Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Ibn al-Ḳāḍī

(476 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abu ’l-Abbās Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Abi ’l-ʿĀfīya al-Miknāsī, known as Ibn al-Ḳāḍī, a descendant of Mūsā b. Abi ’l-ʿĀfiya al-Miknāsī, belonging to the great tribe of Zenāta of Morocco, born in 960 (1552-1553). Jurisconsult, man of letters, historian, poet and above all mathematician, he studied with his father, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Mand̲j̲ūr, al-Ḳaṣṣār, Abū Zakarīyā Yaḥyā al-Sarrād̲j̲, Ibn Mud̲j̲bir al-Massārī, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Ḏj̲allāl, Aḥmad Bābā, Abū Muḥammad ʿA…

Ibn Ḳāḍī S̲h̲uhba

(106 words)

, Taḳī al-Dīn Abū Bekr Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. ʿOmar al-Asadī al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī, an Arab biographer, born in 779 (1377), died 851 (1448). He successively filled various offices, as Mudarris, Ḳāḍī, chief Ḳāḍī, etc. and devoted particular attention to the Chronicle of al-Ḏh̲ahabī [q. v.], which he continued and of which he prepared a synopsis. Another work of his is the Ṭabaḳāt al-S̲h̲āfiʿīya. His son Abu ’l-Faḍl Muḥammad, died 874 (1469), wrote not only a biography of his father but also several other less important works which are detailed by Brockelmann, Gesch. d. arab. Litt., ii. 30. Bibliograp…

Ibn Ḳāḍī Simāwna

(482 words)

, Badr al-Dīn Maḥmūd b. Ismāʿīl, a Turkish jurist and mystic, born at Simaw, a town in the Sand̲j̲āḳ of Kutahiya, where his father was Ḳāḍī. According to an uncorroborated statement, he was a descendant of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ Sulṭāns; we have more authority for the statement that he studied in Cairo, was the teacher of Farad̲j̲ afterwards Mamlūk Sulṭān, and later went to Armenia, where he entered a Ṣūfī order, whose s̲h̲aik̲h̲ was Ḥusain Ak̲h̲lātī. He is said to have disputed about this time in Tiflīs befo…

Ibn al-Ḳaisarānī

(117 words)

, under this name are known: 1. Abu ’l-Faḍl Muḥammad b. Ṭāhir al-Maḳdisī, an Arab philologist, born 448 (1058), died 507 (1113). De Jong has published an edition of one of his writings under the title Homonyma inter nomma relativa (Lugd. Bat. 1865). The Arabic title is given in Brockelmann, Gesch. d. arab. Litt., i. 355, where further references are given. There has also been printed his Kit. al-Ḏj̲amʿ baina Kitābai Abī Naṣr al-Kalābad̲h̲ī wa-Abī Bakr al-Iṣbahānī fī Rid̲j̲āl al-Buk̲h̲arī wa-Muslim, Ḥaidarābād 1323. 2. Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Naṣr, S̲h̲araf al-Dīn, an Arab poet, bor…

Ibn Ḳais al-Ruḳaiyāt

(558 words)

Author(s): Rhodokanakis, N.
, ʿUbaid Allāh, a notable poet of the Umaiyad period. By descent he was a Ḳuras̲h̲ī although he did not belong to one of the most distinguished families of this tribe. His life is bound up with the wars waged about the caliphate between Ibn al-Zubair in Mecca and the Umaiyads in Damascus. The poet who had lost several relatives in the battle of the Ḥarra [q. v.] was a passionate champion of the Zubairids; but he seems to have had sufficient political insight to regret profoundly the struggle in wh…

Ibn Ḳaiyim al-Ḏj̲awzīya

(298 words)

, i. e. the son of the director of the Madrasa al-Ḏj̲awzīya at Damascus, whose real name was S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Abī Bakr, a Ḥanbalī theologian and disciple of the celebrated Ibn Taimīya, 691—751 (1292—1356). “He was in every respect a faithful disciple of his teacher and he adopted the latter’s literary mode. Even during the lifetime of Ibn Taimīya he was persecuted and as he condemned the pilgrimage to Hebron, he was thrown into prison. Like his teacher he combats the philosophers, the Christians, and the Jew…

