Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936)

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Edited by: M. Th.Houtsma, T.W.Arnold, R.Basset and R.Hartmann
The Encyclopaedia of Islam First Edition Online (EI1) was originally published in print between 1913 and 1936. The demand for an encyclopaedic work on Islam was created by the increasing (colonial) interest in Muslims and Islamic cultures during the nineteenth century. The scope of the  Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online is philology, history, theology and law until early 20th century. Such famous scholars as Houtsma, Wensinck, Gibb, Snouck Hurgronje, and Lévi-Provençal were involved in this scholarly endeavor. The Encyclopedia of Islam First Edition Online offers access to 9,000 articles.

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(285 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Ḥabīb Allāh, a modern Persian poet, son of the versifier Mīrzā Muḥammad ʿAlī Guls̲h̲an, born at S̲h̲īrāz, was court poet to Muḥammad S̲h̲āh, successor to Fatḥ ʿAlī S̲h̲āh (1250—64 = 1834—48) and to Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh. He was very precocious and attracted attention from the age of eight. His father died when he was eleven ( Perīs̲h̲ān, Bombay, 1277, p. 19) and he had to go to Ḵh̲orāsān to complete his studies. Prince S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ al-Salṭana Ḥasan ʿAlī Mirzā, governor of Mas̲h̲had, took him under his protection. This was the beginning of his good fort…


(969 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, the region of the French Sudan between the upper waters of the Senegal and the Sahara. The boundaries of Kaarta are in the north the land of the Dowais̲h̲ Moors and the Hōd̲h̲ [q. v.], in the east Bakhunu, in the south Beledugu and Fuladugu, and in the west the Senegal from the western branch of the Kulu pool to the confluence with the Baulé. It is a vast schistose plateau inclining towards the S. E. so that the majority of its rivers run towards the Senegal. The climate is that of the Sahelia…


(8,757 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J.
, the palladium of Islām, situated almost in the centre of the great mosque in Mecca. I. The Kaʿba and its immediate neighbourhood. The name, not originally a proper name, is connected with the cube-like appearance of the building. It is however only like a cube at the first impression; in reality the plan is that of an irreguiar rectangle. The wall facing northeast, in which the door is (the front of the Kaʿba) and the opposite wall (back) are 40 feet long: the two other are about 35 feet long. The height is 50 feet. The Kaʿba is built of layers of the grey stone produced by the hills sur…

Kaʿb al-Aḥbār

(1,218 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, M.
, Abū Isḥāḳ Kaʿb b. Matīʿ b. Haisūʿ, the oldest authority for the Jewis̲h̲-Muslim traditions among the Arabs, a Jew of Yemen who became a convert to Islām in the Caliphate of Abū Bakr or ʿOmar and was called Kaʿb al-Aḥbār or Kaʿb al-Ḥabr, “the rabbi Kaʿb”, on account of his wealth of theological, particularly Biblical, knowledge. Lidzbarski ( De propheticis, quae dicuntur, legendis arabicis, Berlin diss., Leipzig 1893, p. 34 sq.) supposes that his name was originally Hebrew,ʿAḳībā or Yaʿḳōb, and was afterwards changed into the Arabic name Kaʿb. Ḥabr or ḥibr (plur. aḥbār) is taken from th…


(128 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H.
, or Ḳabaḳandāzī, the gourdgame, the oriental form of the Popinjay. It was a sort of tilting at the ring, but the weapon was an arrow, and the archers were on horseback. A ring was shot through, but the mark was a pigeon or other bird set on a high mast. In Bābur’s time the mark was a duck (v. Bābur-nāma, Gibb Mem. i. and Mrs. Beveridge’s transl. i. 34, and P. de Courteille, i. 39). The game was much practised in Egypt (v. Quatremère, Hist, des Mamlouks, i. 243, note 118; also Dozy’s Supplément). It was also practised in India and Persia, (v. Akbarnūma, i., transl. p. 440; Vuller’s Lex., ii. 710). The g…


(7 words)

[See constantinople , i. 875b].

