Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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ʿIbādāt

(361 words)

Author(s): Heffening
(a., pl. of ʿibāda), the ordinances of divine worship. The term ʿibāda is already found in the Ḳorʾān in this sense (e.g. Sūrā x. 30; xviii. 110; xix. 66 and passim) but is only very rarely applied to the worship of idols (e.g. Sūra xix. 85; xlvi. 5).— Under this general head is comprised the first part of the works on law in Islām: ṭahāra, ṣalāt, zakāt, ṣawm, ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ and sometimes also d̲j̲ihād. According to al-ʿAbbādī ( al-Ḏj̲awhara al-naiyira, Constantinople 1323, i. 146) the mas̲h̲rūʿāt are divided into five groups: 1. the articles of the creed; 2. the ʿibādāt; 3. the muʿāmalāt which inc…

al-Ibāḍīya

(565 words)

, usually called Abāḍīyā in North Africa, are the followers of ʿAbd Allāh b. Ibāḍ [q. v.]. A few additions may here be made to what has been written in i. p. 3, chiefly with reference to the North African Abāḍīs. The first rising of the Ibāḍīs took place in the last years of the reign of Marwān II, under ʿAbd Allāh b. Yaḥyā Ṭālib al-Ḥaḳḳ and Abū Ḥamza (129 = 747). ʿAbd Allāh had homage paid him in Hadramūt, then conquered Ṣanʿāʾ and sent Abū Ḥamza to Mecca; the latter defeated the Omayyad governor …

Ibb

(179 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the capital of the ḳaḍā of the same name in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Taʾizz in the Yemen. Besides the pronunciation with i peculiar to the Yemen we also find Abb (in Niebuhr: Aebb). At an earlier period the walled town with a population estimated at 4,000 belonged to the territory of Ḏh̲ū Ḏj̲ibla. It stands on a hill on the pilgrims’ road which runs from Ḥaḍramawt to the Yemen Tihāma or from ʿAden to Ṣanʿāʾ, in a fertile region where cereals and fruit are grown, also coffee, ḳāt, indigo and wars. In the vicinity there was at one time a silver mine (photographs in the Islām-Stiftung in Leiden). (A. Grohmann) Bi…

Iblīs

(1,323 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, the personal name of the Devil. The word is probably a corruption of διάβλοΣ; the native philologists derive it from the root b-l-s “because Iblīs has nothing to expect ( ublisa) from the mercy of God”. He is also called al-S̲h̲aiṭān (Satan), ʿAduww Allāh (enemy of God) or al-ʿAduww. Al-S̲h̲aiṭān however is not a proper name. In the Ḳurʾān he appears mainly in the early history of the world (ii. 32: vii. 10; xv. 31 sq.; xvii. 63; xviii. 48; xx. 115; xxxviii. 74 sq.) as rebellious at the creation of Adam and as the tempter of Eve in Paradise. After Allāh had formed Adam [q. v.]…

Ibn ʿAbbād

(286 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Abī Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm b. Abī Bakr ʿAbd Allāh b. Mālik b. Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad b. Mālik b. Ibrāhīm b. Yaḥyā b. ʿAbbād al-Nafzī al-Ḥimyarī al-Rundī, generally known as Ibn ʿAbbād, a lawyer, mystic poet, and preacher, was born in 733 (1332-3) in Spain at Ronda, where he spent his youth, learned the Ḳurʾān by heart at the age of seven and began to study language and law. He then went to Fās and Tlemcen to complete his studies. He returned to Morocco, settled at Salā where he studied under Aḥmad b. ʿĀs̲h̲i…

