traditions. His literary activity covered all the knowledge of his time. He exercised the greatest influence as a preacher (cf. Ibn Ḏj̲ubair, 2nd ed., p. 220 sqq.); his numerous edif…

Ibn al-Ḏj̲azarī

(922 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Abu ’l-Ḵh̲air Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Yūsuf al-Ḏj̲azarī, an Arab theologian and authority on the readings ( ḳirāʾāt) of the Ḳurʾān, born at Damascus in the night of Friday/Saturday 25th Ramaḍān 751 (30th Nov.—1th Dec. 1350), know the Ḳurʾān by heart by the year 763 (1363) and a year later was able to recite pieces from it in prayer. After devoting some attention to Ḥadīt̲h̲, he studied the various ways of reading the Ḳurʾān, of which he mastered seven in 768 (1367). In the same year he ma…

Ibn Ḏj̲azla

(234 words)

Author(s): Weir, T. H.
, Abū ʿAlī Yaḥyā b. ʿĪsā of Bag̲h̲dād, known in the West as Ben Gesla, was a Christian, but, under the influence of his Muʿtazilī schoolmaster, he turned Muḥammadan on the ¶ 11th Ḏj̲umādā II 466 (11th Febr. 1074). On account of his fine handwriting he was employed as copyist by the Ḥanafī ḳāḍī at Bag̲h̲dād. He learnt medicine from Saʿīd b. Hibat Allāh, physician to the Caliph al-Muḳtadī. He lived in the Ḳark̲h̲ quarter of Bag̲h̲dād and not only gave his services both to the people of that quarter and to his own acquaintances witho…

Ibn Ḏj̲innī

(259 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, J.
, Abu ’l-Fatḥ ʿUt̲h̲mān, was born in Mōṣul before 300 a. h. (Pröbster, p. x., ca. 320), the son of a Greek slave belonging to Sulaimān b. Fahd b. Aḥmad al-Azdī. His teacher was the Baṣrī Abū ʿAlī al-Fārisī al-Fasawī, with whom he was associated for forty years till the latter’s death, partly at the court of Saif al-Dawla in Ḥalab and partly at the court of ʿAḍud al-Dawla in Persia; according to Yāḳūt, he held the post of Kātib al-Ins̲h̲āʾ at the court of the latter and his successor. In both places he was on friendly terms with al-Mutanabbī, with whom he discussed grammatical questions and on whose Dīw…

Ibn Ḏj̲ubair

(257 words)

, Abu ’l-Ḥusain Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Kinānī, Arab traveller, born at Valencia in 540 (1145), studied fiḳh and ḥadīt̲h̲ at Játiva, to which his family belonged. As secretary to the governor of Granada Abū Saʿīd b. ʿAbd al-Muʾmin, he is said to have been forced to drink wine on one occasion and to atone for this sin he undertook a pilgrimage. From Granada he set out in 1183 via Tarifa to I Ceuta and thence by ship to Alexandria. As the ¶ Christians barred the usual way to Mecca he had to travel by Cairo, Ḳūs, ʿAid̲h̲āb and Ḏj̲idda. He afterwards visited Medīna, Kūfa, Bag̲h̲dād…

Ibn Duḳmāḳ

(377 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, J.
, Ṣārim al-Dīn Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad al-Miṣrī (the name is derived from the Turkish tuḳmaḳ “hammer”, cf. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, ii. 102) was a zealous Ḥanafī and wrote a work on the ṭabaḳāṭ of the Ḥanafīs, Naẓm al-Ḏj̲umān, in 3 volumes, the first of which deals with Abū Ḥanīfa (Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, iv. 136, vi. 317); on account of his depreciatory references to al-S̲h̲āfiʿī he was flogged and thrown into prison. His history of Egypt, Nuzhat al-Anām, in about 12 vols, to the year 779, was of the greatest importance (Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, ii. 102; vi. 323; G. Weil, Gesch. d. Chalifen, iv. vii. sq.)…

Ibn l-Dumaina

(283 words)

