Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Ibn ʿArabs̲h̲āh

(600 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, J.
, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Ibrāhīm S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī al-Ḥanafī al-ʿAd̲j̲amī, born in 791 = 1392 in Damascus, was taken with his family to Samarḳand in 803, when Tīmūr conquered Damascus and carried off many of its inhabitants (cf. Vita Timuri, ed. Manger, Leovardiae, 1767—1772, ii. 143 sqq.); there he studied with al-Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ānī, al-Ḏj̲azarī and others, and learnedi Persian, Turkish, and Mongol. In 811 he went to Ḵh̲atā in Mongolia where he studied Ḥadīt̲h̲ with al-S̲h̲irāmī, later to Ḵh̲wārizm and Das̲h̲t (in Serāi and Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Tark̲h̲ā…

Ibn ʿAsākir

(391 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, the name of several Arab authors, of whom the following are the best known. 1. The historian of Damascus, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan b. Hibat Allāh Abu ’l-Ḳāsim T̲h̲iḳat al-Dīn al-S̲h̲āfīʿī born in Muḥarram 499 = Sept. 1105 in Damascus, studied in Bag̲h̲dād and the principal cities of Persia, became professor at the Madrasa al-Nūriya in his native city and died on the 11th Rad̲j̲ab = 25th January 1176. In his principal work, the Taʾrīk̲h̲ Madīnat Dimas̲h̲ḳ, he collected, after the fashion of the Taʾrīk̲h̲ Bag̲h̲dād of al-Ḵh̲aṭīb al-Bag̲h̲dādī, the biographies of all the men who had ever…

Ibn ʿĀṣim

(298 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Āṣim, a Mālikī jurist, author, and grammarian, born on the 12th Ḏj̲umādā I 760 (11th April 1359) at Granada, where he died on the 11th S̲h̲awwāl 829 (15th Aug. 1426). During his studies he continued to tollow the trade of a bookbinder and latter filled the delicate duties of chief ḳāḍī of Granada. His teachers were Abū Saʿīd Farad̲j̲ b. Ḳāsim b. Aḥmad b. Lubb al-T̲h̲aʿlabī, chief muftī of Granada, the author Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Ḳaid̲j̲aṭī, the celebra…

Ibn ʿAskar

(200 words)

Author(s): Weir, T. H.
, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. ʿOmar b. Ḥusain b. Mīṣbāḥ, was born at al-Hibṭ in the district of Ḳaṣr al-Ṣag̲h̲īr in north Morocco. He is known to fame as the author of the Dawḥat al-Nās̲h̲ir li-Maḥāsin man kāna min al-Mag̲h̲ribmin Ahl al-Ḳarn al-ʿās̲h̲ir, a collection of biographies of learned men and saints whom he had known personally or at second hand, composed about the year 1575. The Ḥasanī S̲h̲arīf ʿAbd Allāh al-G̲h̲ālib was, contrary to custom, succeeded by his son Muḥammad in 1573. War broke out between Muḥammad and his uncle ʿAbd al-M…

Ibn al-ʿAssāl

(556 words)

Author(s): Macdonald, D. B.
During the first half of the xiiith century a. d. there took place among the Copts a pronounced religious and intellectual renaissance, assuming, by the necessity of the case, an Arabic form. In it three brothers, known as the Awlād al-ʿAssāl, were prominent. Al-ʿAssāl, the father, to judge from the titles given to him in the MSS., was of high rank and good family, and there is mention also of a dār, or great house, in Cairo as belonging to an Ibn al-ʿAssāl. Unfortunately this name is given in the MSS. to all the three brothers, and the resultant confusion was first fairly disentangled by Rieu ( Supp…

Ibn ʿAṭāʾ Allāh

(233 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad abu ’l-Faḍl Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn al-Iskandarī al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲īlī, an Arab mystic and one of the most vigorous opponents of Ibn Taimīya [q. v.], died on the 16 Ḏj̲umādā II 709 = 21 Nov. 1309 in the Madrasa al-Manṣūrīya in Cairo. Of his works detailed by Brockelmann, Gesch. d. ar. Litt., II, 117-118, there have been printed 1) al-Ḥikam al-ʿAṭāʾīya with the commentary of Muḥammad b. Ibrāhim b. ʿAbbād al-Nafzī al-Rondī, died 796 = 1394, Būlāḳ 1285, Cairo 1303, 1306 (with the commentary of ʿAbd Allāh al-S̲h̲arḳāwī on the margins). On it there is a Turkish commentary al-Muḥkam fī S̲h̲arḥ…