Ibn ʿAbbād

(216 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Ismāʿīl b. ʿAbbād b. al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAbbād b. Aḥmad b. Idrīs al-Ṭālaḳānī, vizier of the two Būyids Muʾaiyid al-Dawla and Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla, born in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 326 (September 938). His father had been Rukn al-Dawla’s vizier; he himselff received the name ‘al-Ṣāḥib’ (the companion) on account of his relations with Abu ’l-Faḍl b. al-ʿAmīd [v. ibn al-ʿamīd] or Muʾaiyid al-Dawla, who appointed him his secretary. After the fall of Abu ’l-Fatḥ b. al-ʿAmīd [v. ibn al-ʿamīd] he was raised to the rank of vizier and when Muʾaiyid al-Dawla died in 373 (984) and the pow…

Ibn al-Abbār

(723 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Abī Bakr b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Aḥmad b. Abī Bakr al-Ḳuḍāʿī, an Arab historian, a scion of the Ḳūḍāʿī’s settled in Onda, their ancestral estate in Spain, born at Valencia in Rabī II, 595 (Febr. 1199), was a pupil of Abū ʿAbd Allāh b. Nūḥ, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Ḥaṣṣār, Abu ’l-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb b. Wād̲j̲ib, Abu ’l-Ḥasan b. Ḵh̲aira, Abū Sulaimān b. Ḥawṭ, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Azīz b. Saʿāda etc. For over twenty years he was on the closest terms of intercourse with the principal traditionist of Spain, Abu ’l-Rabīʿ b. Sālim, who…

Ibn al-Abbār

(92 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū Ḏj̲afar Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Ḵh̲awlānī, Arab poet, lived at Seville and died in 433 (1041-1042). Besides a Diwān, there should, according to Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, be ascribed to him four works usually attributed to the author of the Takmila and of the Ḥullat al-Siyarāʾ [see next art.]. (Moh. Ben Cheneb) Bibliography Ibn Ḵh̲allikān, Wafayāt, Cairo 1310, i. 44 al-Ḍabbī, Bug̲h̲yat al-multamis, p. 152, n°. 352 Codera al-Muʿd̲j̲am (Bibl. arab.-hisp., IV), Introduction, p. XIV Boigues, Ensayo bio-bibliografico, p. 409 Hād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, Lexicon bibliogr., ed. Flügel, N°. 9…

Ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakam

(590 words)

Author(s): Torrey, C. C.
, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Ḥakam b. Aʿyan, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim, the earliest Arab historian of Egypt whose work has survived, was a member of a notable Egyptian family. His father, ʿAbd Allāh (died 214 = 830), was very learned in tradition and jurisprudence, and the author of books in these fields; he was the head of the Mālikite school in Egypt, and was also associated with the Ḳāḍī as censor of witnesses. His four sons were all men of importance: Muḥammad, ¶ widely celebrated as a jurist and author, and his father’s successor as leader of the Mālikites of Egypt; ʿAbd …

Ibn ʿAbd Rabbihi

(258 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad Abū ʿOmar, a Spanish Arab author, born 10th Ramaḍān 246 = 29th Nov. 860 in Cordova, a freedman of the Umaiyads ruling there, died 18th Ḏj̲umādā I 328 = 3rd March 940. His principal work is the anthology al-ʿIḳd (the addition al-farīd ¶ was made by later copyists); it is divided into 25 books, which are called after jewels; the 13th book is called al-Wāsīṭa and the corresponding pairs on either side of it are called after the same jewels, in the second part with the addition of al-t̲h̲ānīya. The matter is taken from the usual adab books, the ʿUyūn al-Ak̲h̲bār of Ibn Ḳutaiba bein…

Ibn ʿAbdūn

(289 words)

, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd Ibn ʿAbdūn al-Fihrī, a Spanish Arab poet, born in Evora, whose poetical talent early attracted the attention of the governor of Evora, ʿOmar al-Mutawakkil Ibn al-Afṭas, and when the latter became ruler of Badajoz [see i. 178b sq.] he became his secretary in 473 (1080). The fall of the Afṭasid kingdom in 485 (1092) forced him to enter the service of Sīr b. Abī Bakr, leader of the Arab troops. We afterwards find him again as secretary at the court of the Almoravid ʿAlī b. Yūsuf in 500 (1106). He died in his…

