Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Ibn al-Bawwāb

(162 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, “the porter’s son” a name of Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Hilāl, a celebrated Arab calligrapher, son of a porter of the audience hall of Bag̲h̲dād. He was also called Ibn al-Sitrī. He died in 413 = 1022 or 423 = 1032 and was buried beside the tomb of Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal. He had a wide knowledge of law, knew the Ḳurʾān by heart, and wrote ¶ out 64 copies of it. One of these written in Rīḥānī-script is in the Lāleli mosque in Constantinople, to which it was given by Sulṭān Selīm I. The Dīwān of the pre-Islāmic poet Salāma b. Ḏj̲andal, copied by him, is in the library of the Aya Ṣōfya. He invented the Rīḥāni and M…

Ibn Bībī

(232 words)

, Nāṣir al-Dīn Yaḥyā b. Mad̲j̲d al-Dīn Muḥammad Tard̲j̲umān (the “interpreter”), Persian historian. His father was muns̲h̲ī and interpreter at the court of the Sald̲j̲ūḳs of Asia Minor and more than once a member of diplomatic missions to foreign princes. He died in 670 = 1272. He received the name Ibn Bībī from his mother, who had a great reputation as a fortuneteller and was therefore held in great esteem by Sulṭān Kaiḳubād I (616—634=: 1220—1237); we know nothing of the life of Ibn Bībī himself, but he appears to have been well acquainted with the famous Mongol vizier ʿAtā3 Malik Ḏj̲uwainī…

Ibn Buṭlān

(260 words)

, Joannes or Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Muk̲h̲tār b. Ḥasan, a Christian physician in Bag̲h̲dād. From there he set out in 440 (1049) via al-Raḥba and al-Ruṣāfa to Halab and thence to Anṭākiya and Lād̲h̲iḳiya, finally reaching al-Fusṭāṭ in Egypt, where he met his colleague ʿAlī b Riḍwān. Their intercourse led to sharp polemics and produced several controversial pamphlets. Extracts from Ibn Buṭlān’s epistle are given in Ibn al-Ḳifṭī Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Ḥukamāʾ, ed. Lippert, p. 298 sqq. Relations finally became so strained that Ibn Buṭlān left Egypt and went to Constantinople, where the p…

Ibn al-Daibaʿ

(609 words)

Author(s): van Arendonk, C.
was called after his ancestor ʿAlī b. Yūsuf ( Daibaʿ is said to mean “white” in Nubian, according to al-Muḥibbī, Ḵh̲ulāṣat al-At̲h̲ar, iii. 192, and Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs, v. 325), the South Arabian Historian and Tradition is t Abū ʿAbd Allāh ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. ʿUmar… b. Alī b. Yūsuf, Wad̲j̲īh al-Dīn al-S̲h̲aibānī al-Zabīdī, who was born on the 4th Muḥarram 866 (9th Oct. 1461) at Zabīd. From his tenth year he had the benefit of the tuition of his uncle, Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl, Muftī of Zabīd, under whose guidance, after learning the …

Ibn Daiṣān

(450 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Syrian philosopher of Parthian origin, known by his graecised Syriac name Bardesanes. His father was called Nuhama, his mother Nahsiram; both migrated from Persia to Edessa after 139 a. d. Their son was born in 154 and received his name from the river Daisān which waters Edessa. Brought up at the court of king Maʿnū along with the latter’s son Abgar he learned astronomy and astrology; in 179 he was converted to Christianity by Bishop Hystaspes. Although an opponent of Valentine, Marcion and the other gnostics, he created …

Ibn Dāwūd

(1,213 words)

Author(s): Bajraktarević, Fehim
, whose full name was Abū Bakr Muḥammad Ibn (Abī Sulaimān) Dāwūd al-Iṣfahānī, a Ẓāhirī jurist and celebrated Bag̲h̲dād anthologist and poet (868-909). He was the son and successor of the founder of the Ẓāhirī school of law, Dāwūd b. ʿAlī (815— 883) whose family came from Iṣfahān. While quite a youth he showed a great bent for literature and fondness for the society of men of letters; he was, for example, friendly with the poet al-Buḥturī, was considerably influenced by his literary mentor Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā al-Sh.aibānī (cf. Margoliouth, Irs̲h̲ād, i. 4), and when barely 20 (about 890) wrote his Kit…