Kaʿb b. al-As̲h̲raf

(440 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a Medīna opponent of Muḥammad, according to one statement a Naḍīrī, according to another, a member of the Ṭaiyiʾī family of Nabhān but the son of a Naḍīrī woman. In any case, he was an ardent champion of Judaism (cf. the expression saiyid al-aḥbār, Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 659, 12). Aroused by the result of the battle of Badr, he went to Mecca where he used his considerable poetic gifts (in the Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī he is called faḥl faṣīḥ) to incite the Ḳurais̲h̲ to fight against the victor. He then returned to Medīna, where he is said to have compromised the wives of the Muslims …

Kaʿb b. Mālik

(369 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh, a native of Medīna of the Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ī tribe of Salima. After taking an active part in the sanguinary tribal ¶ battles in Medīna, he was won over to Islām even before the Ḥid̲j̲ra and took part in the momentuous second meeting at the ʿAḳaba [q. v.]. He was a poet and along with Ḥassān b. T̲h̲ābit [q. v.] and ʿAbd Allāh b. Rawāḥa [q. v.] was employed by Muḥammad to glorify his military exploits and answer the polemical poems of the enemies. He did not fight at Badr [q. v.] but was in most of the other…

Kaʿb b. Zuhair

(433 words)

Author(s): Basset, R.
, son of the celebrated poet and author of a Muʿallaḳa, Zuhair b. Abī Salmā, and of Kabs̲h̲a bint ʿAmmār. Poetic talent seems to have been one of the privileges of the family, for, not to speak of Kaʿb and his father, we have verses by eleven of its members, including the famous Tumād̲h̲ir (al-Ḵh̲ansā). We do not know the date of his birth; he was the eldest of three brothers, the other two being Bud̲j̲air and Sālim. Traditions, more than suspicious, report that he early gave proof of his poetic talents, …


(86 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, Th. W.
(a.) means the legitimate taking possession of a thing, for example by inheritance or as the result of a contract. Ḳabḍ is usually discussed in the Muslim law-books in close connection with delivery by a contract of sale, for example in al-Bād̲j̲ūrī’s Ḥās̲h̲iya on Ibn Ḳāsim’s Fatḥ al-Ḳarīb, at the beginning of the chapter on Baiʿ (Būlāḳ edition 1307, i. 358); cf. E. Sachau, Muḥammed. Recht nach Schafiitischer Lehre, p. 283 sq.; Th. W. Juynboll, Handb. des islām. Gesetzes, p. 263. (Th. W. Juynboll)


(142 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, a term in prosody. It is the suppression of the fifth quiescent letter in the primitive feet faʿūlum and mafāʿīlun and is therefore found in ṭawīl, hazad̲j̲, muḍāriʿ and mutaḳārib. In faʿūlun, ḳabḍ is recommended (according to some, it is obligatory) when this foot is the penultimate of the second hemistich of the third ḍarb of a ṭawīl; everywhere else it is optional. In mafāʿīlun, ḳabḍ is obligatory in the last foot of the first hemistich of a ṭawīl. In all other cases it is only permitted if the foot is not liable to kaff or suppression of the seventh quiescent letter ( n); nevertheless, it is…


(160 words)

Author(s): Bauer, H.
(a.) “contraction, oppression”, in Ṣūfī terminology means a state ( ḥāl) which is the opposite of basṭ, “expansion, gladdening”. (In the phrase Allāhu yaḳbiḍu wa-yabsuṭu, quoted by Ṣūfī authors from Ḳurʾān ii. 246, however, the words have a more general meaning). Both happen to the ʿārif (gnostic) only, while in the novice the corresponding ¶ emotions are fear and hope, but with the distinction that the latter refer to the future, while ḳabḍ and basṭ express a present feeling of spiritual dullness or joy. In the language of Western mysticism, they might be said to cor…


(16 words)

one of the names of God, see the article allāh, i. 303 b .