Ibn ʿAbd al-Ẓāhir

(624 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, J.
, Muḥyi ’l-Dīn Abū ’l-Faḍl ʿAbd Allāh b. Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Ẓāhir b. Nis̲h̲wān al-Saʿdī al-Rawḥī, born in Cairo on the 9th Muḥarram 620 = 1223, and died there in 692 = 1292 ( Durrat al-Aslāk fī Dawlat al-Atrāk, Orientalia, ii. 1846, p. 285; Wüstenfeld, Geschichtschreiber, N°. 366). Not much is known about his life but he played an important part under the three Baḥrī Mamlūks al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Baibars, al-Manṣūr Ḳalāʾūn and al-As̲h̲raf Ḵh̲alīl as private secretary, Kātib al-Sirr or Ṣāḥib Dīwān al-Ins̲h̲āʾ (on this office see Maḳrīzī, Ḵh̲iṭaṭ, i. 402; ii. 225 sq.; Quatremè…

Ibn Abī Dīnār

(162 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Abi ’l-Ḳāsim al-Ruʿainī al-Ḳairawānī, an Arab historian, wrote a history called al-Mūnis fī Ak̲h̲bār Ifrīḳīya wa Tūnis in 1110 (1698) or according to a statement in a manuscript in 1092 (1681). As he mentions in the preface the work falls into eight divisions; the first contains the description of Tunis, the second of Ifrīḳīya, the third of the conquest of Ifrīḳīya by the Muslims, the fourth the history of the ʿUbaidīs, the fifth that of the Ṣinhād̲j̲a, the sixth that of the Banū Ḥafṣ, th…

Ibn Abī Ḥad̲j̲ala

(155 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā Abu ’l-ʿAbbās S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn al-Tilimsānī al-Ḥanbalī, an Arab poet, an imitator of ʿOmar b. al-Fāriḍ, born in 725 = 1325 in Tlemcen, settled in Cairo after making the pilgrimage and died of the plague as superior of the Ṣūfī monastery founded by Mand̲j̲ak, on the 20th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 776 = 2rd May 1375. Of his works that have survived (detailed in Brockelmann, Gesch. d. arab. Litt., ii. 13), the following are printed: 1. Dīwān al-Ṣabāba, a history of celebrated lovers with a selection of erotic poems, Cairo 1279, 1291, 1305 and on the margin of the Tazyīn al-Aswāḳ of Dāʾūd al-An…

Ibn Abi ’l-ʿAwd̲j̲āʾ

(203 words)

, ʿAbd al-Karīm, uncle on his mother’s side of the celebrated Maʿn b. Ṣāʿida, a crypto-Manichaean, who was taken prisoner by Muḥammad b. Sulaimān governor of Kūfa and afterwards put to death in 155 (772) by him without the Caliph’s authority, for which some sources say the governor was dismissed. When he was being led to death he is said to have boasted that he had invented 4000 traditions which were contradictory to the prescriptions and prohibitions of Muslim law. He is said, for example, to hav…

Ibn Abi ’l-Dunyā

(486 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Abū Bakr ʿAbd Allāh (ʿUbaid Allāh) b. Muḥammad al-Ḳurashī, Arab author, born 208 = 823, tutor of the ʿAbbāsid Caliph al-Muḳtafī, died 14th Ḏj̲umādā II 281 = 21st Aug. 894. Of his numerous works which were all devoted to Adab the following have survived: 1) al-Farad̲j̲ baʿd al-S̲h̲idda, modelled on al-Madāʾinī’s work of the same title, in Berlin (see Ahlwardt, Verzeichnis der ar. Hdss. der Kgl. Bibl., N°. 8731), Damascus Ẓāhirīya s. Ḥabīb al-Zaiyāt, Ḵh̲azāʾin al-Kutub fī Dimas̲h̲ḳ wa-Ḍawāḥīhā (Cairo 1902), p. 30, N°. 20, 2, printed in India 1323, reprinted Cairo n. d.; al…