Author(s): van Arendonk, C.
, ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUbaid Allāh b. Aḥmad, Abu ’l-Sarī, an Arab poet ¶ of the clan of ʿĀmir b. Taim Allāh of Ḵh̲at̲h̲ʿam. Very little is known of his life. In the Kit. al-Ag̲h̲ānī it is related that he treacherously slew Muzāḥim b. ʿAmr, a relative of his wife Ḥammāʾ who had relations with her and had reviled him in a poem, and then strangled Ḥammāʾ and beat to death her little daughter. Ibn al-Dumaina was arrested on the accusation of Ḏj̲anāḥ, the murdered man’s brother, but was released for want of evidence. A long time afterwards…

Ibn Duraid

(593 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, J.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAtāhiya al-Azdī (on the name Duraid, see Ḥamāsa, ed. Freytag, p. 377 i. m.), according to his own account, a native of Ḳaḥṭān, was born in the reign of al-Muʿtaṣim in 223 = 837 in Baṣra (in the Sikka Ṣāliḥ). He studied in Baṣra under such teachers as Abū Ḥātim al-Sid̲j̲istānī, al-Riyās̲h̲ī, al-Us̲h̲nandānī and al-Aṣmaʿī’s nephew. In 257, when the Zand̲j̲ were massacring in Baṣra, he escaped the danger and went with his uncle al-Ḥasan (others al-Ḥusain), who had undertaken his education, to ʿOman where he …

Ibn Faḍlān

(277 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, properly Aḥmad b. Faḍlān b. al-ʿAbbās b. Rās̲h̲id b. Ḥammād, Arab author, composer of an account ( risāla) of the embassy sent by the Caliph al-Muḳtadir to the king of the Volga Bulg̲h̲ārs [cf. bulg̲h̲ār, i. 786 sqq.]. As he was a client ( mawlā) of the Caliph and of the conqueror of Egypt Muḥammad b. Sulaimān [see Cairo, i. 818a] he was certainly not of Arab origin. He seems to have taken part in the embassy as a theologian and authority on religious matters. The real ambassador appointed by the government was Sūsan al-Rassī, a client of Nud̲h̲air al-Ḥ…

Ibn al-Faḳīh

(144 words)

, Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Isḥāḳ al-Hamad̲h̲ānī, Arab geographer, wrote a comprehensive Kitāb al-Buldān, about the year 290 (903), which is often quoted by al-Muḳaddasī and Yāḳūt. The work itself is lost; a compendium prepared from it which, according to de Goeje, is possibly the work of a certain ʿAlī b. Ḥasan al-S̲h̲aizarī (about 413 = 1022) was published by the latter scholar in 1885 ( Bibl. Geogr. Arab., Vol. v.). He is further said to have written a book on the best poets of his time. Practically nothing is known of the life of the author; to the few data collected by de Goeje in his Praefati…

Ibn al-Faraḍī

(401 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abu ’l-Walīd ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad b. Yūsuf b. Naṣr al-Azdī b. al-Faraḍī, an Arab biographer, born in the night of the 23rd Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 351 = 22nd/23rd Dec. 962 in Cordova, studied law and tradition there as well as literature and history, particularly with Abū Zakarīyā Yaḥyā b. Malik b. ʿĀʾid̲h̲ and with the ḳāḍī Muḥammad b. Yaḥyā b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, known as al-Ḵh̲arrāz. In 382 (992) he made the pilgrimage and on his way attended the lectures of the jurist Ibn Abī Zaid al-Ḳairawānī and Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Ḵh̲alaf al-Ḳābisī in Ḳairawān and als…

Ibn Faraḥ al-Is̲h̲bīlī

(694 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, whose full name was S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Faraḥ b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Lak̲h̲mī al-Is̲h̲bīlī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, born in 625 (began 10th December 1227) at Sevilla (Is̲h̲bīliya), was taken prisoner in 646 (began 26th April 1248) by the Franks (al-Ifrand̲j̲) i. e. the Spaniards under Ferdinand III the Saint, of Castile (1217—1252) at the conquest of the Spanish capital of the Almohads [q. v.], Seville, but escaped and afterwards went, in the sixth decade of the century (650 sqq. = 1252 sqq.), to Egypt; after hearing the most celebrated teachers of Cairo, he studied…