Ibn Ḏj̲ahīr

(748 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, the name of four viziers: 1. Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Ḏj̲ahīr, born in Mōṣul in 398 (1007-8). He first entered the service of the ¶ Banū ʿUḳail, who had been ruling in his native city since 386 (996); but when the ʿUḳailid Ḳurais̲h̲ b. Badrān wished to throw him into prison he fled to Aleppo where the Mirdāsid Muʿizz al-Dawla b. Ṣāliḥ appointed him his vizier. He next left Aleppo and was appointed vizier to Naṣr al-Dawla Aḥmad b. Marwān, lord of Diyār Bakr. After the latter’s death in 453 (1061-2)…

Ibn Ḏj̲amāʿa

(409 words)

, the name of family of scholars belonging to Ḥamāt, whose members are therefore quoted by this name only and not infrequently confused with one another. Here may be mentioned: 1. Badr al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm al-Kinānī al-Ḥamawī an Arab. jurist, bom 639 (1241) and died 733 (1333). He studied at Damascus and was afterwards mudarris there; in 687 (1288) he became ḳāḍī of Jerusalem, in 690 (1291) chief ḳāḍī of Cairo, in 693 (1294) chief ḳāḍī of Damascus. From 702 he again held the office of chief ḳāḍī of Cairo, with one…

Ibn al-Ḏj̲arrāḥ

(666 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, the name of two viziers: 1. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿĪsā b. Dāʾūd. After the dismissal of Ibn Muḳla in 324 (936) the Caliph al-Rāḍī offered the vacant office to the former vizier ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā; but as he declined the offer, on the grounds of old age and feeble health, the office was given to his brother ʿAbd al-Raḥmān. But the latter was not fit for the onerous duties and only held office for three months; he was then thrown into prison with his brother and condemned to pay a heavy fine. In 329 (941) he again ap…

Ibn al-Ḏj̲awzī

(150 words)

, Sibṭ, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Abu ’l-Muhẓaffar Yūsuf b. Ḳizog̲h̲lū, grandson of the preceding on his mother’s side. His father Ḳizog̲h̲lū was a Turkish slave of the vizier Ibn Hubaira [q. v.] and afterwards manumitted by him. Yūsuf was born in 582 (1186) in Bag̲h̲dād and brought up by his grandfather; he studied in his native city, set out to travel in 600 and finally became professor and preacher in Damascus, where he died in 684 (1257). He is the author of a universal history (not yet printed) in several volumes, entitled Mirʾāt al-Zamān fī Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Aʿyān. The latter part of it covering th…

Ibn al-Ḏj̲awzī

(412 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad Abu ’l-Farad̲j̲ (Abu ’l-Faḍāʾil) Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn, an Arab author, Ḥanbalī faḳīh, preacher and universal historian, born in 510 = 1116 at Bag̲h̲dād, settled there after the usual journeys of study, and died in 597 = 1200. His ardent devotion to his mad̲h̲hab led to the strictest criticism of Tradition; he even prepared an edition of al-G̲h̲azālī’s Iḥyāʾ purified of all weak traditions. His literary activity covered all the knowledge of his time. He exercised the greatest influence as a preacher (cf. Ibn Ḏj̲ubair, 2nd ed., p. 220 sqq.); his numerous edif…

Ibn al-Ḏj̲azarī

(922 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Abu ’l-Ḵh̲air Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Yūsuf al-Ḏj̲azarī, an Arab theologian and authority on the readings ( ḳirāʾāt) of the Ḳurʾān, born at Damascus in the night of Friday/Saturday 25th Ramaḍān 751 (30th Nov.—1th Dec. 1350), know the Ḳurʾān by heart by the year 763 (1363) and a year later was able to recite pieces from it in prayer. After devoting some attention to Ḥadīt̲h̲, he studied the various ways of reading the Ḳurʾān, of which he mastered seven in 768 (1367). In the same year he ma…

Ibn Ḏj̲azla

(234 words)

Author(s): Weir, T. H.
, Abū ʿAlī Yaḥyā b. ʿĪsā of Bag̲h̲dād, known in the West as Ben Gesla, was a Christian, but, under the influence of his Muʿtazilī schoolmaster, he turned Muḥammadan on the ¶ 11th Ḏj̲umādā II 466 (11th Febr. 1074). On account of his fine handwriting he was employed as copyist by the Ḥanafī ḳāḍī at Bag̲h̲dād. He learnt medicine from Saʿīd b. Hibat Allāh, physician to the Caliph al-Muḳtadī. He lived in the Ḳark̲h̲ quarter of Bag̲h̲dād and not only gave his services both to the people of that quarter and to his own acquaintances witho…