Ibn Abi ’l-Rid̲j̲āl

(327 words)

Author(s): Suter, [H.
, whose full name was Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Abi ’l-Rid̲j̲āl is the Arab astrologer often quoted in mediaeval Europe under the names Albohazen (also Alboacen) or Abenragel. Whether he belonged to Spain (Cordova) or North Africa is uncertain; we only know ¶ that he spent a portion of his life at the court of the Zīrid Muʿizz b. Bādīs b. al-Manṣūr (406—454 = 1016—1062) in Tunis. It is also probable that he is identical with the Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Mag̲h̲ribī, who attended the astronomical observations made in 378 (988) in Bag̲h̲dād by order of …

Ibn Abi ’l-Rid̲j̲āl

(883 words)

Author(s): Griffini, E.
, Aḥmad b. Ṣāliḥ, Arab historian, jurist and poet, belonging to the S̲h̲īʿī sect of the Zaidīs in Yemen, born in S̲h̲aʿbān 1029 (July 1620) at al-S̲h̲abaṭ, a place in the Bilād Ḏh̲urā in the district of al-Ahnūm, died in the night of Wednesday the 6th Rabīʿ I 1092 (25th-26th March 1681) aged 62 years and 7 months and was buried at al-Rōḍa (an hour’s journey N. of Ṣanʿāʾ) near a house which belonged to him. He spent his whole life in Yemen. He studied the Ḳurʾān, tradition, and law at S̲h̲ehāra, Ṣaʿda, Taʿizz, Ibb, al-Ḥard̲j̲a and Ṣanʿāʾ and st…

Ibn Abī Randaḳa

(523 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
al-Ṭurṭūs̲h̲ī, Abū Bekr Muḥammad b. al-Walīd b. Muḥammad b. Ḵh̲alaf b. Sulaimān b. Aiyūb al-Fihrī, known by the names of al-Turṭūs̲h̲ī and Ibn Abī Randaḳa (Ibn Farḥūn vocalises it Rundaḳa), an Arab authority on law and tradition, born about 451 (1059-1060) at Tortosa, died in S̲h̲aʿbān 520 ¶ (22th Aug.—19th Sept. 1126) or, according to another account, in Ḏj̲umādā I 525 (April 1131) at the age of 75. After studying law and belles-lettres in his native town and afterwards in Saragossa with the Ḳāḍī Abu ’l-Walīd Sulaimān b. Ḵh̲alaf al-Bād̲j̲ī, h…

Ibn Abī Ṭāhir Ṭaifūr

(289 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl Aḥmad, Arab man of letters and historian, born 204 (819) at Bag̲h̲dād, died there in 280 (893), a descendant of an Irānian family from Ḵh̲urāsān (Marw al-Rūd̲h̲), which was among the devoted adherents ( Abnāʾ al-Dawla) of the ʿAbbāsids, was first of all a teacher, then a private tutor in wealthy families and finally followed the trade of a copyist of manuscripts, for which he opened a shop in the Sūḳ al-Warrāḳīn. A work by him on plagiarism ( Kitāb Sariḳāt al-S̲h̲uʿāraʾ), now lost, made him several enemies who charged him with superficiality and the lack of a thor…

Ibn Abī Uṣaibiʿa

(173 words)

, Muwaffaḳ al-Dīn Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. al-Ḳāsim al-Saʿdī al-Ḵh̲azkad̲j̲ī, physician and biographer, born in Damascus in 600 (1203), studied medicine there and afterwards in Cairo at the al-Nāṣirī hospital. Among his teachers special mention may be made of the botanist Ibn al-Baiṭār [q. v.]. In 634 (1236) he received a position in a hospital in Cairo, which he exchanged in the following year for the office of physician to the Emīr ʿIzz al-Dīn Aidemir in Ṣark̲h̲ad. There he died in 668 (1270). Ibn Abī Uṣ…

