Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Ibn al-Hait̲h̲am

(625 words)

Author(s): Suter, H.
, whose full name was Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan b. al-Ḥasan (or al-Ḥusain) b. al-Hait̲h̲am, in mediaeval European sources usually called Alhazen, was one of the most important mathematicians and physicists of the Arabs, learned also in medicine and the other sciences of the ancients notably in the philosophy of Aristotle. He was born about the year 354 (965) in Baṣra, wherefore he is sometimes called Abū ʿAlī al-Baṣrī, moved when fairly old to Egypt, where he was for some years in the service of the Fāṭimid al-Ḥākim, to wh…

Ibn Ḥaiyān

(145 words)

b. Ḵh̲alaf, Abū Marwān Ḥaiyān al-Ḳurṭubī, usually called after his grandfather Ibn Ḥaiyān, one of the earliest and best historians of Muslim Spain. Almost nothing is known of his biography except the year of his birth 377 (987—988) and his death 469 (1076). He was a very prolific writer: the list of his works contains no less than 50 titles, which include poems and theological treatises. His history al-Matīn is said to have comprised not less than 60 volumes, but of all his writings only the historical work entitled al-Muḳtabis fī Taʾrīk̲h̲ Andalus has survived; there is one volume in …

Ibn Ḥamdīs

(178 words)

, Abū Muḥammed ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲abbār b. Abī Bakr, an Arab poet, born about 447 (1055) in Syracuse in Sicily and distinguished at an early age as a poet. When the Normans captured Sicily in 471 (1078), he retired to Spain and spent some time at the court of the ʿAbbādid al-Muʿtamid [q. v.] in Seville. He followed the ¶ latter in his imprisonment in 484 (1091) and lived at al-Mahdīya after his death (488 = 1095). He spent the last years of his life at Bougie where he died in 527 (1132); according to other accounts, he died on the island of Majorca. He left a Dīwān of which Amari has published specimens. Cf…

Ibn Ḥamdūn

(108 words)

, Bahāʾ al-Dīn Abu ’l-Maʿālī Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan, an Arab philologist, born in 495 (1101) at Bag̲h̲dād. He held several offices at the court of the Caliph, so that he received the title Kāfi ’l-Kufāt. But his frankness aroused the enmity of the Caliph al-Mustand̲j̲id who threw him into prison in 562 (1167). Soon afterwards he died in prison. He was the author of a large anthology of philological and historical matter entitled al-Tad̲h̲kira. Cf. Amedroz, Tales of official Life from theTadhkira of Ibn Hamdun, etc. in Journ. Roy. As. Soc., 1908, p. 409 sqq. Bibliography Brockelmann, Geschich…

Ibn Ḥammād

(119 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAlī, an Arab historian, author of a history of the Fāṭimids. Neither the date of his birth nor death is known; we only know that he flourished after the rise of the Almohad dynasty and before Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, who quotes a passage from him about the Banū Ḵh̲azrūn of Tripolis ( Kitāb al-ʿIbar, vii. 43). The text is still unpublished in a manuscript of the Bibl. Nat. of Paris (n°. 1888) and in another of the Bibl. Nat. of Algiers (n°. 1988, imperfect). Two fragments, one on ʿUbaid Allāh and one on Abū Yazīd al-Muk̲h̲allad were translated by Cherbonneau ( Journ. Asiat., 1862, i…

Ibn Hāniʾ

(629 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim (also Abu ’l-Ḥasan) Muḥammad b. Hāniʾ b. Muḥammad b. Saʿdūn al-Azdī, usually called Ibn Hāniʾ al-Andalusī to distinguish him from Ibn Hāniʾ al-Ḥakamī [see Abū nuwās], an Arab poet of Spain. His father Hāniʾ was a native of a village near al-Mahdīya in Tunisia, who had moved to Elvira in Spain or, according to others, to Cordova. Ibn Hāniʾ was born in one of these two towns. He studied in Cordova and then proceeded to Elvira and Seville. In the latter city his frivolous way of living and too free speech broug…

Ibn Ḥawḳal

(222 words)

Author(s): van Arendonk, C.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim (Muḥammad), an important Arab traveller and geographer. Very little is known of his life. He tells of himself that he left Bag̲h̲dād in Ramaḍān 331 (May 943) with the intention of becoming acquainted with other lands and peoples, and making money by commerce. He travelled through the whole Muslim world from east to west, at the same time studying eagerly the works of his predecessors al-Ḏj̲aihānī, Ibn Ḵh̲ordād̲h̲bih and Ḳudāma. According to Dozy, he was a spy in the service of the Fā…