Ibn Ḳalāḳis

(107 words)

, Abu ’l-Futūḥ Naṣr Allāh b. ʿAbd Allāh, an Arab poet, born in Alexandria in 532 (1138). He spent the years 563—565 (1168-1169) in Sicily where a certain Ḳāʾid Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Ibn al-Ḥad̲j̲ar was his patron; to him he dedicated a work entitled al-Zuhr al-bāsim fī Awṣāf Abi ’l-Ḳāsīm; he then went to Yemen and died at ʿAid̲h̲āb in 567 (1171). His not very extensive Dīwān was published in Cairo in 1323 by Ḵh̲alīl Maṭrān; this edition is very incomplete in comparison to the ms. Paris Bibl. Nat., N°. 3139, Bibliography Ibn Ḵh̲allikān, Wafayāt (ed. Wüstenfeld), N°. 772 Brockelmann, Gesch. d. arab. Litt.,…

Ibn al-Ḳalānisī

(87 words)

, Abū Yaʿlā Ḥamza b. Asad al-Tamīmī, an Arab historian, belonged to a prominent family in Damascus and died there in 555 (1160). He continued the chronicle of Hilāl al-Ṣābiʾ, which stops in the year 448, down to 555 and gave his work the simple title Ḏh̲ail. The work was frequently copied by later authors and has been published by H. F. Amedroz (1908) from the Oxford Ms., which is defective at the beginning, and starts in the year 363. Cf. the editor’s preface.

Ibn Kamāl

(5 words)

[See kamālpas̲h̲azāde.]

Ibn Ḳasī

(100 words)

, Aḥmad, s̲h̲aik̲h̲ of the Ṣūfīs, set up in Spain about 1140 as a Mahdī and took possession of Mertola and other places (1144). He was then delivered up by his followers to the Almohads and pardoned by ʿAbd al-Muʾmin. He lived for a time at the court of these rulers till one of his former followers murdered him. He was also an author and wrote a book called Ḵh̲alʿ al-Naʿlain fi ’l-Taṣawwuf. Cf. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, iii. 171; Cal. Wien (Flügel), iii. 401. Bibliography ʿAbd al-Wāḥid al-Marrākus̲h̲ī (ed. Dozy), p. 150 Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, Muḳaddima (ed. Quatremère), i. 327.

Ibn Ḳāsim

(264 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, Th. W.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. al-Ḳāsim al-ʿUtaḳī, was the Imām Mālik’s most prominent pupil. He studied under him for 20 years and after Mālik’s death was regarded as the greatest Mālikī teacher. Through him Mālikī teaching was disseminated in the Mag̲h̲rib, where it is still predominant. He died in Cairo in 191 (806). One of the chief works of the Mālikīs, the socalled Mudawwana is usually ascribed to Ibn al-Ḳāsim. It was originally put together by Asad b. al-Furāt and consists of the answers of Ibn al-Ḳāsim to Asad’s questions on the doctrine of Mālik …

Ibn al-Ḳāsim al-G̲h̲azzī

(103 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, Th. W.
, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad, a S̲h̲āfiʿī scholar, who wrote glosses on the celebrated ʿAḳāʾid of al-Nasafī (Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, iv. 222), which are no longer extant, and a commentary, still very popular, on the little manual of Muslim law by Abū S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ, which has been often printed in the east and also publ. and transl. by L. W. C. van den Berg ( Fatḥ al-Qarîb, Commentaire sur le précis de jurisprudence musulmane d’Abou Chodjâʿ par Ibn Qâsim al-Ghazzî, Leide 1894); cf. E. Sachau, Muhammedanisches Recht nach schafiitischer Lehre, Berlin 1897. He died in 918 (1512). (Th. W…

Ibn Kat̲h̲īr

(350 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
1. ʿAbd Allāh, Abū Bakr, Abū Maʿbad (corrupted to Abū Saʿīd), one of the seven canonical Ḳurʾān readers, born in 45 (665) in Mecca, belonged to a Persian family which had migrated to South Arabia, was a client of ʿAmr b. ʿAlḳama al-Kinānī and from his trade of druggist was called al-Dārī or al-Dārānī; he filled the office of Ḳāḍī ’l-Ḏj̲amāʿa in Mecca and died there in 120 = 738. His manner of reciting the Ḳurʾān was transmitted by the two readers Ḳanbal i. e. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Mak̲h̲zūmī (…