Ibn Abī Zaid

(350 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
al-Ḳairawānī, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Abī Zaid ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, a Mālikī jurist, belonged to a family which ¶ came from Nafza whence the ethnic al-Nafzī, but he was born in 310 (922-3) at Ḳairawān, where he died on Monday 30th S̲h̲aʿbān 386 = 14 September 996 and was buried in his house. He vigorously defended his school both in prose and verse and was perhaps the first who clearly expounded the principles of law. He was called Mālik the younger and was and still is regarded as an authority. His teachers were numerous not only in Africa but also…

Ibn Abī Zarʿ

(327 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan (var. abū ʿabd ʿallāh ʿalī) al-Fāsī, historian of the Mag̲h̲rib, author of two works, one entitled Zuhrat al-Bustān fī Ak̲h̲bār al-Zamān, which seems lost, the other al-Anīs al-muṭrib bi-Rawḍ al-Ḳirtās fī Ak̲h̲bār Mulūk al-Mag̲h̲rīb wa Taʾrīk̲h̲ Madīnat Fās. Nothing is known of the life of the author, who is also called Abū Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ b. ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm al-G̲h̲arnāṭī. His work, which begins with the Idrīsid dynasty, is very important for the history of Morocco to 724 (1324), a date which cannot be much before the year…

Ibn ʿAd̲h̲ārī

(6 words)

[See ibn al-ʿid̲h̲ārī.]

Ibn ʿAd̲j̲arrad

(256 words)

, ʿAbd al-Karīm, a Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ī sectarian, after whom his adherents are called ʿAd̲j̲ārida. We possess no data for his biography; from al-S̲h̲ahrastānī’s account it can only be deduced that he was one of the followers of ʿAṭīya b. al-Aswad al-Ḥanafi. This ʿAtīya however was at first a follower of Nad̲j̲da b. ʿĀmir [q. v.] but afterwards separated from him and became chief of the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲īs of Sid̲j̲istān, Ḵh̲orāsān, Kirmān and Kūhistān. His date is thus the first half of the viiith century and although he, like ʿAṭīya, had separated himself politically from Nad̲j̲da, both …

Ibn Ādjurrūm

(1,081 words)

Author(s): ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Dāwūd al-Ṣanhād̲j̲ī, known as Ibn Ād̲j̲urrūm, a Berber word which means, according to the commentators, religious man and ṣūfī (ascetic, S̲h̲ilḥa: agurram). His grandfather Dāwūd is said to have been the first to bear this name. His relatives belonged to the neighbourhood of the little town of Ṣafrū but he was born at Fās in 672 (1273-4) and died there on Sunday 20th Ṣafar 723 (1st March 1323). He was buried the next day within the town in the Andalusian quarter near the Bāb al-Ḏj̲īzyin (wrongly Bāb al-Ḥadīd) which now bears t…

Ibn al-Aḥmar

(7 words)

[See muḥammad b. yūsuf.]

Ibn al-Aḥnaf

(185 words)

Author(s): Weir, T. H.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl al-ʿAbbās, one of the court poets of Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd. His forefathers were Arabs of the tribe of Ḥanīfa in al-Yamāma who had settled in Ḵh̲urāsān, but much Persian blood flowed in his veins. He was maternal uncle of Ibrāhīm al-Ṣūlī. He accompanied Hārūn on his expeditions to Ḵh̲urāsān and Armenia, and when he died about 192 a. h. (808) al-Maʾmūn was ordered to perform his funeral rites, but al-Masʿūdī gives a different account of his end. Some say he survived al-Ras̲h̲īd. All his poetry is romantic or erotic in character, and rather affec…

Ibn (al-)ʿArabī

(1,030 words)