Ibn Ḥazm

(953 words)

Author(s): van Arendonk, C.
A very full study of Ibn Ḥazm, his place in his period, his development, his theological and philosophical principles, his works and his school was given by Asín Palacios in the first volume of his analysis and partial translation of the Kitāb al-Faṣl fi ’l-Milal wa ’l-Ahwāʾ wa ’l-Niḥal (Abenházam de Cordoba y su Historia critica de las ideas religiosas; so far [1935] 5 vols, have appeared, Madrid 1927-1932; cf. do., El Cordobés Abenházam, primer historiador de las ideas religiosas, Discurso de recepción en la Academia de la Historia, Madrid 1924; La indiferencia religiosa en la Españ…

Ibn Ḥazm

(3,195 words)

Author(s): van Arendonk, C.
, whose full name was Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī b. Aḥmed b. Saʿīd b. h., a versatile Spanish Arab scholar, a notable theologian, historian and distinguished poet, born on the last day of Ramaḍān 384 (7th Nov. 994) at Cordova. His family belonged to the village of Hanta Līs̲h̲am (var. M-t-līd̲j̲am, according to the Irs̲h̲ād al-Arīb, v. 88 infra, ½ farsak̲h̲ from Huelva at the mouth of the Odiél) in the district of Niebla; his great-grandfather had been a convert from Christianity to Islām. His father, who had risen to the rank of a vizier of the major-domo al-Ma…

Ibn Ḥibbān

(257 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Bustī, Arab author and authority on Tradition, born at Bust in Sid̲j̲istān, after extended travels in pursuit of knowledge, filled a judicial office in Samarḳand, but was driven from it as a heretic, because he had defined the prophethood as a combination of ʿIlm and ʿAmal (cf. Goldziher on Maʿānī al-Nafs, p. 57). After staying in Nasā and in 334 = 465 in Nīsābūr, he settled in Samarḳand as a teacher of Tradition and died there at the age of 80 on the 22nd S̲h̲awwāl 354 = 21st October 965. His chief work is the collection on Tradition famous for its artificial a…

Ibn Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a

(352 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Abu ’l-Maḥāṣin Taḳī al-Dīn Abū Bakr b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥamawī al-Ḳādīrī al-Ḥanafī al-Azrārī (the buttonmaker, so called after the trade he had followed in his youth), an Arab author, one of the most celebrated poets and stylists of the Mamlūk period, born 767 (1366) in Ḥamāt. While returning to Cairo in 791 (1390) after travelling for study, he witnessed the great conflagration in Damascus at the siege by al-Ẓāhir Barḳūḳ and was moved by it to his first rhetorical effort, an epistle to Ibn Makānis (see Ahlwardt, Verzeichnis der arab. Hdss. von Berlin, N°. 9784). He reached the zen…

Ibn His̲h̲ām

(841 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Yūsuf b. Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. His̲h̲ām al-Anṣārī al-Miṣrī, was born in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 708 = April-May 1309 in Cairo, where he died in the night of Thursday-Friday, 5th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 761 = 17-18 September 1360. A pupil of the Spanish grammarian Abū Ḥaiyān for the study of the Dīwān of Zuhair b. Abī Sulmā, he also studied with S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Laṭīf b. al-Muraḥḥal, al-Fākihānī, etc. As a S̲h̲āfiʿī doctor, he became professor of Ḳurʾānic exegesis at the Ḳubbat al-Manṣūrīya in Cairo; but five years before his death he went…

Ibn His̲h̲ām

(154 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
ʿAbd al-Malik b. His̲h̲ām b. Aiyūb al-Ḥimyarī al-Baṣrī, an Arab grammarian, born in Baṣra, died in Fusṭāṭ in Egypt on the 13th Rabīʿ II 218 = 8th May 834, according ¶ to others in 213 a. h., wrote, besides his version of Ibn Isḥāḳ’s [q. v.] biography of the Prophet, a collection of biblical and South Arabian legends, entitled, Kitāb al-Tīd̲j̲ān, s. Ahlwardt, Verzeichnis der arab. Hdss. zu Berlin, N°. 9735; Rieu, Supplement to the Catalogue of Arab. Mss. in the Brit. Mus., N°. 578-579; Tunis, N°. 4953 a; Stambul, ʿĀṣim, N°. 691; al-Zaiyāt, Ḵh̲azāʾin al-Kutub fī Dimas̲h̲ḳ, p. 72, N°. 12; Manuscrit…

