Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

Subscriptions: see brill.com

Ibn Abi ’l-Rid̲j̲āl

(883 words)

Author(s): Griffini, E.
, Aḥmad b. Ṣāliḥ, Arab historian, jurist and poet, belonging to the S̲h̲īʿī sect of the Zaidīs in Yemen, born in S̲h̲aʿbān 1029 (July 1620) at al-S̲h̲abaṭ, a place in the Bilād Ḏh̲urā in the district of al-Ahnūm, died in the night of Wednesday the 6th Rabīʿ I 1092 (25th-26th March 1681) aged 62 years and 7 months and was buried at al-Rōḍa (an hour’s journey N. of Ṣanʿāʾ) near a house which belonged to him. He spent his whole life in Yemen. He studied the Ḳurʾān, tradition, and law at S̲h̲ehāra, Ṣaʿda, Taʿizz, Ibb, al-Ḥard̲j̲a and Ṣanʿāʾ and st…

Ibn Abī Randaḳa

(523 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
al-Ṭurṭūs̲h̲ī, Abū Bekr Muḥammad b. al-Walīd b. Muḥammad b. Ḵh̲alaf b. Sulaimān b. Aiyūb al-Fihrī, known by the names of al-Turṭūs̲h̲ī and Ibn Abī Randaḳa (Ibn Farḥūn vocalises it Rundaḳa), an Arab authority on law and tradition, born about 451 (1059-1060) at Tortosa, died in S̲h̲aʿbān 520 ¶ (22th Aug.—19th Sept. 1126) or, according to another account, in Ḏj̲umādā I 525 (April 1131) at the age of 75. After studying law and belles-lettres in his native town and afterwards in Saragossa with the Ḳāḍī Abu ’l-Walīd Sulaimān b. Ḵh̲alaf al-Bād̲j̲ī, h…

Ibn Abī Ṭāhir Ṭaifūr

(289 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl Aḥmad, Arab man of letters and historian, born 204 (819) at Bag̲h̲dād, died there in 280 (893), a descendant of an Irānian family from Ḵh̲urāsān (Marw al-Rūd̲h̲), which was among the devoted adherents ( Abnāʾ al-Dawla) of the ʿAbbāsids, was first of all a teacher, then a private tutor in wealthy families and finally followed the trade of a copyist of manuscripts, for which he opened a shop in the Sūḳ al-Warrāḳīn. A work by him on plagiarism ( Kitāb Sariḳāt al-S̲h̲uʿāraʾ), now lost, made him several enemies who charged him with superficiality and the lack of a thor…

Ibn Abī Uṣaibiʿa

(173 words)

, Muwaffaḳ al-Dīn Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. al-Ḳāsim al-Saʿdī al-Ḵh̲azkad̲j̲ī, physician and biographer, born in Damascus in 600 (1203), studied medicine there and afterwards in Cairo at the al-Nāṣirī hospital. Among his teachers special mention may be made of the botanist Ibn al-Baiṭār [q. v.]. In 634 (1236) he received a position in a hospital in Cairo, which he exchanged in the following year for the office of physician to the Emīr ʿIzz al-Dīn Aidemir in Ṣark̲h̲ad. There he died in 668 (1270). Ibn Abī Uṣ…

Ibn Abī Zaid

(350 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
al-Ḳairawānī, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Abī Zaid ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, a Mālikī jurist, belonged to a family which ¶ came from Nafza whence the ethnic al-Nafzī, but he was born in 310 (922-3) at Ḳairawān, where he died on Monday 30th S̲h̲aʿbān 386 = 14 September 996 and was buried in his house. He vigorously defended his school both in prose and verse and was perhaps the first who clearly expounded the principles of law. He was called Mālik the younger and was and still is regarded as an authority. His teachers were numerous not only in Africa but also…

Ibn Abī Zarʿ

(327 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan (var. abū ʿabd ʿallāh ʿalī) al-Fāsī, historian of the Mag̲h̲rib, author of two works, one entitled Zuhrat al-Bustān fī Ak̲h̲bār al-Zamān, which seems lost, the other al-Anīs al-muṭrib bi-Rawḍ al-Ḳirtās fī Ak̲h̲bār Mulūk al-Mag̲h̲rīb wa Taʾrīk̲h̲ Madīnat Fās. Nothing is known of the life of the author, who is also called Abū Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ b. ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm al-G̲h̲arnāṭī. His work, which begins with the Idrīsid dynasty, is very important for the history of Morocco to 724 (1324), a date which cannot be much before the year…

Ibn ʿAd̲h̲ārī

(6 words)

[See ibn al-ʿid̲h̲ārī.]

Ibn ʿAd̲j̲arrad

(256 words)

, ʿAbd al-Karīm, a Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ī sectarian, after whom his adherents are called ʿAd̲j̲ārida. We possess no data for his biography; from al-S̲h̲ahrastānī’s account it can only be deduced that he was one of the followers of ʿAṭīya b. al-Aswad al-Ḥanafi. This ʿAtīya however was at first a follower of Nad̲j̲da b. ʿĀmir [q. v.] but afterwards separated from him and became chief of the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲īs of Sid̲j̲istān, Ḵh̲orāsān, Kirmān and Kūhistān. His date is thus the first half of the viiith century and although he, like ʿAṭīya, had separated himself politically from Nad̲j̲da, both …

Ibn Ādjurrūm

(1,081 words)

Author(s): ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Dāwūd al-Ṣanhād̲j̲ī, known as Ibn Ād̲j̲urrūm, a Berber word which means, according to the commentators, religious man and ṣūfī (ascetic, S̲h̲ilḥa: agurram). His grandfather Dāwūd is said to have been the first to bear this name. His relatives belonged to the neighbourhood of the little town of Ṣafrū but he was born at Fās in 672 (1273-4) and died there on Sunday 20th Ṣafar 723 (1st March 1323). He was buried the next day within the town in the Andalusian quarter near the Bāb al-Ḏj̲īzyin (wrongly Bāb al-Ḥadīd) which now bears t…

Ibn al-Aḥmar

(7 words)

[See muḥammad b. yūsuf.]