Author(s): Weir, T. H.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. ʿAlī, Muḥyi ’l-Dīn, al-Ḥātimī al-Ṭāʾī (as a descendant of Ḥātim al-Ṭāʾī [q. v.] ) al-Andalusī, a celebrated mystic of pantheistic doctrine, styled by his followers al-S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Akbar; in Spain he was also called Ibn Surāḳa but in the East generally Ibn ʿArabī, without the article, to distinguish him from the Ḳāḍī Abū Bakr Ibn al-ʿArabī [see next art.]. He was born 17th Ramaḍān 560 (28th July 1165) at Murcia. In 568 (1172-3) he removed to Seville which he made his home for nearly thirty years. There and also at Ceula he studied Ḥadīt̲h̲.…

Ibn al-ʿAlḳamī

(137 words)

Author(s): Weir, T. H.
, Muʾaiyad al-Dīn Abū Ṭālib Muḥammad b. Aḥmad, was the last ʿAbbāsid wazīr. His grandfather is said to have been named al-ʿAlḳamī on account of having dug the canal of that name [q. v.]. Ibn al-ʿAlḳamī was distinguished for his learning and integrity and for penmanship. He was a great collector of books and a patron of learning. Some authorities say that it was he who invited Hūlāgū to come to Bag̲h̲dād. After the capture of the city Ibn al-ʿAlḳamī was put in charge of it. He died a few months later in Ḏj̲umādā I 655 (1257). He had been wazīr to al-Mustaʿṣim [q. v.] for fourteen years. (T. H. Weir) Bibli…

Ibn al-ʿAmīd

(520 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, the name of two viziers: 1. Abu ’l-Faḍl Muḥammad b. Abī ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥusain b. Muḥammad al-Kātib, called Ibn al-Amīd after his father who was known as al-ʿAmīd and had been Mardāwīd̲j̲’s vizier. In 388 (939-940) Ibn al-ʿAmīd was appointed vizier by the Būyid Rukn al-Dawla. He was held in great esteem by the latter and his influence continued to increase. In 344 (955-6) the Ḵh̲orāsānians under Muḥammad b. Mākān advanced against al-Raiy and Iṣfahān, which fell into their hands. Ibn al-ʿAmīd was defeated; while …

Ibn ʿAmmār

(574 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
, a) Abū Ṭālib Amīn al-Dawla, al-Ḥasan, the S̲h̲iʿī Ḳāḍī of Tripolis, who seized the reins of government towards the middle of the fifth century a. h. after the death of the Fāṭimid governor Muk̲h̲tār al-Dawla b. Bazzāl and made himself independent of the Egyptian caliph. The town flourished under his rule and became the centre of the intellectual life of Syria. He founded a celebrated school and a library said to have contained over 100,000 volumes. After his death his nephew Ḏj̲alal al-Mulk Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥamma…

Ibn ʿAmmār

(393 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad, an Arab poet of Spain, of obscure origin but a cultivated man, lived in the vth (xith) century and at first led a wandering life, singing the praises of any one who cared to reward him. He met the governor al-Muʿtamid, son of al-Muʿtaḍid, Emīr of Seville, in Silves. This young prince took a liking to the wandering poet and made him his favourite. The latter, as ambitious and talented as he was poor, knew how to flatter his patron’s wishes, took part in his amusements and abetted him in them. Wh…

Ibn al-Anbārī

(27 words)

, s. al-Anbārī, i. 349b. The work mentioned there was completely edited by G. Weil in 1913, Die grammatischen Streitfragen der Basrer und Kufer.