Ibn Farḥūn

(382 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Burhān al-Dīn Ibrāhīm b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Abu ’l-Ḳāsim b. Muḥammad b. Farḥūn al-Yaʿmarī, a Mālikī jurist and historian, descendant of a family belonging to Uiyān, a village near Jaén in Spain, was born in Medīna, where he died, heavily in debt, on the 10th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 799 = 4th Sept. 1397, as the result of paralysis of his left side. In addition to his father, his teachers were his father’s brother, Abū Muḥammad S̲h̲araf al-Dīn al-Asnawī, Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn al-Damanhūrī Muḥammad b. ʿArafa, and the latter’s son, whose teaching Ibn Farḥūn received on…

Ibn al-Fāriḍ

(7 words)

[See ʿomar b. al-fāriḍ.]

Ibn Fāris

(471 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abu ’l-Ḥusain Aḥmad b. Fāris b. Zakarīyā b. Muḥammad b. Ḥabīb, philologist and grammarian of the school of Kūfa, died at al-Raiy in Ṣafar 395 = Nov.-Dec. 1004. The date and place of his birth are unknown but it is supposed that he was born in a village named Kursuf in the district of al-Zahrā. He studied in Ḳazwīn, Hamad̲h̲ān, Bag̲h̲dād, and on the occasion of his pilgrimage, in Mecca. Among his teachers we may specially mention his father, who was a philologist and S̲h̲āfiʿī jurist, Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. al…

Ibn al-Furāt

(94 words)

, Nāṣir al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. ʿAlī al-Miṣrī, Arab historian, b. 735 (1334), d. 807 (1405), author of a comprehensive chronicle, Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Duwal wa ’l-Mulūk. He began with the viiith century and worked backwards but only reached the fourth century a. h. He gave extracts from his predecessors verbatim which adds a high value to his work. The only manuscript (Vienna, cf. Flügel, Die arab….. Hss., N°. 824) is still unedited, although it has been used by several scholars. Bibliography See Brockelmann, Gesch. d. arab. Litt., ii. 50 and Nachträge.

Ibn al-Furāt

(925 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, the name of several persons who filled high offices of state. 1. Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Mūsā b. al-Ḥasan b. al-Furāt, born in 241 = 855. ¶ ʿAlī belonged to the district of al-Nahrawān and was first of all secretary of State in Bag̲h̲dād. After the unsuccessful attempt to place Ibn al-Muʿtazz [q. v.] on the throne, ʿAlī was appointed vizier in Rabīʿ I 296 (December 908) by the Caliph al-Muḳtadir and became the real ruler. In Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 299 (July 912) he was dismissed on the pretext that he had arranged a…

Ibn G̲h̲ānim

(106 words)

, ʿIzz al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Salām b. Aḥmad al-Maḳdisī, author of the well-known Kas̲h̲f al-Asrār ʿan Ḥikam al-Ṭuyūr wa ’l-Azhār, which was published in 1821 by Garcin de Tassy under the title Les oiseaux et les fleurs (repr. in Allégories, récits poétiques, etc., 1876); German transl. by Peiper, Stimmen aus dem Morgenlande, Hirschberg 1850. Other works are detailed by Brockelmann, Geschichte etc., i. 450 (cf. ii. 703). Biographical details are lacking. The year 678 (1279) is given as the year of his death. The same name Ibn G̲h̲ānim al-Maḳdisī is also given to a Ḥanafī jurist on wh…

Ibn G̲h̲āniya

(497 words)