Ibn Aʿt̲h̲am al-Kūfī

(177 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī, Arab historian, of whom we only know that he died about 314 = 926 (s. Frähn, Indications bibliographiques, p. 16), whom Wüstenfeld ( Geschichtschr., N°. 541) erroneously places in the year 1003 a. h. He wrote from the S̲h̲īʿī point of view a romantic history of the early caliphs and their conquests, Pertsch, Verzeichnis der arab. Hdss. der Herzogl. Bibl. zu Gotha, N°. 1592, which Muḥammad b. Muḥammad Mustawfī al-Harawī translated into Persian in 596 = 1199, s. Rieu, Catalogue of the Persian Mss. in the British Museum, i. 150 (where other Mss. are detailed), from wh…

Ibn al-At̲h̲īr

(690 words)

This name was born by three brothers, natives of Ḏj̲azīrat Ibn ʿOmar [q. v.] who are among the most celebrated and important Arab scholars and authors. 1. The oldest brother was 1. Mad̲j̲d al-Dīn Abū ’l-Ṣaʿādāt al-Mubārak b. Muḥammad, born in 544 (1149), died at Mōṣul in 606 (1310) cf. Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Kāmil, xii. 190. He devoted himself mainly to the study of the Ḳurʾān, tradition and Arabic grammar. The titles of the works composed by him are given by Ibn Ḵh̲allikān, Wafayāt, ed. Wüstenfeld, N°. 524, Yāḳūt, Irs̲h̲ād, ed. Margoliouth, vi. 238 sqq,, and by Brockelmann, Gesch., i. 357. As to …

Ibn al-ʿAwwām

(237 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, whose full name was Abū Zakarīyā Yaḥyā b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. al-ʿAwwām al-Is̲h̲bīlī, the author of a large work on agriculture, Kitāb al-Falāḥa. Practically nothing is known of the life of this author; we only know that he flourished towards to end of the xiith century and that he lived in Seville. Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn mentions him although not being acquainted with his book which he considers a recension of al-Falāḥa al-Nabaṭīya [see ibn al-waḥs̲h̲īya]; neither Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa non Ibn Ḵh̲allikān quote him. Casiri in his Catalogue was the first to call attention to the complete m…

Ibn Bābūya

(270 words)

Author(s): Hosain, M. Hidayet
, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Ḥusain b. Mūsā al-Ḳummī al-Ṣadūḳ, was one of the four greatest of the collectors of the S̲h̲īʿa Traditions. In the prime of life, 355 (966), he went from Ḵh̲urāsān to Bag̲h̲dād and many learned men of the place became his pupils. He died in Rai 381 (991) and is also known as al-Ṣadūḳ. Of his writings the following may be mentioned: 1. Kitāb man lā yaḥḍuruhu ’l-Faḳīh, a work on the S̲h̲īʿa Traditions. It is one of the four books of S̲h̲īʿa Traditions, called al-Kutub al-Arbaʿa. [The other three are a. al-Kāfī by Abu Ḏj̲aʿfar Muḥammad b. Yaʿḳūb al-Kulīnī, d. …

Ibn Bad̲j̲d̲j̲ā

(338 words)

i. e. Avenpace (according to Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn bād̲j̲d̲j̲a is a Frankish word, meaning silver) or to give him his proper name Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Yaḥyā, also known by the name of Ibn al-Ṣaʿig̲h̲, i. e. filius Aurificis, a celebrated Arab philosopher. Ibn Bād̲j̲d̲j̲a was born in Saragossa towards the end of the vth (xith) century and was for about 20 years vizier to Abū Bakr b. Ibrāḥīm, a brother-in-law of the Almoravid ʿAlī b. Yūsuf, who acted as the latter’s governor in Granada and afterwards in Saragossa. He afterwards went to Fās and there fell a vi…

Ibn al-Baiṭār

(445 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmad Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn Ibn al-Baiṭar al-Mālaḳī, the celebrated botanist and herbalist. He probably belonged to the Ibn al-Baiṭār family of Malaga (cf. Ibn al-Abbār, al-Muʿd̲j̲am, N°. 35, 165, 241) and was born in the last quarter of the vith (xiith) century. As his teacher of botanical subjects, special mention should be made ¶ of Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Nabātī, with whom he used to collect plants in the vicinity of Seville. When about 20 he set out to travel through North Africa, Morocco, Algiers and Tunis to study botany. Reaching E…