Ibn al-ʿArabī

(160 words)

, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh, a Spanish traditionist, born at Seville 468 (1076), travelled in the east while still a boy with his father and studied under the most famous jurists of the day in Syria, Bag̲h̲dād, Mecca and Egypt, for example, al-Ṭurṭūs̲h̲ī and al-G̲h̲azālī [q. v.]. When his father died in 493 (1099) at Alexandria, he returned to Seville and there filled the office of chief Ḳāḍī. He was afterwards forced to migrate to Fās and continued his studies there till his death in 543 (1148)…

Ibn ʿArabs̲h̲āh

(600 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, J.
, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Ibrāhīm S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī al-Ḥanafī al-ʿAd̲j̲amī, born in 791 = 1392 in Damascus, was taken with his family to Samarḳand in 803, when Tīmūr conquered Damascus and carried off many of its inhabitants (cf. Vita Timuri, ed. Manger, Leovardiae, 1767—1772, ii. 143 sqq.); there he studied with al-Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ānī, al-Ḏj̲azarī and others, and learnedi Persian, Turkish, and Mongol. In 811 he went to Ḵh̲atā in Mongolia where he studied Ḥadīt̲h̲ with al-S̲h̲irāmī, later to Ḵh̲wārizm and Das̲h̲t (in Serāi and Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Tark̲h̲ā…

Ibn ʿAsākir

(391 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, the name of several Arab authors, of whom the following are the best known. 1. The historian of Damascus, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan b. Hibat Allāh Abu ’l-Ḳāsim T̲h̲iḳat al-Dīn al-S̲h̲āfīʿī born in Muḥarram 499 = Sept. 1105 in Damascus, studied in Bag̲h̲dād and the principal cities of Persia, became professor at the Madrasa al-Nūriya in his native city and died on the 11th Rad̲j̲ab = 25th January 1176. In his principal work, the Taʾrīk̲h̲ Madīnat Dimas̲h̲ḳ, he collected, after the fashion of the Taʾrīk̲h̲ Bag̲h̲dād of al-Ḵh̲aṭīb al-Bag̲h̲dādī, the biographies of all the men who had ever…

Ibn ʿĀṣim

(298 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Āṣim, a Mālikī jurist, author, and grammarian, born on the 12th Ḏj̲umādā I 760 (11th April 1359) at Granada, where he died on the 11th S̲h̲awwāl 829 (15th Aug. 1426). During his studies he continued to tollow the trade of a bookbinder and latter filled the delicate duties of chief ḳāḍī of Granada. His teachers were Abū Saʿīd Farad̲j̲ b. Ḳāsim b. Aḥmad b. Lubb al-T̲h̲aʿlabī, chief muftī of Granada, the author Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Ḳaid̲j̲aṭī, the celebra…

Ibn ʿAskar

(200 words)

Author(s): Weir, T. H.
, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. ʿOmar b. Ḥusain b. Mīṣbāḥ, was born at al-Hibṭ in the district of Ḳaṣr al-Ṣag̲h̲īr in north Morocco. He is known to fame as the author of the Dawḥat al-Nās̲h̲ir li-Maḥāsin man kāna min al-Mag̲h̲ribmin Ahl al-Ḳarn al-ʿās̲h̲ir, a collection of biographies of learned men and saints whom he had known personally or at second hand, composed about the year 1575. The Ḥasanī S̲h̲arīf ʿAbd Allāh al-G̲h̲ālib was, contrary to custom, succeeded by his son Muḥammad in 1573. War broke out between Muḥammad and his uncle ʿAbd al-M…

Ibn al-ʿAssāl

(556 words)

Author(s): Macdonald, D. B.
During the first half of the xiiith century a. d. there took place among the Copts a pronounced religious and intellectual renaissance, assuming, by the necessity of the case, an Arabic form. In it three brothers, known as the Awlād al-ʿAssāl, were prominent. Al-ʿAssāl, the father, to judge from the titles given to him in the MSS., was of high rank and good family, and there is mention also of a dār, or great house, in Cairo as belonging to an Ibn al-ʿAssāl. Unfortunately this name is given in the MSS. to all the three brothers, and the resultant confusion was first fairly disentangled by Rieu ( Supp…