(127 words)

Author(s): Massignon, L.
, a Turkish Sunnī theologian, founder of the sect of Ḵh̲ūbmasīḥīs (popularly called Chupmessikis); brought by orders of Selīm before a special tribunal, he was condemned to death on Ṣafar 8,934 = Nov. 3,1527 and executed the next day as a zindīḳ [q. v.]. He held that Jesus was (morally) superior to Muḥammad ( afḍalīyat ʿĪsā ʿalā Muḥammad). Ibn Kamāl Pas̲h̲a wrote his treatise on Zindīḳism on the occasion of his trial. ¶ (L. Massignon) Bibliography von Hammer, G.O.R., v. 99 d’Ohsson, Tableau général, i. 153 Pečewī, Taʾrīk̲h̲, Stambul 1283, i. 124 cf. Huart, in XIème Congrès Internat. des O…


(148 words)

Author(s): Massignon, L.
(Ḳābihẓ) a Turkish Sunnī theologian, founder of the sect of Ḵh̲ubmasīḥīs (popularly called Chupmessihis). By order of Sulīmān he was tried before an extraordinary court, sentenced to death on 8th Ṣafar 934 (3 Nov. 1527) and executed on the following day as a zandīḳ [q. v.]. He maintained the (moral) superiority of Jesus over Muḥammad ( afḍalīyat ʿĪsā ʿalā Muḥammad). On the occasion of this trial Ibn Kamālpas̲h̲azade wrote his treatise on Zindīḳism. (L. Massignon) Bibliography Pečewi, Taʾrīk̲h̲ (Stambul 1283), i. 124 J. v. Hammer, Gesch. des Osm. Reieltes 2, ii. 59 sq. (Pesth 1840) P. Rica…


(8 words)

, i. e. Cain. [See ḥābīl.]


(758 words)

Author(s): Arnold, T. W.
, an Indian mystic, of the xvth century, who was claimed both by the Hindus and Musalmāns as belonging to their faith. A large collection of Hindī verses is attributed to him, but their authenticity is doubtful, and a like uncertainty attaches to his biography, which is obscured by legends. He is said to have been the son, or adopted son, of a Muḥammadan weaver, and to have become the disciple of Rāmānanda, the Vaishnav reformer, at whose feet he sat in ¶ Benares, joining in the theological and philosophical arguments that his master held with Brahmans and Ṣūfīs. He appears t…


(17 words)

, one of the names of Allāh, see the article allāh, i. 303 a .


(137 words)

Author(s): Arnold, T. W.
(Hindī panth, a path, sect). Despite the non-sectarian character of Kabīr’s teaching, his followers now form a distinct sect, the majority of whom are Hindus. The best account of their organisation is given by Westcott, op. cit., chaps v. and vi. According to the Census of 1911, there were 597,199 in the Central Provinces, and 49,605 in the United Provinces; in the other provinces they either are not found at all, or their number is too inconsiderable to call for separate enumeration. (T. W. Arnold) Bibliography W. Crooke, Tribes and Castes of the North-Western Provinces and Oudh., iii. 73…


(281 words)

Author(s): Suter, H.
, whose full name was ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (also ʿAbd al-Raḥmān) b. ʿOt̲h̲mān b. ʿAlī, Abu ’l-Ṣaḳr, an important astrologer probably of Persian descent. He was known to the Christian world of the middle ages as alcabitlus (also al-chabitius). He lived for a considerable period at the court of Sulṭān Saif al-Dawla b. Ḥamdān (d. 356 = 969) and dedicated his principal astrological work to him: al-Madk̲h̲al ilā Ṣināʿat Aḥkām al-Nud̲j̲ūm (Introduction to the art of Astrology) of which copies still exist in Oxford, Gotha and Cairo. It was translated into Latin by Joh. Hispale…
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