Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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Ibn al-Faḳīh

(144 words)

, Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Isḥāḳ al-Hamad̲h̲ānī, Arab geographer, wrote a comprehensive Kitāb al-Buldān, about the year 290 (903), which is often quoted by al-Muḳaddasī and Yāḳūt. The work itself is lost; a compendium prepared from it which, according to de Goeje, is possibly the work of a certain ʿAlī b. Ḥasan al-S̲h̲aizarī (about 413 = 1022) was published by the latter scholar in 1885 ( Bibl. Geogr. Arab., Vol. v.). He is further said to have written a book on the best poets of his time. Practically nothing is known of the life of the author; to the few data collected by de Goeje in his Praefati…

Ibn al-Faraḍī

(401 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abu ’l-Walīd ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad b. Yūsuf b. Naṣr al-Azdī b. al-Faraḍī, an Arab biographer, born in the night of the 23rd Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 351 = 22nd/23rd Dec. 962 in Cordova, studied law and tradition there as well as literature and history, particularly with Abū Zakarīyā Yaḥyā b. Malik b. ʿĀʾid̲h̲ and with the ḳāḍī Muḥammad b. Yaḥyā b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, known as al-Ḵh̲arrāz. In 382 (992) he made the pilgrimage and on his way attended the lectures of the jurist Ibn Abī Zaid al-Ḳairawānī and Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Ḵh̲alaf al-Ḳābisī in Ḳairawān and als…

Ibn Faraḥ al-Is̲h̲bīlī

(694 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, whose full name was S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Faraḥ b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Lak̲h̲mī al-Is̲h̲bīlī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, born in 625 (began 10th December 1227) at Sevilla (Is̲h̲bīliya), was taken prisoner in 646 (began 26th April 1248) by the Franks (al-Ifrand̲j̲) i. e. the Spaniards under Ferdinand III the Saint, of Castile (1217—1252) at the conquest of the Spanish capital of the Almohads [q. v.], Seville, but escaped and afterwards went, in the sixth decade of the century (650 sqq. = 1252 sqq.), to Egypt; after hearing the most celebrated teachers of Cairo, he studied…

Ibn Farḥūn

(382 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Burhān al-Dīn Ibrāhīm b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Abu ’l-Ḳāsim b. Muḥammad b. Farḥūn al-Yaʿmarī, a Mālikī jurist and historian, descendant of a family belonging to Uiyān, a village near Jaén in Spain, was born in Medīna, where he died, heavily in debt, on the 10th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 799 = 4th Sept. 1397, as the result of paralysis of his left side. In addition to his father, his teachers were his father’s brother, Abū Muḥammad S̲h̲araf al-Dīn al-Asnawī, Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn al-Damanhūrī Muḥammad b. ʿArafa, and the latter’s son, whose teaching Ibn Farḥūn received on…

Ibn al-Fāriḍ

(7 words)

[See ʿomar b. al-fāriḍ.]

Ibn Fāris

(471 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abu ’l-Ḥusain Aḥmad b. Fāris b. Zakarīyā b. Muḥammad b. Ḥabīb, philologist and grammarian of the school of Kūfa, died at al-Raiy in Ṣafar 395 = Nov.-Dec. 1004. The date and place of his birth are unknown but it is supposed that he was born in a village named Kursuf in the district of al-Zahrā. He studied in Ḳazwīn, Hamad̲h̲ān, Bag̲h̲dād, and on the occasion of his pilgrimage, in Mecca. Among his teachers we may specially mention his father, who was a philologist and S̲h̲āfiʿī jurist, Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. al…

Ibn al-Furāt

(94 words)

, Nāṣir al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. ʿAlī al-Miṣrī, Arab historian, b. 735 (1334), d. 807 (1405), author of a comprehensive chronicle, Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Duwal wa ’l-Mulūk. He began with the viiith century and worked backwards but only reached the fourth century a. h. He gave extracts from his predecessors verbatim which adds a high value to his work. The only manuscript (Vienna, cf. Flügel, Die arab….. Hss., N°. 824) is still unedited, although it has been used by several scholars. Bibliography See Brockelmann, Gesch. d. arab. Litt., ii. 50 and Nachträge.