Ibn Baḳīya

(240 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Naṣīr al-Dawla Abu ’l-Ṭāhir Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Baḳīya, Bak̲h̲tiyār’s vizier. Ibn Baḳīya was born in Awānā and was of humble origin. He was first employed at Muʿizz al-Dawla’s court as master of the kitchen and in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 362 (Sept. 973) Bak̲h̲tiyār gave him the office of vizier. After the conquest of Bag̲h̲dād and the imprisonment of Bak̲h̲tiyār in 364 (975) by ʿAḍud al-Dawla, Ibn Baḳīya went over to the latter and was granted Wāsiṭ and the surrounding country. As soon as he entered th…

Ibn al-Baladī

(101 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, S̲h̲araf al-Dīn Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Saʿīd, al-Mustand̲j̲id’s vizier. In 563 (1166-8) Ibn al-Baladī, who at that time was Nāẓir in Wāsiṭ, was appointed vizier. There was an old feud between him and the Ustād-dar ʿAḍud al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh. After the murder of the caliph in Rabīʿ II 566 (December 1170) by ʿAḍud al-Dīn and the Emīr Ḳuṭb al-Dīn, they forced his successor al-Mustaḍīʾ to appoint ʿAḍud al-Dīn vizier, whereupon Ibn al-Baladī was executed. (K. V. Zetterstéen) Bibliography Ibn al-Ṭiḳṭaḳā, al-Fak̲h̲rī (ed. Derenbourg), p. 426—9 Ibn al-At̲h̲īr (ed. Tornb…

Ibn al-Bannāʾ

(521 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.—Suter, H.
(“son of the architect”), whose full name was Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. ʿOt̲h̲mān al-Azdī, a versatile Moroccan scholar, especially distinguished in mathematics, astronomy, astrology and other secret sciences, and also in medecine. He was born in Marrākus̲h̲ on the 9th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 654 = 38th Dec. 1256 (according to others 639, 649 or even 656). After studying grammar, Ḥadīt̲h̲, Fiḳh, and mathematics in his native town, he went to Fās where he studied under the physician al-Mirrīk̲h̲, the mathematician Ibn Ḥad̲j̲la, and the …

Ibn Barrī

(256 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad ¶ b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥusain al-Ribāṭī, an Arab philologist, born about 660 (1261-2) at Tāza, where he died in 730 or 731 or 733 (1329—1333) and was buried, although some place his tomb in Fās, wrongly. Widely acquainted with Islāmic sciences he was particularly esteemed as an authoritative critic of the different recensions of the Ḳurʾān and his al-Durar al-Lawāmiʿ is as popular in North Africa as the Ād̲j̲urrūmīya. After being ʿadl (professional witness) for a period he was appointed to conduct the official correspondence of the gove…

Ibn Barrī

(338 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Barrī b. ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲abbār b. Barrī al-Maḳdisī al-Miṣrī, Arab grammarian and philologist, born at Damascus 5th Rad̲j̲ab 499 (13th March 1106), died at Cairo in the night of Friday/Saturday 27th S̲h̲awwāl 582 (9th-10th Jan. 1187), a scholar of extraordinary repute, who is considered a philological authority and is called by many “king of the grammarians”. The author of the Lisān al-ʿArab has borrowed a great deal from him. His teachers were the grammarians Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Malik al-S̲h̲antarīnī, Abū Ṭālib ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲abbār…

Ibn Bas̲h̲kuwāl

(339 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Ḵh̲alaf b. ʿAbd al-Malik b. Masʿūd b. Mūsā b. Bas̲h̲kuwāl b. Yūsuf b. Dāḥa b. Dāḳa b. Naṣr b. ʿAbd al-Karīm b. Wāḳid al-Anṣārī, Arabic biographer, a descendant of a family belonging to S̲h̲orroyon (Xorroyón, Sorrión) near Valencia, born on the 3d Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 494 = 29th Sept. 1101 at Cordova, acquired here and in Seville a great knowledge of Tradition and the history of his native land and was for a period representative of the Ḳāḍī Abū Bakr Ibn al-ʿArabī in a quarter of Seville. He died at Cordova on the night of Tuesday/Wednesday the 8th Ramaḍān 578 = 4th/5th Jan. 1183. Hi…

Ibn Baṭṭūṭa

(458 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
(Baṭūṭa), Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm, Abū ʿAbd Allāh, al-Lawāṭī al-Ṭand̲j̲ī, Arab traveller and author, born on the 14th Rad̲j̲ab 703 = 24th Febr. 1304 at Tangier, began the pilgrimage to Mecca 725 = 1325. He went via North Africa through Upper Egypt to the Red Sea. As he could not find a safe crossing here he turned back and reached his destination via Syria and Palestine. From Mecca he went through the ʿIrāḳ and thence visited Persia as well as Mōṣul and Diyār Bakr. He next paid a second visit to Me…
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