Ibn ʿAṭāʾ Allāh

(233 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad abu ’l-Faḍl Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn al-Iskandarī al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲īlī, an Arab mystic and one of the most vigorous opponents of Ibn Taimīya [q. v.], died on the 16 Ḏj̲umādā II 709 = 21 Nov. 1309 in the Madrasa al-Manṣūrīya in Cairo. Of his works detailed by Brockelmann, Gesch. d. ar. Litt., II, 117-118, there have been printed 1) al-Ḥikam al-ʿAṭāʾīya with the commentary of Muḥammad b. Ibrāhim b. ʿAbbād al-Nafzī al-Rondī, died 796 = 1394, Būlāḳ 1285, Cairo 1303, 1306 (with the commentary of ʿAbd Allāh al-S̲h̲arḳāwī on the margins). On it there is a Turkish commentary al-Muḥkam fī S̲h̲arḥ…

Ibn Aʿt̲h̲am al-Kūfī

(177 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī, Arab historian, of whom we only know that he died about 314 = 926 (s. Frähn, Indications bibliographiques, p. 16), whom Wüstenfeld ( Geschichtschr., N°. 541) erroneously places in the year 1003 a. h. He wrote from the S̲h̲īʿī point of view a romantic history of the early caliphs and their conquests, Pertsch, Verzeichnis der arab. Hdss. der Herzogl. Bibl. zu Gotha, N°. 1592, which Muḥammad b. Muḥammad Mustawfī al-Harawī translated into Persian in 596 = 1199, s. Rieu, Catalogue of the Persian Mss. in the British Museum, i. 150 (where other Mss. are detailed), from wh…

Ibn al-At̲h̲īr

(690 words)

This name was born by three brothers, natives of Ḏj̲azīrat Ibn ʿOmar [q. v.] who are among the most celebrated and important Arab scholars and authors. 1. The oldest brother was 1. Mad̲j̲d al-Dīn Abū ’l-Ṣaʿādāt al-Mubārak b. Muḥammad, born in 544 (1149), died at Mōṣul in 606 (1310) cf. Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Kāmil, xii. 190. He devoted himself mainly to the study of the Ḳurʾān, tradition and Arabic grammar. The titles of the works composed by him are given by Ibn Ḵh̲allikān, Wafayāt, ed. Wüstenfeld, N°. 524, Yāḳūt, Irs̲h̲ād, ed. Margoliouth, vi. 238 sqq,, and by Brockelmann, Gesch., i. 357. As to …

Ibn al-ʿAwwām

(237 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, whose full name was Abū Zakarīyā Yaḥyā b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. al-ʿAwwām al-Is̲h̲bīlī, the author of a large work on agriculture, Kitāb al-Falāḥa. Practically nothing is known of the life of this author; we only know that he flourished towards to end of the xiith century and that he lived in Seville. Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn mentions him although not being acquainted with his book which he considers a recension of al-Falāḥa al-Nabaṭīya [see ibn al-waḥs̲h̲īya]; neither Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa non Ibn Ḵh̲allikān quote him. Casiri in his Catalogue was the first to call attention to the complete m…

Ibn Bābūya

(270 words)

Author(s): Hosain, M. Hidayet
, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Ḥusain b. Mūsā al-Ḳummī al-Ṣadūḳ, was one of the four greatest of the collectors of the S̲h̲īʿa Traditions. In the prime of life, 355 (966), he went from Ḵh̲urāsān to Bag̲h̲dād and many learned men of the place became his pupils. He died in Rai 381 (991) and is also known as al-Ṣadūḳ. Of his writings the following may be mentioned: 1. Kitāb man lā yaḥḍuruhu ’l-Faḳīh, a work on the S̲h̲īʿa Traditions. It is one of the four books of S̲h̲īʿa Traditions, called al-Kutub al-Arbaʿa. [The other three are a. al-Kāfī by Abu Ḏj̲aʿfar Muḥammad b. Yaʿḳūb al-Kulīnī, d. …
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