Ibn K̲h̲āḳān

(556 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, the name of three viziers: 1. Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿUbaid Allāh b. Yaḥyā b. Ḵh̲āḳān. Appointed secretary of state in 236 (850-851), ʿUbaid Allāh was raised to the vizierate by al-Mutawakkil and held this office till the latter’s assassination in 247 (861). Towards the end of the year 245 (860) he brought about the fall of Nad̲j̲āḥ b. Salama, the minister of finance; the latter was tortured to death and his property confiscated. Along with al-Fatḥ b. Ḵh̲āḳān [q. v.] ʿUbaid Allāh was the declared favourite of al-Muta…

Ibn K̲h̲ālawaih

(455 words)

Author(s): van Arendonk, C.
(Ḵh̲ālōya), AbūʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥusaim b. Aḥmad b. Ḥamdān al-Hamad̲h̲ānī, a notable Arab grammarian and lexicographer. The year of his birth is not mentioned; he was a native of Hamad̲h̲ān and came in 314 to Bag̲h̲dād, where he studied the Ḳurʾān with Ibn Mud̲j̲āhid (d. 324) and Abū Saʿīd al-Sīrāfī (d. 368), grammar and Adab with Ibn Duraid [q. v.], Nifṭawaih (d. 323), Ibn al-Anbārī [q. v.], Abū ʿOmar al-Zāhid (d. 345), and ḥadīt̲h̲ with Muḥammad b. Mak̲h̲lad al-ʿAṭṭār (d. 331) and others. He afterwards went to Syria and settled in Ḥalab; according to al-Ḏh̲ahabī he al…

Ibn K̲h̲aldūn

(147 words)

Author(s): van Arendonk, C.
Additions to the Bibliography: S. van den Bergh, Umriss der muḥammedanischen Wissenschaften nach Ibn Ḫaldūn, Diss. Freiburg i. B. 1912, Leyden 1912; T. Hussein, Etude analytique et critique de la philosophie sociale d’Ibn Khaldoun, Paris (Diss.) 1917; G. Bouthoul, ¶ lbn Khaldoun. Sa philosophie sociale, Paris 1930 N. Schmidt, Ibn Khaldun, historian, sociologist and philosopher, New York 1930; Kamil Ayad, Die Geschichts- und Gesellschaftslehre Ibn Ḫaldūns, Stuttgart-Berlin 1930 ( Forschungen zur Geschichtsund Gesellschaftslehre, ed. by Kurt Breysig, Heft 2); E. Rosenthal, Ibn…

Ibn K̲h̲aldūn

(2,050 words)

Author(s): Bel, Alfred
, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān and Yaḥyā, two Arab historians, descendants of a Seville family, who migrated to Tunis about the middle of the viith (xiiith) century and belonged to the Arab tribe of Kinda. Their ancestor Ḵh̲ālid, known as Ḵh̲aldūn (whence the name Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn for all members of the family) migrated from the Yemen to Spain in the iiird (ixth centary). There his descendants filled various important administrative offices, some in Carmona and some in Seville. The fall of the Spanish Almohad kingdom and continued conquests of the Christians caused the Ḵh̲…

Ibn K̲h̲allikān

(426 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Barmakī al-Irbilī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, an Arab author, born on the 11th Rabīʿ II 608 = 23rd Sept. 1211 at Arbela, studied from 626 under al-Ḏj̲awālīḳī and Ibn S̲h̲addād in Ḥalab and afterwards in Damascus. In 636 = 1238 he went to Cairo and became deputy of the chief ḳāḍī Yūsuf b. al-Ḥasan al-Sind̲j̲ārī. In 659 = 1201 he went as chief ḳāḍī to Damascus, but lost his office, the tenure of which after five years was limited to the S̲h̲āfiʿīs and after ten years abol…
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