Ibn al-Furāt

(925 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, the name of several persons who filled high offices of state. 1. Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Mūsā b. al-Ḥasan b. al-Furāt, born in 241 = 855. ¶ ʿAlī belonged to the district of al-Nahrawān and was first of all secretary of State in Bag̲h̲dād. After the unsuccessful attempt to place Ibn al-Muʿtazz [q. v.] on the throne, ʿAlī was appointed vizier in Rabīʿ I 296 (December 908) by the Caliph al-Muḳtadir and became the real ruler. In Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 299 (July 912) he was dismissed on the pretext that he had arranged a…

Ibn G̲h̲ānim

(106 words)

, ʿIzz al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Salām b. Aḥmad al-Maḳdisī, author of the well-known Kas̲h̲f al-Asrār ʿan Ḥikam al-Ṭuyūr wa ’l-Azhār, which was published in 1821 by Garcin de Tassy under the title Les oiseaux et les fleurs (repr. in Allégories, récits poétiques, etc., 1876); German transl. by Peiper, Stimmen aus dem Morgenlande, Hirschberg 1850. Other works are detailed by Brockelmann, Geschichte etc., i. 450 (cf. ii. 703). Biographical details are lacking. The year 678 (1279) is given as the year of his death. The same name Ibn G̲h̲ānim al-Maḳdisī is also given to a Ḥanafī jurist on wh…

Ibn G̲h̲āniya

(497 words)

Author(s): Bel, Alfred
, Yaḥyā b. ʿAlī b. Yūsuf al-Masūfī, Governor of Spain under the Almoravids, born in Cordova, according to Ibn al-Ḵh̲aṭīb, and died in 543 (1148) at Granada. He is best known as Ibn G̲h̲āniya, after his mother, a relative of the great Yūsuf b. Tās̲h̲fīn, the real founder of the Almoravid empire. Ibn G̲h̲āniya, as well as his brother Muḥammad grew up at the Almoravid court of Marrākus̲h̲, where their father seems to have held a high position. In 520 (1126) ʿAlī b. Yūsuf appointed Ibn G̲h̲āniya governor of Western Spain. From 520—538 (1126—1143) he …

Ibn al-Habbārīya

(574 words)

, Nihẓām al-Dīn Abū Yaʿlā Muḥammad b. Muḥammad, a celebrated Arab poet, a descendant of the ʿAbbāsid prince ¶ ʿĪsā b. Mūsā [q. v.]; cf. his genealogy in Wüstenfeld, Tabellen, W, 35. His maternal grandfather was a certain Habbār, whence his name the “son of the Habbārī lady”. Born at Bag̲h̲dād about the middle of the v…

Ibn Ḥabīb

(81 words)

, Muḥammad, an Arab philologist, a pupil of Ḳuṭrub [q. v.], died at Sāmarrā in 245 (859). Of his many works only a treatise on the similarities and differences between Arab tribal names has come down to us and was published by Wüstenfeld ( Ueber die Gleichheit und Verschiedenheit der arabischen Stämmenamen, Göttingen 1850). Bibliography Fihrist, p. 106 Flügel, Die grammatischen Schulen der Araber, p. 67 Wüstenfeld, Die Geschichtschreiber der Araber, N°, 59 Brockelmann, Geschichte der arab. Litt., i. 106.

Ibn Ḥabīb

(174 words)

, Badr. al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. ʿOmar al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī al-Ḥalabī, an Arab historian and scholar, born at Damascus in 710 (1310). He studied at Ḥalab, where his father filled the office of muḥtasib and also taught tradition. In 733 (1332) he made the pilgrimage and again in 739 (1338). During these journeys he stayed in various towns of Egypt and Syria. We afterwards find him now at Ṭarābulus, now back in Damascus, then in Ḥalab, where he died in 779 (1377). Of his works, which are detailed by Wüstenfeld and Brockelmann, w…

Ibn Ḥabīb

(129 words)

, Abū Marwān ʿAbd al-Malik b. Ḥabīb al-Sulamī, on Arab jurist, born at Ḥiṣn Wāt (Huétor Vega, according to Simonet) ¶ near Granada. He studied at Elvira and Cordova, then made the pilgrimage to Mecca and at Medīna became acquainted with the Mālikī school of law which he introduced into Spain. He died at Cordova 238 (853). He is said to have published over 1000 writings on different subjects, but the only wo…

Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar

(185 words)

Author(s): van Arendonk, C.
al-ʿAsḳalānī. On MSS. of Inbāʾ al-G̲h̲umr cf. O. Spies, Beitr. z. arab. Literaturgeschichte, in Abh. K. M., xix. 3 (Leipzig 1932), p. 85—87. — Of his printed works there are further to be mentioned: Lisān al-Mīzān (an adaptation of the Mīzān of al-Ḏh̲ahabī), Ḥaidarābād 1329—1331; al-Durar al-kāmina fī Aʿyān al-Miʾa al-t̲h̲āmina, Ḥaidarābād 1348—1350; Kitāb Ṭabaḳāt al-Mudallisīn al-musammā Taʿrīf Ahl al-Taḳdīs bi-Marātib al-Mawṣūfīn bi ’l-Tadlīs, Cairo 1322; al-Raḥma al-g̲h̲ait̲h̲īya bi ’l-Tard̲j̲ama al-Lait̲h̲īya (biography of al-Lait̲h̲ b. Saʿd), Būlāḳ 1301. (C. van Aren…

Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar al-ʿAsḳalānī

(755 words)

Author(s): van Arendonk, C.
, whose full name was Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Aḥmad, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-Faḍl, al-Kinānī al-ʿAsḳalānī al-Miṣrī al-Ḳāhirī, a famous authority on tradition, faḳīh and historian, of the S̲h̲āfiʿī school. He was born on the 12th S̲h̲aʿbān 773 (18th February 1372) in Old Cairo; his father Nūr al-Dīn, whom he lost along with his mother at a very early age, was a notable scholar and was entitled to deliver fatwās and impart instruction. The son grew up under the protection of one of his guardians, Zakī al-Dīn al-Ḵh̲ar…

Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar al-Haitamī

(767 words)

Author(s): van Arendonk, C.
, whose full name was Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās, al-Haitamī al-Saʿdī (after the Banū Saʿd in al-S̲h̲arḳīya, where his family was originally settled), a famous Arab jurist of the S̲h̲āfiʿī school, was born at Maḥallat Abi ’l-Haitam in al-G̲h̲arbīya [q. v.] towards the end of the year (some say Rad̲j̲ab) 909 (1504). After, while still a child, he lost his father, the latter’s s̲h̲aik̲h̲s S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Ibn Abi ’l-Ḥamāʾil (died 932), a noted mystic, and S̲h̲ams…

Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar al-Haitamī

(119 words)

Author(s): van Arendonk, C.
Of his printed works the following may be mentioned: al-Ḏj̲awhar al-munaẓẓam fī Ziyāratal-Ḳabr al-mukarram, Būlāḳ 1279; Cairo 1309, 1331; al-Ḵh̲airāt al-ḥisān fī Manāḳib al-Imām al-aʿẓam Abū Ḥanīfa al-Nuʿmān, Cairo 1305,1326; al-Nuk̲h̲ab al-d̲j̲alīla fī ’l-Ḵh̲uṭab al-d̲j̲azīla, Cairo 1290, 1310, 1324; Ḥās̲h̲iya ʿalā Īḍāḥ al-Imām al-Nawawī fī Manāsik al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲, Cairo 1323, 1329, 1344; S̲h̲arḥ ʿalā Muk̲h̲taṣar al-Faḳīh ʿAbd Allāh Bā Faḍl al-Ḥaḍramī, Cairo 1301, 1303, 1349; Būlāḳ 1309. ¶ (C. van Arendonk) Bibliography ʿAbd al-Ḳādir b. S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-ʿAidarūsī, al-Nūr al…

Ibn al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲

(427 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
Abu ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥusain b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Ḏj̲aʿfar, poet of the Būyid period. He belonged to a family which was engaged in the public service, and was himself trained by Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm al-Ṣābiʾ in secretarial work. He found however that he could earn more by verse, and became an encomiast of the most important among his contemporaries, especially ʿIzz al-Dawla Bak̲h̲tiyār, who appointed him to the office of muḥtasib or censor in Bag̲h̲dād; a most unsuitable appointment, since this poet specialized in obscenity, and indeed against one of the headings in the Paris abridgment of his Dī…
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