Author(s): Bel, Alfred
, Yaḥyā b. ʿAlī b. Yūsuf al-Masūfī, Governor of Spain under the Almoravids, born in Cordova, according to Ibn al-Ḵh̲aṭīb, and died in 543 (1148) at Granada. He is best known as Ibn G̲h̲āniya, after his mother, a relative of the great Yūsuf b. Tās̲h̲fīn, the real founder of the Almoravid empire. Ibn G̲h̲āniya, as well as his brother Muḥammad grew up at the Almoravid court of Marrākus̲h̲, where their father seems to have held a high position. In 520 (1126) ʿAlī b. Yūsuf appointed Ibn G̲h̲āniya governor of Western Spain. From 520—538 (1126—1143) he …

Ibn al-Habbārīya

(574 words)

, Nihẓām al-Dīn Abū Yaʿlā Muḥammad b. Muḥammad, a celebrated Arab poet, a descendant of the ʿAbbāsid prince ¶ ʿĪsā b. Mūsā [q. v.]; cf. his genealogy in Wüstenfeld, Tabellen, W, 35. His maternal grandfather was a certain Habbār, whence his name the “son of the Habbārī lady”. Born at Bag̲h̲dād about the middle of the vth (xth) century he received his education at the. madrasas, which had just been founded there, presumably at the Niẓāmīya founded by Niẓām al-Mulk in 459 (1067); but he could take no pleasure in theological disputes (cf. Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, …

Ibn Ḥabīb

(81 words)

, Muḥammad, an Arab philologist, a pupil of Ḳuṭrub [q. v.], died at Sāmarrā in 245 (859). Of his many works only a treatise on the similarities and differences between Arab tribal names has come down to us and was published by Wüstenfeld ( Ueber die Gleichheit und Verschiedenheit der arabischen Stämmenamen, Göttingen 1850). Bibliography Fihrist, p. 106 Flügel, Die grammatischen Schulen der Araber, p. 67 Wüstenfeld, Die Geschichtschreiber der Araber, N°, 59 Brockelmann, Geschichte der arab. Litt., i. 106.

Ibn Ḥabīb

(174 words)

, Badr. al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. ʿOmar al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī al-Ḥalabī, an Arab historian and scholar, born at Damascus in 710 (1310). He studied at Ḥalab, where his father filled the office of muḥtasib and also taught tradition. In 733 (1332) he made the pilgrimage and again in 739 (1338). During these journeys he stayed in various towns of Egypt and Syria. We afterwards find him now at Ṭarābulus, now back in Damascus, then in Ḥalab, where he died in 779 (1377). Of his works, which are detailed by Wüstenfeld and Brockelmann, w…

Ibn Ḥabīb

(129 words)

, Abū Marwān ʿAbd al-Malik b. Ḥabīb al-Sulamī, on Arab jurist, born at Ḥiṣn Wāt (Huétor Vega, according to Simonet) ¶ near Granada. He studied at Elvira and Cordova, then made the pilgrimage to Mecca and at Medīna became acquainted with the Mālikī school of law which he introduced into Spain. He died at Cordova 238 (853). He is said to have published over 1000 writings on different subjects, but the only work (with the exception of an unimportant fragment), which has come down to us under his name, is, as Dozy, Recherches 3, i. 28, has pointed out, a later compilation. Bibliography Wüstenfeld, Die…

Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar

(185 words)

Author(s): van Arendonk, C.
al-ʿAsḳalānī. On MSS. of Inbāʾ al-G̲h̲umr cf. O. Spies, Beitr. z. arab. Literaturgeschichte, in Abh. K. M., xix. 3 (Leipzig 1932), p. 85—87. — Of his printed works there are further to be mentioned: Lisān al-Mīzān (an adaptation of the Mīzān of al-Ḏh̲ahabī), Ḥaidarābād 1329—1331; al-Durar al-kāmina fī Aʿyān al-Miʾa al-t̲h̲āmina, Ḥaidarābād 1348—1350; Kitāb Ṭabaḳāt al-Mudallisīn al-musammā Taʿrīf Ahl al-Taḳdīs bi-Marātib al-Mawṣūfīn bi ’l-Tadlīs, Cairo 1322; al-Raḥma al-g̲h̲ait̲h̲īya bi ’l-Tard̲j̲ama al-Lait̲h̲īya (biography of al-Lait̲h̲ b. Saʿd), Būlāḳ 1301. (C. van Aren…

Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar al-ʿAsḳalānī

(755 words)

Author(s): van Arendonk, C.
, whose full name was Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Aḥmad, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-Faḍl, al-Kinānī al-ʿAsḳalānī al-Miṣrī al-Ḳāhirī, a famous authority on tradition, faḳīh and historian, of the S̲h̲āfiʿī school. He was born on the 12th S̲h̲aʿbān 773 (18th February 1372) in Old Cairo; his father Nūr al-Dīn, whom he lost along with his mother at a very early age, was a notable scholar and was entitled to deliver fatwās and impart instruction. The son grew up under the protection of one of his guardians, Zakī al-Dīn al-Ḵh̲ar…

Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar al-Haitamī

(767 words)

Author(s): van Arendonk, C.
, whose full name was Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās, al-Haitamī al-Saʿdī (after the Banū Saʿd in al-S̲h̲arḳīya, where his family was originally settled), a famous Arab jurist of the S̲h̲āfiʿī school, was born at Maḥallat Abi ’l-Haitam in al-G̲h̲arbīya [q. v.] towards the end of the year (some say Rad̲j̲ab) 909 (1504). After, while still a child, he lost his father, the latter’s s̲h̲aik̲h̲s S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Ibn Abi ’l-Ḥamāʾil (died 932), a noted mystic, and S̲h̲ams…

Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar al-Haitamī

(119 words)

Author(s): van Arendonk, C.
Of his printed works the following may be mentioned: al-Ḏj̲awhar al-munaẓẓam fī Ziyāratal-Ḳabr al-mukarram, Būlāḳ 1279; Cairo 1309, 1331; al-Ḵh̲airāt al-ḥisān fī Manāḳib al-Imām al-aʿẓam Abū Ḥanīfa al-Nuʿmān, Cairo 1305,1326; al-Nuk̲h̲ab al-d̲j̲alīla fī ’l-Ḵh̲uṭab al-d̲j̲azīla, Cairo 1290, 1310, 1324; Ḥās̲h̲iya ʿalā Īḍāḥ al-Imām al-Nawawī fī Manāsik al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲, Cairo 1323, 1329, 1344; S̲h̲arḥ ʿalā Muk̲h̲taṣar al-Faḳīh ʿAbd Allāh Bā Faḍl al-Ḥaḍramī, Cairo 1301, 1303, 1349; Būlāḳ 1309. ¶ (C. van Arendonk) Bibliography ʿAbd al-Ḳādir b. S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-ʿAidarūsī, al-Nūr al…

Ibn al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲

(427 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
Abu ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥusain b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Ḏj̲aʿfar, poet of the Būyid period. He belonged to a family which was engaged in the public service, and was himself trained by Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm al-Ṣābiʾ in secretarial work. He found however that he could earn more by verse, and became an encomiast of the most important among his contemporaries, especially ʿIzz al-Dawla Bak̲h̲tiyār, who appointed him to the office of muḥtasib or censor in Bag̲h̲dād; a most unsuitable appointment, since this poet specialized in obscenity, and indeed against one of the headings in the Paris abridgment of his Dī…

Ibn al-Ḥād̲j̲ib

(601 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn Abū ʿAmr ʿOt̲h̲mān b. ʿOmār b. Abī Bakr b. Yūnus, an Arab grammarian, son of a Kurdish chamberlain of the Emīr ʿIzz al-Dīn Mūsak al-Ṣalāḥī, born in the village of Fanā in Upper-Egypt in the closing days of the year 570 = 1175, studied the Ḳurʾān and the sciences connected with it, Mālikī law and its sources, grammar, and belles lettres, in Cairo. His chief teachers were the Imām al-S̲h̲āṭibī, the jurist Abū Manṣūr al-Abyārī, etc.. He made a journey to Damascus and after spending a long time…
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