Ibn al-Aḥnaf

(185 words)

Author(s): Weir, T. H.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl al-ʿAbbās, one of the court poets of Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd. His forefathers were Arabs of the tribe of Ḥanīfa in al-Yamāma who had settled in Ḵh̲urāsān, but much Persian blood flowed in his veins. He was maternal uncle of Ibrāhīm al-Ṣūlī. He accompanied Hārūn on his expeditions to Ḵh̲urāsān and Armenia, and when he died about 192 a. h. (808) al-Maʾmūn was ordered to perform his funeral rites, but al-Masʿūdī gives a different account of his end. Some say he survived al-Ras̲h̲īd. All his poetry is romantic or erotic in character, and rather affec…

Ibn (al-)ʿArabī

(1,030 words)

Author(s): Weir, T. H.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. ʿAlī, Muḥyi ’l-Dīn, al-Ḥātimī al-Ṭāʾī (as a descendant of Ḥātim al-Ṭāʾī [q. v.] ) al-Andalusī, a celebrated mystic of pantheistic doctrine, styled by his followers al-S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Akbar; in Spain he was also called Ibn Surāḳa but in the East generally Ibn ʿArabī, without the article, to distinguish him from the Ḳāḍī Abū Bakr Ibn al-ʿArabī [see next art.]. He was born 17th Ramaḍān 560 (28th July 1165) at Murcia. In 568 (1172-3) he removed to Seville which he made his home for nearly thirty years. There and also at Ceula he studied Ḥadīt̲h̲.…

Ibn al-ʿAlḳamī

(137 words)

Author(s): Weir, T. H.
, Muʾaiyad al-Dīn Abū Ṭālib Muḥammad b. Aḥmad, was the last ʿAbbāsid wazīr. His grandfather is said to have been named al-ʿAlḳamī on account of having dug the canal of that name [q. v.]. Ibn al-ʿAlḳamī was distinguished for his learning and integrity and for penmanship. He was a great collector of books and a patron of learning. Some authorities say that it was he who invited Hūlāgū to come to Bag̲h̲dād. After the capture of the city Ibn al-ʿAlḳamī was put in charge of it. He died a few months later in Ḏj̲umādā I 655 (1257). He had been wazīr to al-Mustaʿṣim [q. v.] for fourteen years. (T. H. Weir) Bibli…

Ibn al-ʿAmīd

(520 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, the name of two viziers: 1. Abu ’l-Faḍl Muḥammad b. Abī ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥusain b. Muḥammad al-Kātib, called Ibn al-Amīd after his father who was known as al-ʿAmīd and had been Mardāwīd̲j̲’s vizier. In 388 (939-940) Ibn al-ʿAmīd was appointed vizier by the Būyid Rukn al-Dawla. He was held in great esteem by the latter and his influence continued to increase. In 344 (955-6) the Ḵh̲orāsānians under Muḥammad b. Mākān advanced against al-Raiy and Iṣfahān, which fell into their hands. Ibn al-ʿAmīd was defeated; while …

Ibn ʿAmmār

(574 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
, a) Abū Ṭālib Amīn al-Dawla, al-Ḥasan, the S̲h̲iʿī Ḳāḍī of Tripolis, who seized the reins of government towards the middle of the fifth century a. h. after the death of the Fāṭimid governor Muk̲h̲tār al-Dawla b. Bazzāl and made himself independent of the Egyptian caliph. The town flourished under his rule and became the centre of the intellectual life of Syria. He founded a celebrated school and a library said to have contained over 100,000 volumes. After his death his nephew Ḏj̲alal al-Mulk Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥamma…

Ibn ʿAmmār

(393 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad, an Arab poet of Spain, of obscure origin but a cultivated man, lived in the vth (xith) century and at first led a wandering life, singing the praises of any one who cared to reward him. He met the governor al-Muʿtamid, son of al-Muʿtaḍid, Emīr of Seville, in Silves. This young prince took a liking to the wandering poet and made him his favourite. The latter, as ambitious and talented as he was poor, knew how to flatter his patron’s wishes, took part in his amusements and abetted him in them. Wh…

Ibn al-Anbārī

(27 words)

, s. al-Anbārī, i. 349b. The work mentioned there was completely edited by G. Weil in 1913, Die grammatischen Streitfragen der Basrer und Kufer.

Ibn al-ʿArabī

(160 words)

, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh, a Spanish traditionist, born at Seville 468 (1076), travelled in the east while still a boy with his father and studied under the most famous jurists of the day in Syria, Bag̲h̲dād, Mecca and Egypt, for example, al-Ṭurṭūs̲h̲ī and al-G̲h̲azālī [q. v.]. When his father died in 493 (1099) at Alexandria, he returned to Seville and there filled the office of chief Ḳāḍī. He was afterwards forced to migrate to Fās and continued his studies there till his death in 543 (1148)…
▲   Back to top   ▲