Ibn Ḏj̲innī

(259 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, J.
, Abu ’l-Fatḥ ʿUt̲h̲mān, was born in Mōṣul before 300 a. h. (Pröbster, p. x., ca. 320), the son of a Greek slave belonging to Sulaimān b. Fahd b. Aḥmad al-Azdī. His teacher was the Baṣrī Abū ʿAlī al-Fārisī al-Fasawī, with whom he was associated for forty years till the latter’s death, partly at the court of Saif al-Dawla in Ḥalab and partly at the court of ʿAḍud al-Dawla in Persia; according to Yāḳūt, he held the post of Kātib al-Ins̲h̲āʾ at the court of the latter and his successor. In both places he was on friendly terms with al-Mutanabbī, with whom he discussed grammatical questions and on whose Dīw…

Ibn Ḏj̲ubair

(257 words)

, Abu ’l-Ḥusain Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Kinānī, Arab traveller, born at Valencia in 540 (1145), studied fiḳh and ḥadīt̲h̲ at Játiva, to which his family belonged. As secretary to the governor of Granada Abū Saʿīd b. ʿAbd al-Muʾmin, he is said to have been forced to drink wine on one occasion and to atone for this sin he undertook a pilgrimage. From Granada he set out in 1183 via Tarifa to I Ceuta and thence by ship to Alexandria. As the ¶ Christians barred the usual way to Mecca he had to travel by Cairo, Ḳūs, ʿAid̲h̲āb and Ḏj̲idda. He afterwards visited Medīna, Kūfa, Bag̲h̲dād…

Ibn Duḳmāḳ

(377 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, J.
, Ṣārim al-Dīn Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad al-Miṣrī (the name is derived from the Turkish tuḳmaḳ “hammer”, cf. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, ii. 102) was a zealous Ḥanafī and wrote a work on the ṭabaḳāṭ of the Ḥanafīs, Naẓm al-Ḏj̲umān, in 3 volumes, the first of which deals with Abū Ḥanīfa (Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, iv. 136, vi. 317); on account of his depreciatory references to al-S̲h̲āfiʿī he was flogged and thrown into prison. His history of Egypt, Nuzhat al-Anām, in about 12 vols, to the year 779, was of the greatest importance (Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, ii. 102; vi. 323; G. Weil, Gesch. d. Chalifen, iv. vii. sq.)…

Ibn l-Dumaina

(283 words)

Author(s): van Arendonk, C.
, ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUbaid Allāh b. Aḥmad, Abu ’l-Sarī, an Arab poet ¶ of the clan of ʿĀmir b. Taim Allāh of Ḵh̲at̲h̲ʿam. Very little is known of his life. In the Kit. al-Ag̲h̲ānī it is related that he treacherously slew Muzāḥim b. ʿAmr, a relative of his wife Ḥammāʾ who had relations with her and had reviled him in a poem, and then strangled Ḥammāʾ and beat to death her little daughter. Ibn al-Dumaina was arrested on the accusation of Ḏj̲anāḥ, the murdered man’s brother, but was released for want of evidence. A long time afterwards…

Ibn Duraid

(593 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, J.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAtāhiya al-Azdī (on the name Duraid, see Ḥamāsa, ed. Freytag, p. 377 i. m.), according to his own account, a native of Ḳaḥṭān, was born in the reign of al-Muʿtaṣim in 223 = 837 in Baṣra (in the Sikka Ṣāliḥ). He studied in Baṣra under such teachers as Abū Ḥātim al-Sid̲j̲istānī, al-Riyās̲h̲ī, al-Us̲h̲nandānī and al-Aṣmaʿī’s nephew. In 257, when the Zand̲j̲ were massacring in Baṣra, he escaped the danger and went with his uncle al-Ḥasan (others al-Ḥusain), who had undertaken his education, to ʿOman where he …

Ibn Faḍlān

(277 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, properly Aḥmad b. Faḍlān b. al-ʿAbbās b. Rās̲h̲id b. Ḥammād, Arab author, composer of an account ( risāla) of the embassy sent by the Caliph al-Muḳtadir to the king of the Volga Bulg̲h̲ārs [cf. bulg̲h̲ār, i. 786 sqq.]. As he was a client ( mawlā) of the Caliph and of the conqueror of Egypt Muḥammad b. Sulaimān [see Cairo, i. 818a] he was certainly not of Arab origin. He seems to have taken part in the embassy as a theologian and authority on religious matters. The real ambassador appointed by the government was Sūsan al-Rassī, a client of Nud̲h̲air al-Ḥ…
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