Ibn Hubaira

(722 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, 1. Abu ’l-Mut̲h̲annā ʿOmar b. Hubaira al-Fazārī, governor of the ʿIrāḳ. Ibn Hubaira was a native of Ḳinnasrīn and is mentioned in the reign of Sulaimān b. ʿAbd al-Malik as one at the leaders in the war against the Byzantines. In the summer 96-97 (715) the fleet was equipped and in the autumn he attacked Byzantine territory with it, while Maslama b. ʿAbd al-Malik conducted the operations on land. Ibn Hubaira spent the winter in Asia Minor and the following summer hostilities were resumed. At the end o…

Ibn Hubaira

(357 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, the name of two viziers: 1. ʿAwn al-Dīn Abu ’l-Muhẓaffar Yaḥyā b. Muḥammad b. Hubaira al-S̲h̲aibānī, born in 490 (1096-1097) or, according to another statement, in 497 (1103-1104). He was a native of Dūr Banī Àwḳar, a place five parasangs from Bag̲h̲dād, and studied in the latter city. After filling several offices he was installed in 542 (1147-1148) as chief of the Dīwān al-Zimām and in Rabīʿ II 544 (August 1149) the Caliph al-Muḳtafī appointed him vizier. After the death of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ Sulṭān Masʿūd b. Muḥammad in Rad̲j̲ab 547 (Oct. 1152) the governor …

Ibn Hubal

(177 words)

, Muhad̲h̲d̲h̲ib al-Dīn Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Aḥmad, a physician, born in Bag̲h̲dād 515 (1122), studied grammar and fiḳh at the Niẓāmīya but later turned to medicine. He became court physician to the S̲h̲āh-i Arman at Ḵh̲ilāṭ and there amassed great riches; he next entered the service of Badr al-Dīn Luʾluʾ at Mārdīn and finally went to al-Mawṣil. When he was 75 years old, he unfortunately became blind but lived till 610 (1213). His chief work is entitled al-Muk̲h̲tār fi ’l-Ṭibb, from which de Koning has published two chapters in Traité sur le calcul dans les reins et dans la vessie, p. 186 sqq. Ib…

Ibn ʿId̲h̲ārī

(182 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
(Ibn ʿAd̲h̲ārī), Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad al-Marrākus̲h̲ī, Arab historian of the Mag̲h̲rib and Spain, about whom we have no information further than that he flourished about the end of the viith (xiiith) century, with which his chronicle concludes. The latter is of special interest as it contains portions of lost works. It is called al-Bayān al-mug̲h̲rib fī Ak̲h̲bār al-Mag̲h̲rib and is not preserved in its entirety. Ibn ʿId̲h̲ārī also wrote a history of the East, which we only know by name. Dozy published the text of al-Bayān al-Mug̲h̲rib: Histoire de l’Afrique et de l’Espagne (Leyden 18…

Ibn Isfandiyār

(250 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan, a Persian historian, of whom we only know what little he tells us in the beginning of his chronicle of his native land of Ṭabaristān, returned in 606 (1210) from Bag̲h̲dād to ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī after hearing of the murder of his patron Rustam b. Ardas̲h̲īr, governor of Ṭabaristān. In deep grief he spent two months in Raiy collecting material for his work and studying in the libraries. He then spent five years in the town of Ḵh̲wārizm, where he found by accident in a bookseller’…

Ibn Isḥāḳ

(690 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad, an Arab author and authority on Tradition, was the grandson of Yasār, who was captured in the year 12 = 633 in the church at ʿAin al-Tamr in the ʿIrāḳ and brought to Medīna, where he became a client of the tribe of ʿAbd Allāḥ b. Ḳais. Muḥammad also grew up there; he devoted his attention to the collection of stories and legends of the life of the Prophet and thus soon ¶ came into conflict with the representatives of religious and legal tradition which dominated public opinion in the town, notably with Mālik b. Anas who decried him as being a S̲…

Ibn Iyās

(764 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
(in the popular dialect pronounced “Ayās”), Muḥammad b. Aḥmad, is the most important Arab chronicler of the period of the decline of the Mamlūks. Born in 852 (1448) he seems to have been nearly 80 when he died, for his history comes down to the year 928. His family was of Turkish origin. His paternal grandfather, Iyās al-Fak̲h̲rī, a Turkish slave, called ‘min Ḏj̲unaid’ after his owner, was sold to Sulṭān Zāhir Barḳūḳ [q. v.], enrolled among his Mamlūks and reached the rank of second Dawādār. His great grandfather (his father’s maternal grandfather) had rise…
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